Experimental and Analytical study of Transmission of Whole-body Vibration to Segments of the Seated Human Body.
PhD thesis, Concordia University.
- Accepted Version
Prolonged exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) has been associated with prevalence of spinal disorders among operators of vibrating mobile machinery. The study of biodynamic responses of body segments is thus pertinent for our understanding of potential injury mechanisms and designs of interventions. This study concerns seated body biodynamic responses to vertical vibration through measurements at the driving-point and at body segments, and development of an analytical model for prediction of global and localised responses. Experiments were undertaken to simultaneously measure driving-point apparent mass (APMS) and body segment acceleration transmissibility of 12 adult subjects under random vertical vibration in the 0.5-20 Hz frequency range. Measurements were taken at the C7, T5, T12, L3 and L5 vertebral locations along the fore-aft and vertical axes using skin-mounted micro-accelerometers, and at the scalp using a light-weight head strap with a micro-accelerometer. The study involved four sitting postures realised with different combinations of hands position (on the lap or on the steering wheel) and back support (none or a vertical support), and three excitation magnitudes (0.25, 0.5 and 1 m/s2 RMS). Mathematical correction methods were employed to account for skin effects, sensor misalignments, and seat inertia effects. The corrected body-segment responses of the twelve subjects depicted a clear dependence on the back support condition (p<0.01), while the influences of hand position and vibration magnitude were also significant but relatively weaker.
Owing to the significant influences of the postural parameters, it was concluded that different support-specific datasets would be necessary to describe the WBV responses and identification of biodynamic models. A 19 degrees-of-freedom anthropometric multi-body biodynamic (MBD) model of the 50th percentile male subjects was formulated on the basis of the known anthropometric inertial and joint properties to simulate sagittal plane motions of the body under vertical WBV. The visco-elastic parameters of various joints were identified through minimisation of a set of error functions derived from different combinations of target responses using the Genetic Algorithm. The minimisation of an error function based on measured vertical head, and fore-aft head and C7 vibration provided an acceptable convergence in primary resonance peaks in both the APMS and the segmental vibration responses. Eigen analysis of the resulting model revealed the presence of 4 significant modes at frequencies below 15 Hz, including two modes near the primary resonant frequency of 5 Hz (4.76 Hz and 5.71 Hz), corresponding to vertical movement of the whole body and pelvic rotation. The model was subsequently applied to estimate vibratory power absorbed within different joints and the total body. The total absorbed power of the model agreed reasonably well with the measured total power. The study revealed that a large portion of the power was absorbed at the body-seat interface, primarily by the buttock tissue. However, significant energy dissipation also occurred at the abdominal viscera and the lower lumbar joint (L5). The L5 was the only joint that showed relatively higher energy dissipation in translation as well as pitch rotation, which may be associated with the most widely reported location of pain and spinal injury.
References:Amirouche F, Ider S. (1988) Simulation and analysis of a biodynamic human model subjected to low accelerations–a correlation study. J Sound and Vibn. 123, 281-292.
Andersson G, Örtengren, R. (1974) Lumbar disc pressure and myoelectric back muscle activity during sitting: II. Studies on an office chair. Scandinavian J Rehab. Med. 3, 115-121.
Andreoni G, Santambrogio G, Rabuffetti M, Pedotti A. (2002) Method for the analysis of posture and interface pressure of car drivers. Applied Ergonomics 33, 511-522.
Basmajian J, Blumenstein R. (1980) Electrode placement in EMG biofeedback. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, USA.
Bazrgari B, Shirazi-Adl A, Kasra M. (2008) Seated whole body vibrations with high-magnitude accelerations-relative roles of inertia and muscle forces. J Biomechanics, 41, 2639-2646.
Belytschko T, Privitzer E. (1978) Refinement and validation of a three-dimensional head-spine model. Aerospace Med. Research Lab. Wright-Patterson Air force Base, Ohio. Report No. AMRL-TR-78-7.
BHMS (Boeing Human Modeling System): http://www.boeing.com/assocproducts/hms/
Berkson M. (1977) Mechanical properties of the human lumbar spine flexibilities, intra-discal pressures, posterior element influences, Proc Inst Med Chic 31, 138–143.
