Analysis and Design of Wideband CMOS Transimpedance Amplifiers Using Inductive Feedback


Analysis and Design of Wideband CMOS Transimpedance Amplifiers Using Inductive Feedback

Ghasemi, Omidreza (2012) Analysis and Design of Wideband CMOS Transimpedance Amplifiers Using Inductive Feedback. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

PDF - Accepted Version


Optical receivers have an important role in high data rate wireline data communication systems. Nowadays, these receivers have data rates of multi Gb/s. To achieve such high data rate in the design of optical receivers, all the amplifiers in the signal path need to be wideband and at the same time have minimum gain variations in the passband. As a rule of thumb, the bandwidth of amplifiers in the optical receivers should be 70% of the data rate.

The first component of the optical receiver is photodiode which converts photons received from optical fiber to current signals. The small current received from the photodiode is amplified using the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) which is one of the main building blocks in the receiver frontend. Due to high data rate of fiber optic communication systems the bandwidth of TIAs should be high and it should satisfy gain requirements.

It has been shown that inductive feedback technique is capable of extending the bandwidth of CMOS TIAs amplifiers effectively. However, no mathematical analysis is available in the literature explaining this phenomenon. The main focus of this thesis is to explain mathematically the mechanism of bandwidth extension of CMOS TIAs with inductive feedback.

In this thesis, it is shown mathematically that the bandwidth extension of inverter based CMOS TIAs with inductive feedback is due to either zero-pole cancellation or change in the characteristics of complex conjugate poles. It is shown that for large photodiode capacitance for example 150fF the phenomenon for the bandwidth extension is zero pole cancellation. In the case of small photodiode capacitance for example 50fF, the bandwidth extension happens due to change in the characteristics of complex conjugate poles.

Finally, the zero pole cancellation using inductive feedback method for common source based transimpednace amplifier with resistive load using different values of photodiode capacitances has been analyzed. In addition to that a new 3-stage common source based transimpedance amplifier using inductive feedback technique is designed. The process of bandwidth extension is shown analytically and is confirmed with simulation results using well-known tools and technologies. To show the system level motivation, an eye diagram simulation is performed for all topologies and it is verified that bandwidth extension does not disturb the performance. Moreover, the concept is verified based on a frequency scaled down discrete implementation.

