Breadcrumb

 
 

Processing and Characterization of Mg Matrix Composites Reinforced with TiC and TiB2 Phases using an In-situ Reactive Infiltration Technique

Title:

Processing and Characterization of Mg Matrix Composites Reinforced with TiC and TiB2 Phases using an In-situ Reactive Infiltration Technique

Shamekh, Mohammed (2011) Processing and Characterization of Mg Matrix Composites Reinforced with TiC and TiB2 Phases using an In-situ Reactive Infiltration Technique. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

[img]
Preview
PDF - Accepted Version
8Mb

Abstract

Magnesium matrix composites are attractive for different applications especially in automotive and aerospace industries due to their superior specific properties. The main purpose of this work is to produce a new magnesium matrix composite reinforced with a network of TiC and TiB2 compounds via an in-situ reactive infiltration technique. In this process, the ceramic reinforcement phases, TiC and TiB2, were synthesized in-situ from the starting powders of Ti and B4C without any addition of a third metal powder such as Al. The molten magnesium infiltrates the preform of 3Ti-B4C by capillary forces. Furthermore, adding Mg or MgH2 powder with different weight percentages to the 3Ti-B4C preforms was used in an attempt to increase the Mg content in the fabricated composites. The results of the in-situ reaction mechanism investigation of the Ti-B4C and Mg-B4C systems show that the infiltrated magnesium not only infiltrates through the 3Ti-B4C preform and thus densifies the fabricated composite as a matrix metal, but also acts as an intermediary making the reaction possible at a lower temperature than that required for solid-state reaction between Ti and B4C and accelerates the reaction rate. The investigation of the in-situ reaction mechanism after adding Mg or MgH2 powder to the 3Ti-B4C preforms show that the reaction mechanisms are similar. However, the presence of the Mg or MgH2 in the preform accelerates the reaction rate making the reaction take place and finish in a shorter time.
Also, the results of the parametric study show that the processing conditions such as temperature, holding time and green compact relative density have a significant influence on the reaction mechanism and the fabrication of the composite. Based on this work, it is recommended to fabricate the composite samples at 900ºC for 1.5 h and using a green compact of 70% relative density. The required equilibrium phases, TiCx and TiB2, formed in the composites with very small amounts of the residual Ti, boron carbide and intermediate phases such as TiB, Ti3B4 and MgB2. The fabrication of composites at these processing conditions avoids significant oxidation of Mg and formation of the ternary compound (Ti2AlC) in the cases of AZ91D or AM60B alloys composites, which can adversely affect the mechanical properties of the composites.
Furthermore, the results reveal that the percentage of reinforcing phases, when the optimal processing parameters are used, can be tailored by controlling either the green compact relative density or the weight percentages of Mg or MgH2 powder added to the 3Ti-B4C preform.
Microstructural characterization reveals a relatively uniform distribution of the reinforcing phases TiCx and TiB2 in the magnesium matrix. Mechanical properties of these composites such as elastic modulus, flexural and compressive strengths are greatly improved compared with those of the unreinforced Mg or Mg alloys. In contrast, the ductility of TiCx-TiB2/Mg composites is lower than that of the unreinforced Mg or Mg alloys. However, this lower ductility was improved by the addition of Mg or MgH2 powder in the preform. Secondary scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the fracture surfaces after the flexural strength test. The composites show signs of mixed fracture; cleavage regions and some dimpling. In addition, microcracks observed in the matrix show that the failure might have initiated in the matrix rather than from the reinforcing particulates. Also, the results show that the hardness and the wear resistance of the composites are improved, compared with those of the unreinforced Mg alloy.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science > Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:Shamekh, Mohammed
