Login | Register

Athlete's Sleep and Performance Measures During The Competitive Season


Athlete's Sleep and Performance Measures During The Competitive Season

Onofrio, Mariann Cristina and Dover, Geoffrey C. (2012) Athlete's Sleep and Performance Measures During The Competitive Season. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[img] PDF - Accepted Version


Important information about the effect of sleep on sport-specific performance measures during different athletic seasons is lacking. Therefore, objective sleep and performance measures in football players were examined during two seasons. This was done using a single group, repeated measures design at a university lab and athletics practice facility. Twenty-four healthy male football players (age=21.6±1.6years, weight=99.7±18.9kg, height=183.8±5.6cm) participated in the study.
Participants wore a wrist accelerometer, Actiwatch Score (AS), during 5 days in the off-season and the in-season, with the last recording being the night before a game. Sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep time (TST) were calculated using wake-quiet activity from AS. All athletes also completed a self-report measures sleep diary before bedtime and upon awakening. Performance measures, including: reaction time test, handgrip strength, vertical jump, and the agility t-test, were recorded at the end of 5 days during the off-season and on the morning of game day during the in-season.
There was no significant change in SE between off-season and in-season (77.6±7.2% and 77.5±7.9%, p=0.962). There was a trend toward an increase in in-season TST (375.2±70.2min and 409.3±72.4min, p=0.056). There was no significant changes in performance measures between seasons (p values: 0.190 to 0.872).
There was no significant change in sleep measures between the off- season and in-season in university football players. However, the approximate 77% average of SE is alarmingly low. It is possible that student-athletes’ rigid schedules contribute to their poor sleep. Future studies are needed to determine the cause of poor sleep in football athletes.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Exercise Science
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Onofrio, Mariann Cristina and Dover, Geoffrey C.
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M. Sc.
Program:Exercise Science
Date:1 September 2012
Thesis Supervisor(s):Dover, Geoffrey C
Keywords:Sleep efficiency, athlete, football, collegiate, vertical jump, reaction time
ID Code:974623
Deposited On:30 Oct 2012 18:47
Last Modified:30 Oct 2012 18:47
1. Ferrara M, DeGennaro L. How much sleep do we need? Sleep Medicine Reviews 2001;5 (2):155-79.
2. Davenne D. Sleep of athletes - problems and possible solutions. Biological Rhythm Research 2009;40(1):45-52.
3. Baumann CR. Sleep: Approaching the Fundamental Questions. Current Biology 2008;18 (15).
4. Koteja P, Swallow JG, Carter PA, Garland-Jr. T. Different Effects of Intensity and Duration of Locomotor Activity on Circadian Period. Journal of Biological Rhythms 2003;18(6): 491-501.
5. Lee A, Lin W. Association between sleep quality and physical fitness in female young adults. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2007;47(4):462-7.
6. Fietze I, Strauch J, Holzhausen M, et al. Sleep Quality In Professional Ballet Dancers Chronobiology International 2009;26(6):1249-62.
7. Richmond L, Dawson B, Hillman D. The effect of interstate travel on sleep patterns of elite Australian Rules footballers J Sci Med Sport 2004;7(2):186-96.
8. Smith RS, Guilleminault C, Efron B. Circadian Rhythms and Enhanced Athletic Performance in the National Football League. Sleep 1997;20(5):362-5.
9. Flemons WW, Littner MR. Measuring Agreement Between Diagnostic Devices. Chest 2003;124(4):1535-42.
10. Levendowski DJ, Zack N, Rao S, et al. Assessment of the test-retest reliability of laboratory polysomnography. Sleep Breath 2009;13:163-7.
11. American Sleep Disorders Association. Practice parameters for the use of actigraphy in the clinical assessment of sleep disorders. Sleep 1995;18(4):285-7.