Blüthner R, Seidel H, Hinz B. (1995) Can reflex mechanism explain the timing of back muscles during sinusoidal whole-body vibration and transients? UK Conf. HRV, Southampton, UK.
Blüthner R, Seidel H, Hinz B. (2001) Examination of the myoelectric activity of back muscles during random vibration–methodical approach and first results. Clinical Biomechanics 16 Suppl.(1), S25-S30.
Boileau P-É, Rakheja S. (1998) Whole-body vertical biodynamic response characteristics of the seated vehicle driver: Measurement and model development. Intl J Indus Ergonomics, 22, 449-472.
Boileau P-É, Rakheja S, Wu X. (2002) A body mass dependent mechanical impedance model for applications in vibration seat testing. J. Sound and Vibn. 253, 243-264.
Boileau P-É, Rakheja S, Yang X, Stiharu I. (1997) Comparison of biodynamic response characteristics of various human body models as applied to seated vehicle drivers. Noise and Vibn. Worldwide 28, 7-15.
Boileau P-É, Wu X, Rakheja S. (1998) Definition of a range of idealized values to characterise seated body biodynamic response under vertical vibration. J. Sound and Vibn. 215, 841-862.
Bongers P.M., Boshuizen H.C., Hulshof C.T.J., Koemeester A.P. (1988) Back disorders in crane operators exposed to whole-body vibration, Intl. Arch. Occupational Environ. Health, 60, 129-137.
Bonney R., Corlett E. (2003) Vibration and spinal lengthening in simulated vehicle driving. Applied Ergonomics 34, 195-200.
Bovenzi M, Betta A. (1994) Low back disorders in agricultural tractor drivers exposed to WBV and postural stress. Applied Ergonomics, 25 (4), 231-241.
Bovenzi M, Hulshof C. (1998) An updated review of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between exposure to whole-body vibration and low back pain. J. Sound and Vibn. 215 (4), 595-611.
Bovenzi M, Pinto I, Stacchini N. (2002) Low back pain in port machinery operators. J. Sound Vibn. 253 (1) 3-20.
Bovenzi M, Zadani A. (1992) Self-reported back symptoms in urban bus drivers exposed to whole body vibration. Spine, 17, 1048-59.
Brinckmann P, Biggemann M, Hilweg D. (1989) Prediction of the compressive strength of human lumbar vertebrae. Clinical Biomechanics 4 Suppl.(2), S1-S2.
Buck B, Wölfel H. (1996) A dynamic model for human WBV with detailed representation of the lumbar spine. In: Proc. of the 10th conference of the European Society of Biomechanics, Leuven, 338.
Buck B. (1997) Modell für das Schwingungsverhalten des sitzenden Menschen mit detaillierter Abbildung der Wirbelsäule und Muskulatur im Lendenbereich. Dissertation. TH Darmstadt. Darmstadt: Shaker Verlag.
Cappozzo A. (1981) Analysis of the linear displacement of the head and trunk during walking at different speeds. J. Biomechanics, 14 (6), 411-425.
Cats-Baril W.L, Frymoyer J.W. (1991) The Economics of Spinal Disorders. In: Frymoyer J.W. et al., eds. The Adult Spine. Raven Press. New York, USA.
Chaffin D, Andersson G, Martin B. (1991) Occupational biomechanics. 3rd Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Toronto, Canada.
Cheng H, Obergefell L, Rizer A. (1994) Generator of Body Data (GEBOD) manual. Wright-Patterson Air force Base, Ohio. Report No. AL/CF-TR-1994-0051.
Cho Y, Yoon Y-S. (2001) Biomechanical model of human on seat with backrest for evaluating ride quality. Intl J Indus Ergonomics, 27, 331-345.
Christ W, Dupuis H. (1966) Uber die beanspruchung der wirbesaule unter dem einfluss sinusformiger und stochastischer schwingungen. Intl. W. Angew. Physiol. 22, 258-278.
Coermann R. (1962) The mechanical impedance of the human body in sitting and standing position at low frequencies. Human Factors 4, 227-253.