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Program:Mechanical Engineering
Date:04 July 2011
Thesis Supervisor(s):Medraj, Mamoun and Pugh, Martin
Keywords:Mg, composite, In-situ, TiC, TiB2, Infiltration
ID Code:36024
Deposited By:MOHAMMED ELSAYE SHAMEKH
Deposited On:22 Nov 2011 09:03
Last Modified:22 Nov 2011 09:03
References:
[1] K.G. Satyanarayana: Aluminum Cast Metal Matrix Composites, Handbook of Ceramics and Composites, Cheremisinoff N. P., New York, USA, 1989, pp. 555-599.
[2] S.F. Hassan and M. Gupta: Development of a novel magnesium-copper based composite with improved mechanical properties, Materials Research Bulletin, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2002, pp. 377-389.
[3] S.C. Tjong and Z.Y. Ma: Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of in situ metal matrix composites,” Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, Vol. 29, No. (3-4), 2000, pp. 49-113.
[4] Q.F. Guan, H.Y. Wang, X.L. Li, and Q.C. Jiang: Effect of compact density on the fabrication of Mg-TiC composites, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 39, No. 16, 2004, pp. 5569-5572.
[5] Q.C. Jiang, X.L. Li, and H.Y. Wang: Fabrication of TiC particulate reinforced magnesium matrix composites, Scripta Materialia, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2003, pp. 713-717.
[6] B.L. Mordike, and T. Ebert: Magnesium: Properties-applications-potential, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 302, No. 1, 2001, pp. 37-45.
[7] A. Luo: Processing, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of cast magnesium metal matrix composites, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, Vol. 26A, No. 9, 1995, pp. 2445-2455.
[8] M. Kulekci: Magnesium and its alloys applications in automotive industry, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 39, No. 9, 2008, pp. 851-865.
[9] H.Y. Wang, Q.C. Jiang, X.L. Li, J.G. Wang, Q.F. Guan, and H.Q. Liang: In-situ synthesis of TiC from nanopowders in a molten magnesium alloy, Materials Research Bulletin, Vol. 38, No. 8, 2003, pp. 1387-1392.
[10] Y. Wang, H.Y. Wang, K. Xiu, H.Y. Wang, and Q. C. Jiang: Fabrication of TiB2 particulate reinforced magnesium matrix composites by two-step processing method, Materials Letters, Vol. 60, No. 12, 2006, pp. 1533-1537.
[11] L.Q. Chen, Q. Dong, M.J. Zhao, J. Bi, and N. Kanetake: Synthesis of TiC/Mg composites with interpenetrating networks by in-situ reactive infiltration process, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 408, No. (1-2), 2005, pp. 125-130.
[12] G. Wen, S.B. Li, B.S. Zhang, and Z.X. Guo: Reaction synthesis of TiB2-TiC composites with enhanced toughness, Acta Materialia, Vol. 49, No. 8, 2001, pp. 1463-1470.
[13] W.J. Li, , R. Tu, and T. Goto: Preparation of directionally solidified TiB2-TiC eutectic composites by a floating zone method, Materials Letters, Vol. 60, No. 6, 2006, pp. 839-843.
[14] X. Zhang, H. Wang, L. Liao, and N. Ma: New Synthesis Method and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Matrix Composites, Journal of ASTM International, 2005, Vol. 3, No. 10.
[15] B. Ma, H. Wang, Y. Wang, and Q. Jiang: Fabrication of (TiB2−TiC)p/AZ91 magnesium matrix hybrid composite, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 40, No. 17, 2005, pp. 4501-4504.
[16] X. Zhang, H. Wang, L. Liao, X. Teng, and N. Ma: The mechanical properties of magnesium matrix composites reinforced with (TiB2+TiC) ceramic particulates, Materials Letters, Vol. 59, No. 17, 2005, pp. 2105-2109.
[17] K.U. Kainer: Magnesium-Alloys and Technology, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co, Weinheim, Germany, 2003.
[18] Y.Z. Lü, Q.D. Wang, W.J. Ding, X.Q. Zeng, and Y.P. Zhu: Fracture behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy, Materials Letters, Vol. 44, No. 5, 2000, pp. 265-268.
[19] L. Chen, J. Guo, , B. Yu, , and Z. Ma: Compressive Creep Behavior of TiC/AZ91D Magnesium-matrix Composites with Interpenetrating Networks, Journal of Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2007, pp. 207-212.
[20] Q. Dong, L.Q. Chen, M.J. Zhao, and J. Bi: Synthesis of TiCp reinforced magnesium matrix composites by in-situ reactive infiltration process, Materials Letters, Vol. 58, No. 6, 2004, pp. 920-926.
[21] D. Qun, L. Chen, Z. Mingjiu, and B. Jing: Analysis of in-situ reaction and pressureless infiltration process in fabricating TiC/Mg composites, Journal of Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 20, 2004, pp. 3-7.
