Kim, Jae-Woo and Wood, Jacquelyn L.A. and Grant, James W.A. and Brown, Grant E. (2011) Acute and chronic increases in predation risk affect the territorial behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon in the wild. Animal Behaviour, 81 (1). pp. 93-99. ISSN 0003-3472
- Accepted Version
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.09.017
Optimality models predict that territory size will decrease as the costs of defence increase. One poorly understood cost is predation risk, especially the relative influence of short- versus long-term increases in predation risk. Under natural conditions, we quantified the territorial behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, exposed to either acute or chronic increases in perceived predation risk. The effects of an acute increase in predation risk were assessed by exposing 18 young-of-the-year (YOY) Atlantic salmon to a control of stream water and to an alarm cue (i.e. conspecific skin extract) while monitoring their territorial behaviour. We investigated the effects of a chronic increase in perceived predation risk by quantifying the territorial behaviour of YOY salmon in control versus risky sections of seven sites, where we manipulated the perceived predation risk over a 4-week period by releasing stream water in control sections and alarm cue in risky sections. We found that salmon exposed to the alarm cue decreased the number of switches between foraging stations, but they did not change their territory size or foraging rate. As predicted, YOY salmon in risky sections had smaller territories than in control sections. However, their foraging rates and number of switches between foraging stations did not differ between treatments. Our study suggests that juvenile Atlantic salmon are sensitive to both acute and chronic increases in perceived predation risk under natural conditions, and support the predictions of optimality models that territory size decreases with increasing predation risk.
|Divisions:||Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Biology|
|Authors:||Kim, Jae-Woo and Wood, Jacquelyn L.A. and Grant, James W.A. and Brown, Grant E.|
|Journal or Publication:||Animal Behaviour|
|Keywords:||damage-released chemical alarm cue; home range; optimality; population regulation; Salmo salar; space use; temporal scale; territory size; threat-sensitive trade-off; young-of-the-year|
|Deposited By:||DANIELLE DENNIE|
|Deposited On:||26 Jan 2011 19:47|
|Last Modified:||24 Aug 2016 21:26|
Adams, E. S. 2001. Approaches to the study of territory size and shape. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 32, 277-303.
Armstrong, J. D. & Nislow, K. H. 2006. Critical habitat during the transition from maternal provisioning in freshwater fish, with emphasis on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta). Journal of Zoology, 269, 403-413.
Bell, M. B. V., Radford, A. N., Rose, R., Wade, H. M. & Ridley, A. R. 2009. The value of constant surveillance in a risky environment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276, 2997-3005.
Biro, P. A., Abrahams, M. V. & Post, 379 J. R. 2007. Direct manipulation of behaviour reveals a mechanism for variation in growth and mortality among prey populations. Animal Behaviour, 73, 891-896.
Blanchet, S., Bernatchez, L. & Dodson, J. J. 2007. Behavioural and growth responses of a territorial fish (Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, L.) to multiple predatory cues. Ethology, 113, 1061-1072.
Blanchet, S., Loot, G. & Dodson, J. J. 2008. Competition, predation and flow rate as mediators of direct and indirect effects in a stream food chain. Oecologia, 157, 93-104.
Breau, C., Weir, L. K. & Grant, J. W. A. 2007. Individual variability in activity patterns of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 64, 486-494.
Brick, O. 1998. Fighting behaviour, vigilance and predation risk in the cichlid fish Nannacara anomala. Animal Behaviour, 56, 309-317.
Brown, G. E. 2003. Learning about danger: chemical alarm cues and local risk assessment in prey fishes. Fish and Fisheries, 4, 227-234.
Brown, G. E., Macnaughton, C. J., Elvidge, C. K., Ramnarine, I. & Godin, J.-G. J. 2009. Provenance and threat-sensitive predator avoidance patterns in wild caught Trinidadian guppies. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 63, 699-706.
Brown, G. E., Rive, A. C., Ferrari, M. C. O. & Chivers, D. P. 2006. The dynamic nature of antipredator behavior: prey fish integrate threat-sensitive antipredator responses with background levels of predation risk. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 61, 9-16.
Brown, J. S. & Kotler, B. P. 2004. Hazardous duty pay and the foraging cost of predation. Ecology Letters, 7, 999-1014.
Chapman, C. A., Chapman, L. J. & McLaughlin, R. L. 1989. Multiple central place foraging by spider monkeys: travel consequences of using many sleeping sites. Oecologia, 79, 506-511.