Cullmann A, Wölfel H. (2001) Design of an active vibration dummy of sitting man. Clinical Biomechanics 16(Suppl. 1), S64-S72.
de Craecker W. (2003) Whole-body vibration comfort analysis based upon spine modelling, 38th UK Conf. HRV, Southampton, UK.
de Oliveira C, Simpson D, Nadal J. (2001) Lumbar back muscle activity of helicopter pilots and whole-body vibration. J Biomechanics, 34, 1309-1315.
DIN 45676 (1992) Mechanical impedances at the driving point and transfer functions of the human body. Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V.
Dobson B. (1987) A straight-line technique for extracting modal properties from frequency response data. Mech. Systems and Signal Proc. 1, 29-40.
Dolan P, Adams M. (2001) Recent advances in lumbar spinal mechanics and their significance for modelling. Clinical Biomechanics 16 Suppl.(1), S8-S16.
Donati P, Bonthoux C. (1983) Biodynamic response of the human body in the sitting position when subjected to vertical vibration. J. Sound and Vibn. 90, 423-442.
Dong R, Rakheja S, Smutz W, Schopper A, Welcome D, Wu J (2002) Effectiveness of a new methods (TEAT) to assess vibration transmissibility of gloves. Intl J Indus Ergonomics, 30, 33-48.
Drerup B, Granitzka M, Assheuer J, Zerlett G. (1999) Assessment of disc injury in subjects exposed to long-term whole-body vibrations. Euro J Spine. 8, 458-467.
El-Khatib A, Guillon F, Domont A. (1998) Vertical vibration transmission through the lumbar spine of the seated subject–first results. J Sound Vibn. 215, 763-773.
El-Khatib A, Guillon F. (2001) Lumbar intradiscal pressure and whole-body vibrations–first results. Clinical Biomechanics 16 Suppl.(1), S127-S134.
ERL human body models: http://www.erlllc.com/erl/human_body_models.php
Fairley T, Griffin M. (1989) The apparent mass of the seated human body: vertical vibration. J. Biomechanics 22, 81-94.
Fritz M. (1998) Three-dimensional biomechanical model for simulating the response of the human body to vibration stress, IEEE Med. Bio. Engg. and Computation, 36, 686-692.
Fritz M. (2000) Simulating the response of a standing operator to vibration stress by means of a biomechanical model, J Biomechanics, 33, 795-802.
Fritz M. (2005) Dynamic properties of the biomechanical model of the human body – influence of posture and direction of vibration stress, J Low Freq Noise, Vibn and Active Control, 24, 233-249.
Fritz M, Fischer S, Brode P. (2005) Vibration-induced low back disorders-comparison of the vibration evaluation according to ISO 2631 with force-related evaluation. Appl. Ergonomics, 36, 481-488.
Gardner-Morse M, Stokes I. (2004) Structural behaviour of human lumbar spine motion segments. J Biomechanics, 37, 205-212.
Gray H. (1918) Anatomy of the Human Body. 20th Ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, USA.
Griffin M. (1990) Handbook of human vibration. Elsevier Academic Press, London, UK.
Griffin M. (2001) The validation of biodynamic models. Clinical Biomechanics, 16 (Suppl. 1), S81-S92.
Griffin M, Whitham E. (1978) Individual variability and its effect on subjective and biodynamic response to whole-body vibration. J Sound and Vibn. 58, 239-250.
Hagena F, Piehler J, Wirth C, Hofman G, Zwingers T. (1986) The dynamic response of the human spine to sinusoidal Gz vibration. In vivo experiments. Neuro-orthopaedics, 2, 29-33.
Härtel T, Hermsdorf H. (2006) Biomechanical modelling and simulation of human body by means of DYNAMICUS. Institute of Mechatronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, Germany. J Biomechanics, 39 Suppl. 1, Abstracts of teh 5th World Congress on Biomechanics, S549.
Haupt R, Haupt S. (1998) Practical Genetic Algorithm, Wiley Interscience, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.
Hinz B, Blüthner R, Menzel G, Seidel H. (1994) Estimation of disc compression during transient whole-body vibration. Clinical Biomechanics, 9, 263-272.