In this thesis, for inverter based CMOS TIA using photodiode capacitances of 150fF and 50fF bandwidths of 16.7GHz and 29.7GHz are achieved. In the case of common source based TIAs, considering 50fF, 100fF, 150fF photodiode capacitances, -3dB bandwidths of 32.1GHz, 21.8GHz, and 15.8GHz are achieved. A new three-stage TIA is proposed which achieves bandwidths of 42.8GHz, 35.5GHz, and 28.5GHz for 50fF, 100fF, 150fF photodiode capacitances. Based on comparative analysis, it is shown that, inductive feedback is the most effective method to extend the bandwidth of TIAs in terms of number of inductors.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science > Electrical and Computer Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:Ghasemi, Omidreza
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Program:Electrical and Computer Engineering
Date:20 April 2012
Thesis Supervisor(s):Shayan, Yousef
Keywords:Transimpedance Amplifier, Bandwidth, Optical Receiver, Gain, Inductive Feedback, Spiral Inductor, CMOS Transistor
ID Code:7810
Deposited On:20 Jun 2012 15:29
Last Modified:20 Jun 2012 15:29
[1] J. P. Powers, “An Introduction to fiber optic systems,” 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. 1997
[2] J. E. Bowers and Y. G.Wey, High-speed photodetectors. In M. Bass, editor, “Handbook of Optics: Fundamentals, Techniques and Design”, McGraw-Hill Inc., 2nd edition (1995).
[3] J. Savoj, and B. Razavi, “High speed CMOS Circuits for Optical Receivers,” Kluwer Academic Publishers, Massachusettes 2001
[4] Sima Dimitrijev, “Understanding Semiconductor Devices”, Oxford university press, 2000.
[5] I. Song, “Multi Gb/s CMOS Transimpedance Amplifier with Integrated photodetector for Optical interconnects,” Ph.D thesis ,Georigia institute of technology, Nov 2004
[6] S. E. Miller and I. P. Kaminow, “Optical fiber telecommunications II,” Academic Press, 1988
[7] P. E. Green, Jr., “Fiber Optic Networks,” Prentice-Hall, 1993
[8] Niloy K. Dutta and Qiang Wang, “ Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers”, World Scientific Publishing Co. Ltd 2006
[9] B. Wilson, Z. Ghassemlloy, and I. Darwazeh, “Analog Optical Fiber Communication,” IEE Press, 1995.
[10] Telcordia, “Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Transport Systems: Common Generic Criteria,” GR-253, Issue 3, 2000.
[11] SONNET Software, High frequency electromagnetic software [Online]. Available:
[12] R. Ballart and Y. Ching, “SONET: Now it’s the standard optical network,” IEEE Communication Mag., pp. 9-15, 1989.
[13] ADN2820 Transimpedance amplifier Datasheet, Analog Devices Company, Available at:
[14] P. Green Jr., “Fiber Optic Networks,” Prentice Hall, 1993.
[15] M.B. Das, “Optoelectronic detectors and receivers: speed and sensitivity limits,” Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials Devices, pp. 15-22, 1999.
[16] Yi-Ju Chen, Monuko du Plessis, “An integrated 0.35 um CMOS optical receiver with clock and data recovery circuit”, Microelectrocnis Journal Elsevier, pages 985-992, 2006
[17] P. Bhattacharya, “Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices,” Prentice Hall, 1997.
[18] B. Razavi, “Prospects of CMOS Technology for High-Speed Optical Communication Circuits,” , IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 1135-1145, 2002.
[19] J. Palais, “Fiber Optic Communication 4th Ed,” Prentice Hall, 1998.
[20] M. Hossain and A. Chan Carusone, “Multi-Gb/s Bit-by-Bit Receiver Architectures for 1-D Partial Response Channels,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, pp. 270-279, January 2010
[21] E. Sackinger, “ Broadband Circuits for Optical Fiber Communication” John Wiley and Sons, 2005
[22] S. Kasap, “Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices,” Prentice Hall, 2000
[23] N. Grote and H. Venghaus, “Devices for Optical Communication Systems,” Telos Press, 2001
[24] B. Razavi, “A 622-Mb/s 4.5-pA/ Hz CMOS Transimpedance Amplifier” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, pages 162-163, Feb 2000
[25] F. Chien and Y. Chan, “Bandwidth Enhancement of TIA by a Capacitive-peaking Design,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1167-1170, 1999.
[26] C. Cuo, C. Hsiao, S. Yang, and Y. Chan, “2 Gbit/s TIA Fabricated by 0.35 um CMOS Technologies,” Electronics Letters, vol. 37, no. 19, pp. 1158-1160, 2001.