[22] L. Chen, J. Guo, J. Wang, X. Yongbo, and B. Jing: Tensile Deformation and Fracture Behavior of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy and TiC/Mg Magnesium Matrix Composites Synthesized by in-situ Reactive Infiltration Technique, Journal of Rare Metal Materials and Engineering, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2006, pp. 29-32.
[23] J.J. Wang, J.H. Guo, and L.Q. Chen: TiC/AZ91D composites fabricated by in-situ reactive infiltration process and its tensile deformation, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2006, pp. 892-896.
[24] W. Cao, C. Zhang, T. Fan, and D. Zhang: In-Situ Synthesis and Compressive Deformation Behaviors of TiC Reinforced Magnesium Matrix Composites, Materials Transactions, Vol. 49, No. 11, 2008, pp. 2686-2691.
[25] A. Chaubey, B. Mishra, N. Mukhopadhyay, and P. Mukherjee: Effect of compact density and preheating temperature of the Al–Ti–C preform on the fabrication of in-situ Mg–TiC composites, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 45, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1507-1513.
[26] N. Chawla and K.K. Chawla: Metal Matrix Composites, Springer+Busness Media, Inc., New York, 2006.
[27] H. Ye, and X. Liu: Review of recent studies in magnesium matrix composites, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 39, No. 20, 2004, pp. 6153-6171.
[28] S.R. Nutt: Defects in Silicon Carbide Whiskers, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 67, No. 6, 1984, pp. 428-431.
[29] A. Evans, C. San Marchi, and A. Mortensen: Metal matrix composites in industry: an introduction and a survey, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2003.
[30] I.A. Ibrahim, F.A. Mohamed, and E.J. Laverina: Particulate reinforced metal matrix composites-a review, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 26, 1991, pp. 1137-1156.
[31] A.L. Geiger and M. Jackson: Low-expansion MMCs boost avionics, Advanced Materials Process, Vol. 136, No. 1, 1989, pp. 23-30.
[32] C.A. Leon-Patino: Infiltration Processing of Metal Matrix Composites using Coated Ceramic Particulates, Ph.D. diss., McGill university, Montreal, Canada, 2000.
[33] K.U. Kainer: Influencee of the Production Technique and Type of Reinforcement on the properties of Magnesium Matrix Composites, Composite Material technology, ASME, Vol. 37, 1991, pp. 191-197.
[34] R.W. Cahn, P. Haasen, and E.J. Kramer: Structure and Properties of Composites, VCH, New York, USA, 1993.
[35] P.K. Rohatgi: Cast Metal Matrix Composites, ASM International, Ohio, USA, 1988.
[36] H.Y. Wang, Q.C. Jiang, Y.G. Zhao, and F. Zhao: In situ synthesis of TiB2/Mg composite by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reaction of the Al-Ti-B system in molten magnesium, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 379, No. (1-2), 2004, pp. L4-L7.
[37] B.W. Chua, L. Lu, and M.O. Lai: Influence of SiC particles on mechanical properties of Mg based composite, Composite Structures, Vol. 47, No. (1-4), 1999, pp. 595-601.
[38] Q.C. Jiang, H.Y. Wang, B.X. Ma, Y. Wang, and F. Zhao: Fabrication of B4C particulate reinforced magnesium matrix composite by powder metallurgy, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 386, No. (1-2), 2005, pp. 177-181.
[39] K. Xiu, Q. Jiang, B. Ma, Y. Wang, H. Sui, and E. Shang: Fabrication of TiC/Mg composites by powder metallurgy, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 41, No. 5, 2006, pp. 1663-1666.
[40] H.Y. Wang, Q.C. Jiang, Y. Wang, B.X. Ma, and F. Zhao: Fabrication of TiB2 particulate reinforced magnesium matrix composites by powder metallurgy, Materials Letters, Vol. 58, No. (27-28), 2004, pp. 3509-3513.
[41] J. Hashim, L. Looney, and M.S.J. Hashmi: Metal matrix composites: production by the stir casting method, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 92-93, 1999, pp. 1-7.
[42] M.K. Surappa: Microstructure evolution during solidification of DRMMCs: state of art, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 63, 1997, pp. 325-333.
[43] D.M. Skibo, D.M. Schuster, and L. Jolla: Process for preparation of composite materials containing nonmetallic particles in a metallic matrix and composite materials made thereby, US Patent 4786467, 1988.