Chivers, D. P., Brown, G. E. & Smith, R. J. F. 1995. Acquired recognition of chemical stimuli from pike, Esox-lucius, by brook sticklebacks, culaea inconstans (Osteichthyes, Gasterosteidae). Ethology, 99, 234-242.
Covich, A. P. 1976. Analysing shapes of foraging areas: some ecological and economic theories. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 7, 235-257.
Cunjak, R. A., Caissie, D. & El-Jabi, N. 1990. The Catamaran Brook habitat research project: description and general design of study. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and 415 Aquatic Sciences, 1751, 14 p.
Díaz-Uriarte, R. 1999. Anti-predator behaviour changes following an aggressive encounter in the lizard Tropidurus hispidus. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 266, 2457-2464.
Dionne, M. & Dodson, J. J. 2002. Impact of exposure to a simulated predator (Mergus merganser) on the activity of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in a natural environment. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80, 2006-2013.
Dolinsek, I. J., Grant, J. W. A. & Biron, P. M. 2007. The effect of habitat heterogeneity on the population density of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Biology, 70, 206-214.
Dubois, F. D. & Giraldeau, L.-A. 2005. Fighting for resources: The economics of defense and appropriation. Ecology, 86, 3-11.
Dukas, R. 2002. Behavioural and ecological consequences of limited attention. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – Biological Sciences, 357, 1539-1547.
Elliott, J. M. 1990. Mechanisms responsible for population regulation in young migratory trout, Salmo trutta. III. The role of territorial behaviour. Journal of Animal Ecology, 59, 803-818.
Ferrari, M. C. O., Sih, A. & Chivers, D. 433 P. 2009. The paradox of risk allocation: a review and prospectus. Animal Behaviour, 78, 579-585.
Ford, R. G. 1983. Home range in a patchy environment: optimal foraging predictions. American Zoologist, 23, 315-326.
Getty, T. 1981. Analysis of central-place space-use patterns: the elastic disc revisited. Ecology, 62, 907-914.
Girard, I. L., Grant, J. W. A. & Steingrímsson, S. Ó. 2004. Foraging, growth and loss rate of young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in relation to habitat use in Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 61, 2339-2349.
Godin, J.-G. J. & Smith, S. A. 1988. A fitness cost of foraging in the guppy. Nature, 333, 69-71.
Grant, J. W. A. 1997. Territoriality. In: Behavioural Ecology of Teleost Fishes (Ed. By J.-G. J. Godin), pp. 81-103. New York: Oxford University press.
Grant, J. W. A., Steingrímsson, S. Ó., Keeley, E. R. & Cunjak, R. A. 1998. Implications of territory size for the measurement and prediction of salmonids abundance in stream. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55, 181-190.
Harwood, A. J., Griffiths, S. W., Metcalfe, N. B. & Armstrong, J.D. 2003. The relative influence of prior residency and dominance on the early feeding behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon. Animal Behaviour, 65, 1141-1149.
Helfman, G. S. 1989. Threat-sensitive predator avoidance in damselfish-trumpetfish interactions. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 24, 47-58.
Hixon, M. A. 1980. Food production and competitor density as the determinants of feeding territory size. American Naturalist, 31, 729-735.
Höjesjö, J., Okland, F., Sundstrom L. F., Pettersson, J. & Johnsson J. I. 2007. Movement and home range in relation to dominance; a telemetry study on brown trout Salmo trutta. Journal of Fish Biology, 70, 257-268.
Hooge, P. N. & Eichenlaub, B. 2000. Animal movement extension to Arcview, version 2.0. Alaska. Science Center – Biological Science office, U.S. Geological Survey, Anchorage, AK, USA.
Imre, I., Grant, J. W. A. & Keeley, E. R. 2002. The effect of visual isolation on territory size and population density of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 59, 303-309.
Imre, I., Grant J. W. A. & Keeley, E. R. 2004. The effect of food abundance on territory size and population density of juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Oecologia, 138, 371-378.
Jakobsson, S., Brick, O. & Kullberg, C. 1995. Escalated fighting behaviour incurs increased predation risk. Animal Behaviour, 49, 235-239.
Keeley, E. R. 2000. An experimental analysis of territory size in juvenile steelhead trout. Animal Behaviour, 59, 477-490.
Keeley E. R. & Grant, J. W. A. 1997. Allometry of diet selectivity in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 54, 1894-1902.
