Li, Yang (2011) An Experimental and Numerical Study of the Influence of Room Factors and Hygroscopic Material of Wood Paneling on the Indoor Environment. PhD thesis, Concordia University.
- Accepted Version
Moisture level inside buildings is a key factor influencing the durability of construction, indoor air quality, living comfort, and energy consumption. Previous studies found that this level was related to the room factors including moisture loads and ventilation conditions and to the moisture ab/desorption capacity of hygroscopic material utilized in interior of the building. The phenomenon of the indoor humidity level influenced by the dynamic moisture interaction process between hygroscopic material and indoor air has been recognized as moisture buffering effect. Some materials’ buffering properties at the material level have been intensively measured. However, there has not been enough information and testing standard for evaluating material buffering performance at the room level. Meanwhile, the material buffering properties may not be directly representative of the material buffering performance at the room level because the moisture buffering effects are influenced by room factors. This thesis reports on an experimental investigation of the impact of room factors on moisture buffering performance of wood paneling utilized as inner layer of the wall assembly and on the study of the indoor humidity level influenced by room factors and moisture buffering effect of the hygroscopic material. The experimental study presents the moisture responses of wood paneling by moisture ab/desorption kinetic curves, and finds that the buffering effect caused by hygroscopic material is related to not only the buffering performance of the material but also to the characteristics of the building structure. Under the experimental test conditions, the room characteristics can cause up to 8% variation in RH levels and wood paneling can moderate these variations by up to 30%.
The experimental results showed that to predict indoor humidity levels, the moisture interaction between the wood paneling and indoor air was not negligible, and the room factors dominated the variation of the indoor environment. To further investigate the indoor humidity level influenced by room factors that could not be studied in the experiment and to explain the influences by the mechanisms of HAM transport, a numerical model that coupled the governing equations of momentum, heat, and moisture transport in whole building simulation domain was established. This model which took into account the heat/moisture interaction between indoor air and envelope overcomes the limitations existing in currently available numerical models of coupling moisture transport in the building envelope with indoor CFD simulation and has great application potential in whole building HAM transport studies. The application of this model presented in this thesis includes the investigation of the indoor environment influenced by moisture loads and ventilation designs, the heat/moisture transport through wall system, and the potential damage caused by moisture.
|Divisions:||Concordia University > Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science > Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering|
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Degree Name:||Ph. D.|
|Date:||23 September 2011|
|Thesis Supervisor(s):||Fazio, Paul|
|Deposited By:||YANG LI|
|Deposited On:||21 Nov 2011 20:32|
|Last Modified:||21 Nov 2011 20:32|
Abadie, M., Mendes, N. 2006. Comparative analysis of response-factor and finite-volume based methods for predicting heat and moisture transfer through porous building materials. Journal of Building Physics, v 30, n 1, p 7-37
Abadie, M. O., Mendonça, K. C. 2009. Moisture performance of building materials: From material characterization to building simulation using the moisture buffer value concept. Building and Environment, v 44, n 2, p 388-401
Adan, O., Brocken, H., Carmeliet, J., Hens, H., Roels, S., Hagentoft, C.-E., 2004 Determination of liquid water transfer properties of porous building materials and development of numerical assessment methods: Introduction to the EC HAMSTAD Project, Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science, v 27, n 4, April, p 253-260
Alturkistani, A., Fazio, P., Rao, J., Mao, Q., 2008. A new test method to determine the relative drying capacity of building envelope panels of various configurations. Building and Environment, v 43, n 12, December, p 2203-2215
Amissah, P., (2005), "Indoor air quality – combining air humidity with construction moisture", Doctoral Thesis, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, U.K.
Atthajariyakul, S. and Leephakpreeda, T. 2004. Real-time determination of optimal indoor-air condition for thermal comfort, air quality and efficient energy usage. Energy and Buildings, v 36, n 7, p 720-33
ASHRAE, 2005. ASHERAE Handbook 2005 – Fundamentals. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air conditioning Engineers.