[27] A. Tanabe, M. Soda, Y. Nakahara, T. Tamura, K. Yoshida, and A. Furukawa, “A Single-chip 2.4-Gb/s CMOS Optical Receiver IC with Low Substrate Cross-talk Preamplifier,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2148- 2158, 1998.
[28] T. Yoon and B. Jalali, “Front-end CMOS Chipset for Fiber-based Gigabit Ethernet,” IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers, pp. 188-191, 1998.
[29] Sung Min Park, and Hoi-Jun Yoo, “1.25-Gb/s Regulated Cascode CMOS Transimpedance Amplifier for Gigabit Ethernet Applications”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits ,vol. 39, NO. 1, Jan 2004
[30] S. S. Mohan, M. Hershenson, S. Boyd, and T.H.Lee, “Bandwidth Extension in CMOS with Optimized On-Chip Inductors” IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits, vol 35,No 3, pp 346-355, Mar2000
[31] S.M. Rezaul Hasan, “Design of a Low-Power 3.5-GHz Broadband CMOS Transimpedance Amplifier for Optical Transceiver” IEEE Transaction on circuits and systems, vol.52, No.6, June 2005
[32] C. Kromer et al, “A low-power 20-GHz 52-dBOhms Transimpedance Amplifier in 80-nm CMOS” IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits, vol 39, No 6, pp 885-894 , June2004
[33] S. Mohan, M. Hershenson, S. Boyd, T. H. Lee “Simple accurate expressions for Planar Inductors,”IEEE journal of Solid state circuits, October 1999
[34] J.-D Jin, and S. H. Hsu, “40-Gb/s Transimpedance Amplifier in 0.18-um CMOS Technology,” European solid state circuits conference, 2006, pp.520-523
[35] C.-H. Wu, C.-H.Lee, W.-S. Chen, and S.-I. Liu, “CMOS wideband amplifiers using multiple inductive-series peaking technique” IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits, vol 40, pp.548-552, Feb2005
[36] B. Analui, “Signal Integrity Issues in High speed wireline links,” Ph.D thesis, Caltech 2005
[37] B. Analui, and A. Hajimiri, “Bandwidth enhancement for transimpedance amplifier,” IEEE J. of Solid-state Circuits, vol.39, pp. 2334-2340, Dec 2003
[38] B. Analui, and A Hajimiri “Multi-Pole Bandwidth enhancement technique for Transimpedance amplifiers,” Proceeding of the ESSCIRC 2002
[39] T. Chalvatzis, K. Yau, R. Aroca, P. Schvan, M. Yang, and S. P. Voinigescu, “Low-Voltage Topologies for 40-Gb/s Circuits in Nanoscale CMOS” IEEE Journal of solid state circuits, vol. 42, NO.7, pp. 1564-1573, July 2007
[40] Y.-T Lin, H.-C Chen, T. Wang, Y.-S Lin, and S.-S Lu, “3-10GHz Ultra-Wideband Low-Noise Amplifier Utilizing Miller Effect and Inductive Shunt-Shunt Feedback Technique,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 55, no. 9, Sept. 2007
[41] A. Sedra, and K. Smith, “Microelectronic Circuits” Fifth Edition, Oxford University Press 2004
[42] B. Razavi, “Fundamentals of Microelectronics”, John Wiley and Sons, INC , 2006
[43] R. Raut, O. Ghasemi, “A Power Efficient Wide Band Transimpedance Amplifier in sub-micron CMOS Integrated Circuit Technology,” IEEE joint NEWCAS/TAISA conference 2008, Montreal, Canada
[44] O. Ghasemi, R. Raut, and G. Cowan, “A Low Power Transimpedance Amplifier Using Inductive Feedback approach in 90nm CMOS,” IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) 2009, Taipei, Taiwan
[45] B. Razavi “Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits” Preliminary Edition, Mcgraw-Hill 2000
[46] M. Ingels and M. Steyaert “Integrated CMOS Circuits for Optical Communication” Springer 2004
[47] Ogata Katsuhiko “Modern Control Engineering” Englewood cliffs, N.J Prentice-Hall 1970
[48] Ali Niknejad “Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Spiral Inductors and Transformers for Si RF ICs” M.A.Sc Thesis, College of Engineering, University of California at Berkeley
[49] O. Ghasemi, R. Raut, and G. Cowan, “Complex Conjugate Pole Analysis for Bandwidth Extension of Transimpedance Amplifiers,” IEEE Midwest symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS) 2011, Seoul, Korea
[50] O. Ghasemi, “Bandwidth Extension for Transimpedance Amplifiers,” Photodiodes-World Activities in 2011, chapter 7, INTECH Publishing, Publishing date: 2011-07-29
[51] W. Chen, and C. Lu, “Design and Analysis of A 2.5-Gbps Optical Receiver Analog Front- End in a 0.35-mm Digital CMOS technology”, IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems - Regular Papers, 2006, 53, (4), pp. 977 - 983.