Hinz B, Rützel S, Blüthner R, Menzel G, Wölfel H, Seidel H. (2006) Apparent mass of seated man – First determination with a soft seat and dynamic seat pressure distributions. J Sound and Vibn. 298, 704-724.
Hinz B, Seidel H. (1987) The nonlinearity of the human body’s dynamic response during sinusoidal whole body vibration. Indus Health, 25, 169-181.
Hinz B, Seidel H, Bräuer D, Menzel G, Blüthner R, Erdmann U. (1988a) Examination of spinal column vibrations: a non-invasive approach. Euro J Appl. Physiology, 57, 707-713.
Hinz B, Seidel H, Bräuer R, Menzel G, Blüthner R, Erdmann U (1988b) Bidimensional accelerations of lumbar vertebrae and estimation of internal spinal load during sinusoidal vertical whole-body vibration: a pilot study. Clinical Biomechanics, 3, 241-248.
Hinz B, Seidel H, Menzel G, Blüthner R. (2002) Effects related to random whole-body vibration and posture on a suspended seat with and without backrest. J Sound and Vibn. 253, 265-282.
Hoy J, Mubarak N, Nelson S, Sweerts de Landas M, Magnusson M, Okunribido O, Pope M. (2005) Whole-body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers. J Sound and Vibn. 284 (3-5), 933-946.
ISO 5982 (2001) Mechanical vibration and shock–Range of idealized values to characterize seated-body biodynamic response under vertical vibration.
ISO 2631-1 (1997) Mechanical vibration and shock–Part 1: Mechanical vibration and shock – Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration. General requirements.
ISO 2631-5 (2004) Mechanical vibration and shock–Part 5: Method for evaluation of vibration containing multiple shocks.
Jödicke R. (2001) Dynamic simulation with RAMSIS by linking the ergonomic model with the biomechanical human model DYNAMICUS. Proc. of the RAMSIS User Conference, 2001.
Judic J, Cooper J, Truchot P, Effenterre P, Duchamp R. (1993) More objective tools for the integration of postural comfort in automotive seat design. SAE No. 930113.
Karwowski W, Gaweda A, Marras W, Davis K, Zurada J, Rodrick D. (2006) A fuzzy relational rule network modeling of electromyographical activity of trunk muscles in manual lifting based on trunk angles, moments, pelvic tilt and rotation angles. Intl. J Indus Ergonomics 36, 847-859.
Keller T, Colloca C, Beliveau J-G. (2002) Force-deformation response of the lumbar spine: a sagittal plane model of posteroanterior manipulation and mobilisation. Clinical Biomechanics, 17, 185-196.
Kim T, Kim Y, Yoon Y. (2005) Development of biomechanical model of the human body in a sitting posture with vibration transmissibility in the vertical direction, Intl. J. Indus Ergonomics, 35, 817-829.
Kim S, White S, Bajaj A, Davies P. (2003) Simplified models for the vibration of mannequins in car seats, J Sound Vibn. 264, 49-90.
Kim W, Voloshin A, Johnson S. (1994) Modelling of heel strike transients during running. Human Movement Science, 13, 221-244.
Kitazaki S, Griffin M. (1995) A data correction method for surface measurement of vibration on the human body. J Biomechanics, 28, 885-890.
Kitazaki S, Griffin M. (1997) A modal analysis of whole-body vertical vibration, using a finite element model of the human body. J Sound Vibn. 200, 83-103.
Kitazaki S, Griffin M. (1998) Resonance behaviour of the seated human body and effects of posture. J Biomechanics, 31, 143-149.
Kjellberg A, Wikström B, Landström U. (1994) Injuries and other adverse effects of occupational exposure to whole-body vibration. A review for criteria documentation. Arb Hälsa 41.
Kumar S, Mital A. (1996) Electromyography in ergonomics Taylor and Francis Ltd. London.
Lafortune M, Henning E, Valiant G. (1995) Tibial shock measured with bone and skin mounted transducers. J Biomechanics, 28, 989-993.
Lange W, Coermann R. (1965) Relativbewegungen benachbarter wirbel unter schwingungsbelastrung. Intl. W. Angew. Physiol. 1, 326-334.