Barbosa R., Mendes, N. 2008. Combined simulation of central HVAC systems with a whole-building hygrothermal model. Energy and Buildings, v 40, n 3, p 276-288
Bennett, C.O., Myers, J.E. 1982. Momentum, heat, and mass transfer. McGraw-Hill, NY.
Carmeliet, J., Roels, S. 2001. Determination of the isothermal moisture transport properties of porous building materials. Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science, v 24, n 3, p 183-210
Cerny, R., Jirickova, M. 2006. Effect of hydrophilic admixtures on moisture and heat transport and storage parameters of mineral wool. Construction & Building Materials, v 20, n 6, p 425-434
Cerolini, S., D'Orazio, M., Di Perna, C., Stazi, A. 2009. Moisture buffering capacity of highly absorbing materials. Energy and Buildings, v 41, n 2, p 164-168
Chen, Z.Q., Shi, M.H. 2005. Study of heat and moisture migration properties in porous building materials. Applied Thermal Engineering, v 25, n 1, p 61-71
Clarke, J.A., Johnstone, C.M., Kelly, N.J., McLean, R.C., Anderson, Rowan, N.J., and Smith, J.E. 1998. A technique for the prediction of the conditions leading to mould growth in buildings. Building and Environment, v.34, n 4, p 515-521
COMSOL 3.5 Multiphysics User's Guide, COMSOL AB, 2008
Cornick, S.M., Kumaran, M.K. 2008. A comparison of empirical indoor relative humidity models with measured data. Journal of Building Physics, v 31, n 3, p 243-68
Cunningham, M.J. 1992. Effective penetration depth and effective resistance in moisture transfer. Building and Environment, v 27, n 3, p 379-386
Cunningham, M.J. 2003. The building volume with hygroscopic materials - An analytical study of a classical building physics problem. Building and Environment, v 38, n 2, p 329-337
Davies, M., Tirovic, M., Ye, Z., Baker, P.H. 2004. A low cost accurate instrument to measure the moisture content of building envelopes in situ: a modelling study. Building Services Engineering Research & Technology, v 25, n 4, p 295-304
Delgado, J.M.P.Q., Ramos, N.M.M., De Frietas, V.P. 2006. Can moisture buffer performance be estimated from sorption kinetics? Journal of Building Physics, v 29, n 4, p 281-99
Derluyn, H. , Janssen, H., Diepens, J., Derome, D., Carmeliet, J. 2007. Hygroscopic behavior of paper and books. Journal of Building Physics, v 31, n 1, p 9-34
El Diasty, R., Fazio, P., Budaiwi, I. 1993. Dynamic modelling of air humidity behaviour in a multi-zone space. Building and Environment, v 28, n 1, p 33-51
Erriguible, A., Bernada, P., Couture, F., Roques, M., 2006. Simulation of convective drying of a porous medium with boundary conditions provided by CFD. Chemical Engineering Research & Design, v 84, n A2, p 113-23
Fang, L., Clausen, G., Fanger, P.O. 1998. Impact of temperature and humidity on the perception of indoor air quality. Indoor Air, 8, 80-90
Fazio, P., Alturkistani, A., Rao, J. and Mao, Q., (2009), A new testing method to evaluate the relative drying performance of different building envelope systems using water trays. Journal of ASTM International, Vol. 6, No. 9.
Fazio, P., Athienitis, A., Marsh, C., Rao, J. 1997. Environmental chamber for investigation of building envelope performance. Journal of Architectural Engineering, v 3, n 2, p 97-102
Fazio, P., Rao, J., Alturkistani, A., Ge, H., 2006. Large scale experimental investigation of the relative drying capacity of building envelope panels of various configurations. Proceedings of the 3rd International Building Physics Conference - Research in Building Physics and Building Engineering, p 361-368
Fazio, P., Vera, S., Rao, J., Yang, X., Ge, H. 2007. Datasets of whole-building HAM indoor conditions for one-room and vertical two-room experimental setups. A sub-project report for Annex 41, International Energy Agency.