[44] G.S. Hanumanth, and G.A. Irons: Particle incorporation by melt stirring for the production of metal-matrix composites, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 28, No. 9, 1993, pp. 2459-2465.
[45] R.A. Saravanan and M.K. Surappa: Fabrication and characterisation of pure magnesium-30 vol.% SiCP particle composite, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 276, No. (1-2), 2000, pp. 108-116.
[46] P. Poddar, V.C. Srivastava, P.K. De, and K.L. Sahoo: Processing and mechanical properties of SiC reinforced cast magnesium matrix composites by stir casting process, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 460-461, 2007, pp. 357-364.
[47] R. Asthana: Reinforced cast metals: Part I Solidification microstructure, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 33, No. 7, 1998, pp. 1679-1698.
[48] T.W. Clyne: 3.7.12. Metal Matrix Composites: Matrices and Processing,” Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Composites: MMC, CMC, PMC, ed. A Mortensen, Elsevier, 2001, pp. 1-14.
[49] D.J. Lloyd: Particle reinforced aluminium and magnesium matrix composites, International Materials Reviews, Vol. 39, 1994, pp. 1-23.
[50] T.W. Clyne and P.J. Withers: An Introduction to Metal Matrix Composites, Cambridge University Press, London, England, 1995.
[51] T. Ebert, F. Moll, and K.U. Kainer: Spray forming of magnesium alloys and composites, Powder Metallurgy, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1997, pp. 126-130.
[52] A. Noguchi, I. Ezawa, J. Kaneko, and M. Sugamata: SiCp/Mg-Ce and Mg-Ca alloy composites obtained by spray forming, Keikinzoku, Vol. 45, No. 2, 1995, pp. 64-69.
[53] P.J. Vervoort and J. Duszczyk: Spray deposited magnesium alloy and composite, In Procceedings of International Conference on PM Aerospace Materials, 1991.
[54] H.Y. Wang, Q.C. Jiang, X.L. Li, and J.G. Wang: In situ synthesis of TiC/Mg composites in molten magnesium, Scripta Materialia, Vol. 48, No. 9, 2003, pp. 1349-1354.
[55] Q.C. Jiang, H.Y. Wang, J.G.Wang, Q.F. Guan, and C.L. Xu: Fabrication of TiCp/Mg composites by the thermal explosion synthesis reaction in molten magnesium, Materials Letters, Vol. 57, No. (16-17), 2003, pp. 2580-2583.
[56] M.J. Koczak and M.K. Premkumar: Emerging technologies for the in situ production of MMC's, The Journal of the Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1993, pp. 44-48.
[57] R.J. LaBotz and D.R. Mason: The thermal conductivities of Mg2Si and Mg2Ge, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 110, No. 2, 1963, pp. 121-126.
[58] S. Beer, G. Frommeyer, and E. Schmid: Development of Mg-Mg2Si light weight alloys, Magnesium Alloys Their Applications, DGM conference paper, 1992, pp. 317-324.
[59] E.E. Schmid, K. Von Oldenburg, and G. Forommeyer: Microstructure and properties of as-cast intermetallic Mg2Si-Al alloys, Z. fur Metallkunde, Vol. 81, No. 11, 1990, pp. 809-815.
[60] M. Mabuchi, K. Kubota, and K. Higashi: Tensile strength, ductility and fracture of magnesium-silicon alloys, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 31, No. 6, 1996, pp. 1529-1535.
[61] M. Mabuchi, K. Kubota, and K. Higashi: Development of Mg-Si alloys by I/M and R/S routes, Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Light Weight Alloys for Aerospace Applications, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 1995, pp. 463-470.
[62] M. Mabuchi, K. Kubota, and K. Higashi: High strength and high strain rate superplasticity in a Mg-Mg2Si composite, Scripta Metallurgica et Materialia, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1995, pp. 331-335.
[63] H. Yu, G. Min, and X. Chen: The microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-11Li composites reinforced by the self-nascent MgO/Mg2Si particulates, Metallofizika I Noveishie Tekhnologii, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1998, pp. 61-64.
[64] T. Choh, M. Kobashi, H. Nakata, and H. Kaneda: Fabrication of metal matrix composites by spontaneous infiltration and subsequent in-situ reaction process, Materials Science Forum, Vol. 217-222, 1996, pp. 353-358.
[65] K. Yamada, T. Takahashi, and M. Motoyama: EPMA state analysis of formation of TiC during mechanical alloying on a Mg-Ti-graphite powder mixture, Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals, Vol. 60, No. 1, 1996, pp. 100-105.
[66] A. Contreras, V.H. López, and E. Bedolla: Mg/TiC composites manufactured by pressureless melt infiltration, Scripta Materialia, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 249-253.