Kim, J.-W., Brown, G. E., Dolinsek, I. J., Brodeur, N. N., Leduc, A. O. H. C. & Grant, J. W. A. 2009. Combined effects of chemical and visual information in eliciting antipredator behaviour in juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Journal of Fish Biology, 74, 1280-1290.
Leduc, A. O. H. C., Roh, E., Breau, C. & Brown, G. E. 2007. Learned recognition of a novel odour by wild juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, under fully natural conditions. Animal Behaviour, 73, 471-477.
Leduc, A. O. H. C., Roh, E., Harvey, M. C. & Brown, G. E. 2006. Impaired detection of chemical alarm cues by juvenile wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in a weakly acidic environment. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63, 2356-2363.
Lima, S. L. & Bednekoff, P. A. 1999. Temporal variation in danger drives antipredator behavior: the predation risk allocation hypothesis. American Naturalist, 153, 649–659.
Lima, S. L. & Dill, L. M. 1990. Behavioral decisions made under the risk of predation: a review and prospectus. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68, 619-640.
Lima, S. L. & Steury, T. D. 2005. Perception of predation risk: the foundation of nonlethal predator-prey interactions. In: Ecology of Predator-Prey Interactions (Ed. by P. Barbosa & I. Castellanos), pp. 166-188. Oxford University Press.
Lind, J. & Cresswell, W. 2005. Determining the fitness consequences of antipredation behavior. Behavioral Ecology, 16, 945-956.
Martel, G. 1996. Growth rate and influence of predation risk on territoriality in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 53, 660-669.
Martel, G. & Dill, L. M. 1993. Feeding and aggressive behaviors in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus-kisutch) under chemically-mediated risk of predation. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 32, 365-370.
Martel, G. & Dill, L. M. 1995. Influence of movement by coho salmon (Oncorhynchu kisutch) parr on their detection by common mergansers (Mergus merganser). Ethology, 99, 139-149.
Metcalfe, N. B., Huntingford, F. A. & Thorpe, J. E. 1987. The influence of predation risk on the feeding motivation and foraging strategy of juvenile Atlantic salmon. Animal Behaviour, 35, 901-911.
Mirza, R. S. & Chivers, D. P. 2003. Response of juvenile rainbow trout to varying concentrations of chemical alarm cue: response thresholds and survival during encounters with predators. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 81, 88-95.
Moodie, G. E. E. 1972. Predation, natural selection and adaptation in an unusual threespine stickleback. Heredity, 28, 155-167.
Quinn, G. P. & Keough, M. J. 2002. Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Schoener, T. W. 1981. An empirically based estimate of home range. Theoretical Population Biology, 20, 281-325.
Schoener, T. W. 1983. Simple models of optimal territory size: a reconciliation. American Naturalist, 121, 608-629.
Scott, W. B. & Crossman, E. J. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin, 184, 192-197.
Slaney, P. A. & Northcote, T. G. 1974. Effects of prey abundance on density and territorial behaviour of young rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in a laboratory stream channel. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 31, 1201-1209.
Smith, R. J. F. & Lemly, A. D. 1986. Survival of fathead minnows after injury by predators and its possible role in the evolution of alarm signals. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 15, 147-149.
Steingrímsson, S. Ó. & Grant, J. W. A. 1999. Allometry of territory size and metabolic rate as predictors of self-thinning in young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 17-26.
Steingrímsson, S. Ó. & Grant, J. W. A. 2003. Patterns and correlates of movement and site fidelity in individually tagged young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 60, 193-202.
Steingrímsson, S. Ó. & Grant, J. W. A. 2008. Multiple central-place territories in wild young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Journal of Animal Ecology, 77, 448-457.
Talbot, C., Higgins, P. J. & Shanks, A. M. 1984. Effects of pre- and post-prandial starvation on meal size and evacuation rate of juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Biology, 25, 551-560.
Valeix, M., Loveridge, A. J., Chamaille-Jammes, S., Davidson, Z., Murindagomo, F., Fritz, H. & Macdonald, D. W. 2009. Behavioral adjustments of African herbivores to predation risk by lions: Spatiotemporal variations influence habitat use. Ecology, 90, 23-30.
Venter, O., Grant, J. W. A., Noel, M. V. & Kim, J.-W. 2008. Mechanisms underlying the increase in young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) density with habitat complexity. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 65, 1956-1964.
Werner, E. E. & Peacor, S. D. 2003. A review of trait-mediated indirect interactions in ecological communities. Ecology, 84, 1083-1100.
Repository Staff Only: item control page