Feriadi H. 2003. Thermal comfort for natural ventilated residential buildings in the tropical climate. PhD. dissertation, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
Gudum, C. 2003. Moisture Transport and Convection in Building Envelopes Ventilation in Light Weight Outer Walls. PhD thesis, Lund University, Sweden.
Hachem, C., Chaubey, Y., Fazio, Rao, J. and Bartlett, K., 2010. Statistical Analysis of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds in an Experimental Project: Identification and Transport Analysis. Indoor and Built Environment, v19, n2, p275-285
Hachem, C., Fazio, P., Rao, J. and Bartlett, K., 2009. Identification and transport investigation of microbial volatile organic compounds in full-scale stud cavities. Building and Environment, v44, n8, P1691-1698
Hagentoft, C., Kalagasidis, A., Adl-Zarrabi, B., Roels, S., Carmeliet, J., Hens, H., Grunewald, J., Funk, M., Becker, R., Shamir, D., Adan, O., Brocken, H., Kumaran, K., Djebbar, R. 2004. Assessment method of numerical prediction models for combined heat, air and moisture transfer in building components: benchmarks for one-dimensional cases. Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science, v 27, n 4, p 327-352
Hameury, S. 2005. Moisture buffering capacity of heavy timber structures directly exposed to an indoor climate: A numerical study. Building and Environment, v 40, n 10, p 1400-1412
Hamlin, T. and Gusdorf, J., 1997. Airtightness and energy efficiency of new conventional and R-2000 housing in Canada, CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC), Ottawa, Ontario.
Hutcheon, N.B. and Handegord, G. 1983. Building science for a cold climate. NRC, Canada.
Jaguste, D.N. and Bhatia, S.K. 1995. Combined Surface and Viscous-Flow of Condensable Vapor in Porous-Media. Chemical Engineering Science. v 50, n 2, p 167-182.
Janssen, H., Blocken, B., Carmeliet, J. 2007. Conservative modelling of the moisture and heat transfer in building components under atmospheric excitation. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, v 50, n 5-6, p 1128-40
Janssen, H. and Roels, S., 2009, Qualitative and quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering by enclosures, Energy and Buildings, 41(4): 382-394.
Jirickova, M., Cerny, R. 2006. Chloride binding in building materials. Journal of Building Physics, v 29, n 3, p 189-200.
JIS A 1470-1 (2002). Test Method of Adsorption/Desorption Efficiency for Building Materials to Regulate an Indoor Humidity-Part 1: Response Method of Humidity, Japanese Industrial Standards, Japan.
Kalamees, T., Vinha, J., Kurnitski, J. 2006. Indoor humidity loads and moisture production in lightweight timber-frame detached houses. Journal of Building Physics, v 29, n 3, p 219-46
Karagiozis, A., Salonvaara, M.. 2001. Hygrothermal system-performance of a whole building. Building and Environment, v 36, n 6, p 779-787
Karoglou, M., Moropoulou, A., Krokida, M.K., Maroulis, Z.B. 2007. A powerful simulator for moisture transfer in buildings. Building and Environment, v 42, n 2, p 902-912
Kong, F., Zheng, M. 2008. Effects of combined heat and mass transfer on heating load in building drying period. Energy & Buildings, v 40, n 8, p 1614-22
Kumaran, M.K., Mukhopadhyaya, P., Cornick, S.M., Lacasse, M.A., Rousseau, M., Maref, W., Nofal, M., Quirt, J.D., Dalgliesh, W.A., 2003. An Integrated methodology to develop moisture management strategies for exterior wall systems. Proceedings of the 9th Canadian Conference on Building Science and Technology, Vancouver, B.C., pp. 45-62
Kumaran, M.K., Lackey, J., Normandin, N., van Reenen, D., and Tariku, F., 2002. Summary report from task 3 of MEWS project. Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada, (NRCC-45369), pp. 1-68.