[67] M.A. Matin, L. Lu, and M. Gupta: Investigation of the reactions between boron and titanium compounds with magnesium, Scripta Materialia, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2001, pp. 479-486.
[68] D. Muscat, K. Shanker, and R.A.L. Drew: Al/TiC Composites Produced by Melt Infiltration, Materials Science & Technology, Vol. 8, No. 11, 1992, pp. 971-976.
[69] S.T. Mileiko: Fabrication of Metal Matrix Composites, Elsevier Science Publishers, 1983.
[70] D. Muscat and R.A.L. Drew: Infiltration Kinetics of Aluminum in Titanium Carbide Preforms, In Proceedings of International Conference High Temperature Capillarity, Cracow, Poland, 1997.
[71] D. Kopeliovich, “Liquid state fabrication of Metal Matrix Composites”, http://www.substech.com, Apr. 2009.
[72] F. Delannay, L. Froyen, and A. Deruyttere: The wetting of solids by molten metals and its relation to the preparation of metal-matrix composites composites, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1987, pp. 1-16.
[73] H. Lianxi, and W. Erde: Fabrication and mechanical properties of SiCw/ZK51A magnesium matrix composite by two-step squeeze casting, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 278, No. (1-2), 1999, pp. 267-271.
[74] A. Lu, J. Renaud, I. Nakatsugawa, and J. Plourde: Magnesium Castings for Automotive Applications, JOM, Vol. 47, No. 7, 1995, pp. 28-31.
[75] K. Wu, M. Zheng, C. Yao, T. Sato, H. Tezuka, A. Kamio, and D.X. Li: Crystallographic orientation relationship between SiCw and Mg in squeeze-cast SiCw/Mg composites, Journal of Materials Science Letters, Vol. 18, No. 16, 1999, pp. 1301-1303.
[76] M. Zheng, K. Wu, and C. Yao: Effect of interfacial reaction on mechanical behavior of SiCw/AZ91 magnesium matrix composites, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 318, No. (1-2), 2001, pp. 50-56.
[77] G.A. Chadwick, and A. Bloyce: Squeeze cast magnesium alloys and magnesium based composites, Magnesium Alloys Their Applications, DGM Conference Paper, 1992, pp. 93-100
[78] K.U. Kainer: Magnesium-Alloys and Technology, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2000.
[79] M.M. Schwartz: Composite Materials, Volume I: Properties, Non-Destructive Testing, and Repair, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA, 1997.
[80] C. Toy, and W.D. Scott: Ceramic-metal composites produced by melt infiltration, Journal of American Ceramic Society, Vol. 73, No. 1, 1990, pp. 97-101.
[81] S. Valdez, B. Campillo, R. Pérez, L. Martínez, and H.A. García: Synthesis and microstructural characterization of Al-Mg alloy-SiC particle composite, Materials Letters, Vol. 62, No. (17-18), 2008, pp. 2623-2625.
[82] H. Kaneda, and T. Choh: Fabrication of particulate reinforced magnesium composites by applying a spontaneous infiltration phenomenon, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1997, pp. 47-56.
[83] E. Aghion, B. Bronfin, and D. Eliezer: The role of the magnesium industry in protecting the environment, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 117, No. 3, 2001, pp. 381-385.
[84] X. Zhang, L. Liao, N. Ma, and H. Wang: New In-situ synthesis method of magnesium matrix composites reinforced with TiC particulates, Materials Research, Vol. 9, 2006, pp. 357-360.
[85] J.N. Fridlyander, and I.H. Marshall: Metal Matrix Composites, Caphman & Hall, London, England, 1995.
[86] M. Taya, and R.J. Arsenault: Metal Matrix Composites, Pergamon Press, New York, USA, 1989.
[87] M.M. Avedesian and H. Baker: Magnesium and magnesium alloys, ASM International. Ohio, US, 1999.
[88] Y. Liang, and S.P. Dutta: Application trend in advanced ceramic technologies, Technovation, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2001, pp.61-65.
[89] N. Durlu: Titanium carbide based composites for high temperature applications, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 19, No. (13-14), 1999, pp. 2415-2419.
[90] J.F. Shackelford and W. Alexander: CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, Third edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2001.
[91] R.G. Munro: Material Properties of Titanium Diboride, Journal of Research of the National Institute of St
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Document Downloads

More statistics for this item...

Concordia University - Footer