Lee K. (2006) CAD systems for human-centered design. Computer-aided design and applications, 3, 615-628.
Lemerle P, Boulanger P. (2006) Lower limb contribution to the dynamic response of the seated man. J Sound Vibn. 294, 1004-1015.
Lewis C. (2005) Variability in measurements of seat transmissibility with an active anthropodynamic dummy and with human subjects, 40th UK Group Meeting on Human Response to Vibration.
Liang C-F, Chiang C-F. (2006) A study of biodynamic models of seated human subjects exposed to vertical vibration, Intl J Indus Ergonomics. 36, 869-890.
Liang C-F, Chiang C-F, Nguyen T-G. (2007) Biodynamic responses of seated pregnant subjects exposed to vertical vibrations in driving conditions. Vehicle System Dynamics, 45, 1017-1049.
Lings S, Leboeuf-Yde C. (2000) Whole-body vibration and low back pain: a systematic critical review of the epidemiological literature 1992-1999, Intl. Arch. Occupational Env. Health, 73, 290-297.
Liu W, Nigg B. (2000) A mechanical model to determine the influence of masses and mass distribution on the impact force during running. J Biomechanics, 33, 219-224.
Liu X, Shi J, Li G. (1998) Biodynamic response and injury estimation of ship personnel to ship shock motion induced by underwater explosion. Proc. of 69th Shock and Vibration Symp., St. Paul., Vol. 18, 1-18.
Lundström R, Holmlund P. (1998) Absorption of energy during whole-body vibration exposure. J Sound and Vibn. 215 (4), 789-799.
Luo Z, Goldsmith W. (1991) Reaction of a human head/ neck/ torso system to shock, J Biomechanics, 24, 499-510.
Luoma K, Riihimäki H, Raininko R, Luukkonen R, Lamminen A, Viikari-Juntura E. (1998) Lumbar disc degeneration in relation to occupation. Scandinavian J Work Environment Health, 24, 358-366.
Magnusson M, Hansson T, Pope M. (1994) The effect of seat back inclination on spine height changes. Applied Ergonomics, 25, 294-298.
Magnusson M, Pope M. (1998) A review of the biomechanics and epidemiology of working postures (it isn't always vibration which is to blame!) J Sound and Vibn. 215 (4), 965-976.
Magnusson M, Pope M, Rostedt M, Hansson T. (1993) Effect of backrest inclination on the transmission of vertical vibrations through the lumbar spine. Clinical Biomechanics, 8, 5-12.
Mansfield N. (2005) Impedance methods (Apparent mass, driving point mechanical impedance and absorbed power) for assessment of the biomechanical response of the seated person to whole-body vibration. Indus Health, 43, 378-389.
Mansfield N, Griffin M. (1996) Vehicle seat dynamics measured with an anthropodynamic dummy and human subjects, Proc. of the Inter-Noise’96, Vol. 4, 1725-1730.
Mansfield N, Griffin M. (2000) Non-linearities in apparent mass and transmissibility during exposure to whole-body vertical vibration. J Biomechanics, 33, 933-941.
Mansfield N, Griffin M. (2002) Effects of posture and vibration magnitude on apparent mass and pelvis rotation during exposure to whole-body vertical vibration. J Sound and Vibn. 253, 93-107.
Mansfield N, Maeda S. (2005) Comparison of the apparent mass of the seated human measured using random and sinusoidal vibration. Indus Health, 43, 233-240.
Mansfield N, Maeda S. (2007) The apparent mass of the seated human exposed to single-axis and multi-axis whole-body vibration. J Biomechanics, 40, 2543-2551.
Markolf K. (1970) Stiffness and damping characteristics of the thoracic lumbar spine. Proc. Wshop. Bioengg. on approaches to problems of the spine. National Institute of Health, Bathesda, MA. 87-142.
Matsumoto Y, Griffin M. (1998) Movement of the upper body of seated subjects to vertical whole body vibration at the principal resonance frequency. J Sound and Vibn. 215 (4), 743-762.
Matsumoto Y, Griffin M. (2001) Modelling the dynamic mechanism
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access
Repository Staff Only: item control page