Kunzel, H.M., Kiessl, K. 1997. Calculation of heat and moisture transfer in exposed building component .International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, v 40, n 1, p 159-67
Kunzel, H.M., Holm, A., Zirkelbach, D., Karagiozis, A.N. 2005. Simulation of indoor temperature and humidity conditions including hygrothermal interactions with the building envelope. Solar Energy, v 78, n 4, p 554-61
Li, Qinru, Rao, Jiwu, Fazio, Paul. 2009. Development of HAM tool for building envelope analysis. Building and Environment, v 44, n 5, p 1065-1073
Lin, Y. 2007, Three-dimensional thermal and airflow (3D-TAF) model of a dome-covered house in Canada. Ph.D. Thesis, Concordia University (Canada), AAT NR30127
Lstiburek, J. 2002. Moisture, building enclosures, and mold. HPAC Heating, Piping, Air Conditioning Engineering, v 74, n 1, p 77+80-81
Lstiburek, J., Pressnail, K., Timusk, J. 2002. Air pressure and building envelopes. Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science, v 26, n 1, p 53-91
Malek, K. and Coppens, M.O. 2003. Knudsen self- and Fickian diffusion in rough nanoporous media. Journal of Chemical Physics. 119(5): p 2801-2811.
Maref, W., Lacasse, M., Booth, D. 2003. Assessing the hygrothermal response of wood sheathing and combined membrane-sheathing assemblies to steady-state environmental conditions. National Research Council of Canada, ISBN 90 5809 565 7
McCullough, E.A., Myoungsook Kwon, Shim, H. 2003. A comparison of standard methods for measuring water vapour permeability of fabrics. Measurement Science & Technology, v 14, n 8, p 1402-8
Mortensen, L.H., Woloszyn, M., Rode, C., Peuhkuri, R. 2007. Investigation of microclimate by CFD modeling of moisture interactions between air and constructions. Journal of Building Physics, v 30, n 4, p 279-315
Mudarri, D.H., 2010. Building Codes and Indoor Air Quality. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, Indoor Environments Division. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pdfs/building_codes_and_iaq.pdf
Murakami, S., Kato, S., Kim, T. 2001. Indoor climate design based on CFD coupled simulation of convection, radiation, and HVAC control for attaining a given PMV value. Building and Environment, v 36, n 6, p 701-709
Murakami, S., Kato, S., Zeng, J. 2000. Combined simulation of airflow, radiation and moisture transport for heat release from a human body. Building and Environment, v 35, n 6, p 489-500
Neale, A., 2007. A study in computational fluid dynamics for the determination of convective heat and vapour transfer coefficients. Thesis of M.A.Sc., Concordia University 117, AAT MR28889
Noble, J. and Arnold, A. E. 1991. Experimental and mathematical modeling of moisture transport in landfills. Chemical Engineering Communications, 1563-5201, Volume 100, Issue 1, P 95 – 111
Ojanen, T., Salonvaara, M., 2004. Comparison of measured and simulated moisture buffering results. Paper to IEA ECBCS Annex 41, Working meeting, Glasgow.
