Chen, Liang (2011) Innovative Bracing System for Earthquake Resistant Concentrically Braced Frame Structures. Masters thesis, Concordia University.
- Accepted Version
The chevron braced frame is a widely used seismic force resistant system in North America in areas subjected to moderate-to-severe earthquakes. However, the chevron braced frame system is limited in term of lateral loads redistribution over the building height.
Khatib et al (1988) proposed to add zipper columns to link together all brace-to-beam intersecting points with the aim to drive all compression braces to buckle simultaneously and as a result to enlarge the energy dissipation capacity of the system. Although the Commentary of AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Building (AISC 2002) contains recommendations regarding this innovative zipper steel frame systems, no design provisions are included yet.
The scope of this thesis is to refine the design method for the Zipper Braced Frame System which was initially proposed by Tremblay and Tirca (2003) and to study the system’s behaviour under seismic loads by means of accurate inelastic time-history analysis.
The main objective of this research project is three-fold:
To develop accurate computer brace models by using Drain2DX and OpenSees and to validate the accuracy of computations with experimental test results for slender, intermediate and stocky braces;
To refine the existing design method for CBFs with strong zipper columns;
To validate the refined design method by studying the performance of CBF systems with strong zipper columns in Drain2DX and OpenSees environment for low-, middle- and high-rise buildings.
Through this research, the overall understanding of the CBF system with strong zipper columns is improved by means of accurate numerical predictions. The outcome of this study will be further used as input data for experimental tests.
The design procedure has been divided into two phases: design of braces, columns and beams according to NBC 2005 and CSA-S16-09 and design of zipper columns. A spreadsheet was developed for a 4-, 8- and 12-storey buildings and six different pattern loads related to the distribution of internal brace forces over the structure height were proposed. Based on this study, the best suited pattern load distribution is selected and considered for zipper column design.
In order to evaluate the accuracy of modeling assumption in OpenSees, parametric studies were carried out. Comparisons between analytical and available test results have validated the accuracy of the computer models and analysis results. Three ground motion ensembles such as: regular, near-field and Cascadia were scaled to match the design spectrum for Victoria, B.C., have been considered in these analyses.
In conclusion, good seismic performance was found for all studied buildings. The forces in the zippers were equal to or lower than predicted in the design method. All zipper columns performed in elastic range while buckling of braces propagated upward or downward within seconds. It was clearly demonstrated that by using CBF’s with zipper columns the storey mechanism was mitigated and in almost all cases the interstorey drift was uniformly distributed over the structure height. In addition the median estimations of the interstorey drifts were below than 2.5% hs limit prescribed in the NBC-05 code for buildings of normal importance.
The outcomes of this research project will be further used as input data for a future experimental test planned to be conducted on an 8-storey braced frame with zipper columns sample.
|Divisions:||Concordia University > Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science > Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering|
|Item Type:||Thesis (Masters)|
|Degree Name:||M.A. Sc.|
|Date:||6 April 2011|
|Thesis Supervisor(s):||Tirca, Lucia|
|Keywords:||Zipper braced frame, CBF, Chevron braced frame with zipper columns, Drain2DX, OpenSees, ground motion scaling,numerical modeling, Nonlinear time-history analysis|
|Deposited By:||LIANG CHEN|
|Deposited On:||08 Jun 2011 18:10|
|Last Modified:||08 Jun 2011 18:10|
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), (2000). Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, prepared for the SAC Joint Venture, published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, FEMA-356, Washington, D.C.
Aguero, A., Izvernari, C. and Tremblay, R., (2006). Modelling of the Seismic Response of Concentrically Braced Steel Steel Frames using the OpenSees Analysis Environment. International Journal of Advanced Steel Construction, 2, 3, pp 242-274.
Agureo, A., Izvernari, C. and Tremblay, R., (2005). Numerical Comparison and Optimization of Force and Displacement Based Elements for the Analysis of the Inelastic Cyclic Response of Steel Bracing Members. Advances in Steel Structure, Vol. II, 1235-1240.
Applied Technology Council, (1992). Guidelines for Cyclic Seismic Testing of Components of Steel. Structures, ATC-24, Redwood City, CA.
Archambault, M.H., (1995). Etude du comportement seismique des contreventements ductile en X avec profiles tubulaires en acier. Rapport No. EPM/GCS-1995-09 Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal.
Astaneh-Asl, A., Goel, S.C. and Hanson, R.D., (1985). Cyclic Out-ofPlane Buckling of Double-Angle Bracing. Journal of Structural Engineers, ASCE, 111, pp. 1135-1153.
Baker, J. W., (2009). The conditional mean spectrum: A tool for ground motion selection, ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering (in press.)
Broderick B.M., Elghazouli, AY, Goggins, J., (2008). Earthquake testing and response analysis of concentrically-braced sub-frames, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol 64, Issus9.
Bruneau, M., Engelhardt, M., Filiatrault, A., Goel, S. C., Itani, A., Hajjar, J., Leon, R., Ricles, J., Stojadinovic, B. and Uang, C.-M., (2005). Review of selected recent research on US seismic design and retrofit strategies for steel structures. Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials, 7:103–114. doi:10.1002/pse.192.
Canadian Standard Association. (2009), CAN/CSA-S16-09 Limit States Design of Steel Structures. Canadian Standard Association, Toronto, ON.
De Sousa, R. M., (2000). Force-Based Finite Element for Large Displacement Inelastic Analysis of Frames PhD Thesis, University of California, Berkeley.