[52] K. Han, J. Gil, S.-S. Song, J. Han and H.Shin et al., “Complete high-frequency thermal noise modeling of short-channel MOSFETs and design of 5.2-GHz low noise amplifier,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40,no. 3, pp.726-735, Mar 2005
[53] K. Han, H. Shin, and K. Lee, “Analytical drain thermal noise current model valid for deep submicron MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 261-269, Feb. 2004
[54] H. Darabi, and A. Abidi, “Noise in RF-CMOS Mixers: A Simple Physical Model”, IEEE Trans. on Solid State Circuits, vol. 35, no.1, pp. 15-25, Jan. 2000.
[55] A.K. Peterson, K. Kiziloglu, T. Yoon, F. Williams, Jr., M.R. Sander, “Front-end CMOS chipset for 10 Gb/s communication,” IEEE RFIC Sym. Dig, June 2003
[56] O. Ghasemi, “Double zero pole cancellation for bandwidth extension of transimpedance amplifiers,” Journal of Circuits, Systems, and computers, JCSC vol. 21, No. 3
[57] H-M. Hsu, T-H. Lee and J-S. Huang, “Ultra-wide-band low noise amplifier using inductive feedback in 90nm CMOS technology,” ISCAS 2010
[58] H-H. Hsieh, P-Y. Wu, C-P. Jou, F-L. Hsueh G-W. Huang, “60 GHz high- gain low noise amplifiers with a common gate inductive feedback in 65nm CMOS,” ISCAS 2011
[59] A. Chan Carusone, H. Yasotharan, T. Kao, “CMOS Technology Scaling Considerations for Multi Gbps Optical Receivers with Integrated Photodetectors,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, August 2011
[60] T. Shuo-Chun Kao, F. A. Musa and A. Chan Carusone “A 5-Gbps CMOS Optical Receiver with Integrated Spatially Modulated Light Detector and Equalization” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, pp. 2844 – 2857, November 2010
[61] G. E. Moore, “Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits,” Electronics Magazine, vol. 38, no. 8, April 1965
[62] G. E. Moore, “No Exponential Is Forever: But “Forever” Can Be Delayed,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (ISSCC'03), pp. 20-23, Feb. 2003
[63] T. Wong, Fundamentals of Distributed Amplification, first edition, Artech House, Boston, 1993.
[64] A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and K. W. Goossen. Optoelectronic-VLSI: Photonics Integrated with VLSI Circuits. IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, pages 899-912, Nov 1998.
[65] D. A. B. Miller. Dense Two-Dimensional Integration of Optoelectronics and Electronics for Interconnections. Conference of SPIE's Symp. on Photonics West, Optoelectronics, January 1998
[66] A. M. Moloney, “A CMOS Monolithically Integrated Photo-receiver Incorporating an Avalanche Photodiode”, PhD thesis, University College Cork, Ireland. Apr 2003
[67] S. M. Sze, “The Physics of Semiconductor Devices”, New York: Wiley, 1981
[68] Nicholas Zicka, “High Speed Optical receviers in nanometer CMOS”, M.Eng Thesis McGill University, April 2009
[69] T. Shuo-Chun Kao, F. A. Musa and A. Chan Carusone “A 5-Gbps CMOS Optical Receiver with Integrated Spatially Modulated Light Detector and Equalization” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, pp. 2844 – 2857, November 2010
[70] Tony Chan Carusone, Hemesh Yasotharan, Tony Kao, “ Multi-GBPS Optical Receivers with CMOS Integrated Photodetectors” Integrated systems laboratory, University of Toronto Februray 2, 2011
[71] S. Donati, “Devices, Circuits, and Application,” Prentice Hall, 2000.
[72] T. H. Lee, “The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits,” 2nd edition Cambridge 2004
[73] G. D. Vendelin, A. M. Pavio, and U. L. Rohde, “Microwave Circuit Design Using Linear and Nonlinear Techniques”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1990.
[74] D. M. Pozar, “Microwave Engineering” Second edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 1998
[75] C. Lin, “Optoelectronic Technology and Lightwave Communication Systems,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1998.
[76] W. Chen, “Theory and Design of Broadband Matching Networks,” Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1976
[77] ASITIC (Simulation of Spiral Inductors and Transformers), Wireless Research Center, Berkeley,
[78] A. Abidi, “Gigahertz Transresistance Amplifiers in Fine Line NMOS,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 986-994, Dec. 1984
[79] G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, second edition, Wiley-Interscience, 1997
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Document Downloads

More statistics for this item...

Concordia University - Footer