Osanyintola, O. F. and Simonson, C. J. 2006. Moisture buffering capacity of hygroscopic building materials: Experimental facilities and energy impact. Energy and Buildings, v 38, n 10, p 1270-1282
Osanyintola, O. F., Talukdar, P., Simonson, C. J. 2006. Effect of initial conditions, boundary conditions and thickness on the moisture buffering capacity of spruce plywood. Energy and Buildings, v 38, n 10, p 1283-1292
Pavlik, Z., Jirickova, M., Cerny, R., Sobczuk, H., Suchorab, Z. 2006. Determination of moisture diffusivity using the time domain reflectometry (TDR) method. Journal of Building Physics, v 30, n 1, p 59-70
Perera, M.S.A., Ranjith, P.G., Choi, S.K., Airey, D. 2011. Numerical simulation of gas flow through porous sandstone and its experimental validation. Fuel, v 90, n 2, p 547-554
Peuhkuri, R., Rode, C., Hansen, K. K. 2008. Non-isothermal moisture transport through insulation materials. Building and Environment, v 43, n 5, p 811-822
Phillipson, M.C., Baker, P., Davies, M., Ye, Z., MclMaughtan, A., Galbraith, G., McLean, R. 2007. Moisture measurement in building materials: an overview of current methods and new approaches. Building Services Engineering Research & Technology, v 28, n 4, p 303-16
Plagge, R., Scheffler, G., Grunewald, J., Funk, M. 2006. On the hysteresis in moisture storage and conductivity measured by the instantaneous profile method. Journal of Building Physics, v 29, n 3, p 247-59
Qin, M., Belarbi, R., Ait-Mokhtar, A., Nilsson, L. 2008. Non-isothermal moisture transport in hygroscopic building materials: Modeling for the determination of moisture transport coefficients. Transport in Porous Media, v 72, n 2, p 255-271
Qin, M, Belarbi, R., Aït-Mokhtar, A., Seigneurin, A. 2006. An analytical method to calculate the coupled heat and moisture transfer in building materials. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, v 33, n 1, p 39-48
Qin,M., Belarbi, R., Ait-Mokhtar, A., Nilsson, L.-O. 2008. Simultaneous heat and moisture transport in porous building materials: evaluation of nonisothermal moisture transport properties. Journal of Materials Science, v 43, n 10, p 3655-3663
Quintard, M., Bletzacker, L., Chenu, D., Whitaker, S. 2006. Nonlinear, multicomponent, mass transport in porous media. Chemical Engineering Science, v 61, n 8, p 2643-2669
Rao, J., Fazio, P., Bartlett, K., Yang, D.-Q., 2009. Experimental evaluation of potential transport of mold spores from moldy studs in full-size wall assemblies. Building and Environment. v44, n8, p1568-1577
Reddy, J.N. 2001. The finite element method in heat transfer and fluid dynamics. CRC Press, ISBN: 9780849323553
Rode C., Peuhkuri R., Mortensen L.H., Hansen K., Time B., Gustavsen A., Ojanen T., Ahonen J., Svennberg K., Harderup L.E., Arfvidsson J. 2005. Moisture buffering of building materials. Report BYG•DTU R-126. ISSN 1601 – 2917, ISBN 87-7877-195-1
Rode, C., Grau, K. 2008. Moisture buffering and its consequence in whole building hygrothermal modeling. Journal of Building Physics, v 31, n 4, p 333-60
Rode, C., Holm, A., Padfield, T. 2004. A review of humidity buffering in the interior spaces. Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science, v 27, n 3, p 221-226
Rode, C., Peuhkuri, R., Time, B., Svennberg, K., Ojanen, T.. 2007. Moisture buffer value of building materials. ASTM Special Technical Publication, v 1495 STP, p 33-44
Roels, S., Carmeliet, J., Hens, H., Adan, O., Brocken, H., Cerny, R., Pavlik, Z., Ellis, A. T., Hall, C., Kumaran, K., Pel, L., Plagge, R., 2004. A Comparison of different techniques to quantify moisture content profiles in porous building materials. Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science, v 27, n 4, p 261-276
Roels, S., Janssen, H. 2006. A comparison of the Nordtest and Japanese test methods for the moisture buffering performance of building materials. Journal of Building Physics, v 30, n 2, p 137-161
Roels, S., 2008. Experimental analysis of moisture buffering. Report of Annex 41 Moist-Eng Subtask 2. NUR 955, ISBN 978-90-334-7058-5
Roulet, C.A., Sekhar, S.C., Tham, K.W., Cheong, K.W. 2002. Ventilation, indoor environment quality and climate - Comparison of European and Singapore office buildings. International Journal of Ambient Energy, v 23, n 2, p 108-112
Salonvaara, M., Holm, A., Kunzel, H. and Karagiozis, A. 2004. Moisture buffering effects on Indoor Air Quality – experimental and simulation results. Conference Proceedings
Repository Staff Only: item control page
Downloads per month over past year