Dicleli, M. and Mehta, A., (2007). Simulation of Inelastic Cyclic Buckling Behaviour of Steel Box Sections. Computer & Structures Journal pp. 446-457.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), (2000). Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, FEMA-356, Washington, D.C.
Gioncu, V. and Tirca, L., (1996). Rotation Capacity of Rectangular Hollow Section Beams. 7th International Symposium on Tubular Structures, Miskolc, Hungary.
International Code Council, (2000). International Building Code, Falls Church, Virginia.
Ikeda, K. and Mahin, S., (1984). A Refined Physical Theory Model for Predicting the Seismic Behaviour of Braced Steel Frames. Report no. UCB/EERC-84/12, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Univ. of California, Berkeley, Ca.
International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). (2001). California Building Code, Whittier, California.
Izvernari, C. (2007). The seismic behaviour of steel braces with large sections, Master Thesis. Génie Civil. Département des Génies Civil, Géologique et des Mines. École Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada. Avril.
Lacerte, M and Tremblay, R., (2007). Making Use of Brace Overstrength to Improve the Seismic Response of Multi-Storey Split-X Concentrically Braced Steel Frames. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.
Leon R.T., Yang C. S., (2003). Special Inverted-V-braced Frames with Suspended Zipper Struts. International Workshop on Steel and Concrete Composite Construction, IWSCCC, National Center for Research on Earthquake, Taipei, Taiwan.
Leowardi, S. and Walpole, W., (1996). Performance of Steel Brace Members. Report no. ISSN 0110-3326, Univ. of Cantenbury, New Zealand.
Mazzoni, S., McKenna, F., Scott, M., Fenves, G. et al., (2007). OpenSees User Manual, http://opensees.berkeley.edu/OpenSees/manuals/usermanual/OpenSeesCommandLanguageManual.pdf.
Menegotto, M. and Pinto, P.E., (1973). Method of analysis for Cyclic Loaded R.C. Plane Frame Including Changes in Geometry and Non-elastic Behaviour of Elements under Combined Normal Force and Bending. Proc. IABSE Symposium on Resistance and Ultimate Deformability of Structures Acted On by Well Defined Repeated Loads, pp. 15-22.
McKenna, F., (1997). Object Oriented Finite Element Analysis: Frameworks for Analysis Algorithms and Parallel Computing. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
McKenna, F. and Fenves, G.L., (2004). Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (OpenSees). Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), University of California, Berkeley, CA. (http://opensees.berkeley.edu/index.html)
Nouri G.R, H. Imani Kalesar, Zahra Ameli, (2009). The Applicability of the Zipper Strut to Seismic Rehabilitation of Steel Structures. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology.
Prakash, V., G.A. Powell, and S. Campbell, (1993). DRAIN-2DX Base Program Description and User Guide. Department of Civil Engineering. University of California. Berkeley, California.
Shaback, B., and Brown, T., (2003). Behaviour of Square Hollow Structural Steel Braces with End Connections under Reversed Cyclic Axial Loading. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 30 (4) pp. 745-753.
Tremblay, R., Archambault, M.-H., and Filiatrault. A., (2003). Seismic Response of Concentrically Braced Steel Frames Made with Rectangular Hollow Bracing Members. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering 129 (12), pp. 1626-1636.
Tremblay, R., (2002). Inelastic Seismic Response of Steel Bracing Members. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 58, pp. 665-701
Tremblay, R., Tirca L.. (2003). Behaviour and design of multi-story zipper concentrically braced steel frames for the mitigation of soft-story response. In: Proceedings of the conference on behaviour of steel structures in seismic areas. 2003. p. 471-7.
Tirca L., Tremblay R., (2004). Influence of building height and ground motion type on the seismic behaviour of zipper concentrically braced steel frames. 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. 2004. Paper No. 2894.
Uriz, P., Filippou, F.C., and Mahin, S., (2008). Model for Cyclic Inelastic Buckling of Steel Braces, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, pp. 619-628.
Uriz, P. and Mahin, S., (2008). Toward Earthquake Resistant Design of Concentrically Braced Steel Frame Structures. PEER 2008/08 report
Uriz, P. and Mahin, S., (2004). Seismic Performance Assessment of Concentrically Braced Steel Frames. Proc. 13th World Conference on Earthquake Eng., Vancouver, BC., Paper No. 1639.
Uriz, P., and Mahin, S. A., (2004). Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Concentrically Braced Steel Frames. International Journal of Steel Structures, 4(4), 239-248.
Walpole, W. and Leowardi, S., (1995). The behaviour of brace members under cycling loading. Structural Stability and Design, Kitipornchai, Hancock & Brandford (eds), 1995 Balkema, ISBN 90 5410 582 8.
Yang, C. S., (2006). Analytical and Experimental Study of Concentrically Braced Frames with Zipper Struts. PhD thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology.
Yang, C.-S., Leon, R.T., and DesRoches, R., 2008. Pushover Test and Analysis of a Braced Frame with Suspended Zipper Struts, ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering.
Yang, T. Y., Moehle, J. P., and Stojadinovic B., (2009). Performance Evaluation of Innovative Steel Braced Frames. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center.
Denaya Hinds, K., Walsh, K., Hill, M., Abdullah, M., (2007). Analytical Studies of The Suspended Zipper Frame & Control Devices. Proceedings of the 2007 earthquake Engineering Symposium for Young Researchers.
Ziemia, R.D., (2010). Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structure, sixth edition, Wiley-Interscience, New York.
Repository Staff Only: item control page