Esmaeili, Seyed Ebrahim/S. E. (2011) Power Reduction Techniques in Clock Distribution Networks with Emphasis on LC Resonant Clocking. PhD thesis, Concordia University.
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In this thesis we propose a set of independent techniques in the overall concept of LC resonant clocking where each technique reduces power consumption and improve system performance.
Low-power design is becoming a crucial design objective due to the growing demand on portable applications and the increasing difficulties in cooling and heat removal. The clock distribution network delivers the clock signal which acts as a reference to all sequential elements in the synchronous system. The clock distribution network consumes a considerable amount of power in synchronous digital systems. Resonant clocking is an emerging promising technique to reduce the power of the clock network. The inductor used in resonant clocking enables the conversion of the electric energy stored on the clock capacitance to magnetic energy in the inductor and vice versa.
In this thesis, the concept of the slack in the clock skew has been extended for an LC fully-resonant clock distribution network. This extra slack in comparison to standard clock distribution networks can be used to reduce routing complexity, achieve reduction in wire elongation, total wire length, and power consumption. Simulation results illustrate that by utilizing the proposed approach, an average reduction of 53% in the number of wire elongations and 11% reduction in total wire length can be achieved.
A dual-edge clocking scheme introduced in the literature to enable the operation of the flip-flop at the rising- and falling edges of the clock has been modified. The interval by which the charging elements in the flip-flop are being switched-on was reduced causing a reduction in power consumption. Simulating the flip-flop in STMicroelectronics 90-nm technology shows correct functionality of the Sense Amplifier flip-flop with a resonant clock signal of 500 MHz and a throughput of 1 GHz under process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations. Modeling the resonant system with the proposed flip-flop illustrates that dual-edge compared to single-edge triggering can achieve up to 58% reduction in power consumption when the clock capacitance is the dominating factor.
The application of low-swing clocking to LC resonant clock distribution network has been investigated on-chip. The proposed low-swing resonant clocking scheme operates with one voltage supply and does not require an additional supply voltage. The Differential Conditional Capturing flip-flop introduced in the literature was modified to operate with a low-swing sinusoidal clock. Low-swing resonant clocking achieved around 5.8% reduction in total power with 5.7% area overhead. Modeling the clock network with the proposed flip-flop illustrates that low-swing clocking can achieve up to 58% reduction in the power consumption of the resonant clock.
An analytical approach was introduced to estimate the required driver strength in the clock generator. Using the proposed approach early in the design stage reduces area and power overhead by eliminating the need for programmable switches in the driving circuit.
|Divisions:||Concordia University > Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science > Electrical and Computer Engineering|
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Authors:||Esmaeili, Seyed Ebrahim/S. E.|
|Degree Name:||Ph. D.|
|Program:||Electrical and Computer Engineering|
|Date:||11 July 2011|
|Thesis Supervisor(s):||Al-Khalili, Asim and Cowan, Glenn|
|Deposited By:||SEYED EBRAHIM S ESMAEILI|
|Deposited On:||22 Nov 2011 08:41|
|Last Modified:||22 Nov 2011 08:41|
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