12. Sadeh A, Hauri P, Kripke D, Lavie P. The role of actigraphy in the evaluation of sleep disorders. Sleep 1995;18(4):288-302
13. Chae KY, Kripke DF, Poceta JS, et al. Evaluation of immobility time for sleep latency in actigraphy Sleep Medicine 2008;10:621–5.
14. Jean-Louis G, Gizycki Hv, Zizi F, Spielman A, Hauri P, Taub H. The Actigraph Data Analysis Software: II. A Novel Approach to Scoring and Interpreting Sleep-Wake Activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1997;85:219-26.
15. Gironda RJ, Lloyd J, Clark ME, Walker RL. Preliminary evaluation of reliability and criterion validity of Actiwatch- Score. Journal of Rehabilitation Research 2007;44(2): 223-30.
16. Jean-Louis G, Gizycki Hv, Zizi F, Spielman A, Hauri P, Taub H. The Actigraph Data Analysis Software: I. A Novel Approach to Scoring and Interpreting Sleep-Wake Activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1997;85:207-16.
17. Monk TH, Reynolds-III CF, Kupfer DJ, et al. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary. Journal of Sleep Research 1994;3:111-20.
18. Johns MW. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: The Epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep 1991;14:540-5.
19. Johns MW. Reliability and factor analysis of the Epworh Sleepiness Scale. Sleep 1992;15:376-81.
20. Buysse DJ, Reynolds-III CF, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A New Instrument for Psychiatric Practice and Research. Psychiatry Research 1989;28:193-213.
21. Gandek B, Ware JE, Aaronson NK, et al. Cross-Validation of Item Selection and Scoring for the SF-12 Health Survey in Nine Countries: Results from the IQOLA Project. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1998;51(11):1171-8.
22. Ware-Jr JE, Kosinski M, Keller SD. A 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey: Construction of Scales and Preliminary Tests of Reliability and Validity. Medical Care 1996;34(3):220-33.
23. Beck A, Steer R, Garbin M. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-Five Years of Evaluation Clinical Psychology Review 1988;8:77-100.
24. Mersch PPA, Vastenburg NC, Meesters Y, et al. The reliability and validity of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire: a comparison between patient groups. Journal of Affective Disorders 2004;80:209-19.
25. Thompson C, Stinson D, Fernandez M, Fine J, Isaacs G. A comparison of normal, bipolar and seasonal affective disorder subjects using the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire. Journal of Affective Disorders 1988;14(3):257-64.
26. Dawson D, McCulloch K. Managing fatigue: It's about sleep. Sleep Medicine Reviews 2005;9:365-80.
27. Åkerstedt Tr. Shift work and disturbed sleep/wakefulness. Occupational Medicine 2003;53:89–94.
28. Vennelle M, Engleman HM, Douglas NJ. Sleepiness and sleep-related accidents in commercial bus drivers. Sleep Breath 2010;14:39-42.
29. Sallinen M, Härmä M, Mutanen P, Ranta R, Virkkala J, Müller K. Sleep-wake rhythm in an irregular shift system. Journal of Sleep Research 2003;12:103-12.
30. Hurley DA, Eadie J, O'Donoghue G, et al. Physiotherapy for sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain: a feasibility randomised controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2010;11(70):1-11.
31. Lavigne GJ, Khoury S, Abe S, Yamaguchi T, Raphael K. Bruxism physiology and pathology: an overview for clinicians. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2008;35(476-494). 32. Henrichs J, Stone D. Shoulder impingement syndrome. Primary Care: Clinics in Office
Practice 2004;31:789-805. 33. Rompré P, Daigle-Landry D, Guitard F, Montplaisir J, Lavigne G. Identification of a Sleep
Bruxism Subgroup with a Higher Risk of Pain. Journal of Dental Research 2007;86(9):
837-42. 34. Driver HS, Taylor SR. Exercise and sleep. Sleep Medicine Reviews 2000;4(4):387-402. 35. Brand S, Beck J, Gerber M, Hatzinger M, Holsboer-Trachsler E. 'Football Is Good for
Your Sleep' : Favorable Sleep Patterns and Psychological Functioning of Adolescent Male Intense Football Players Compared to Controls. Journal of Health Psychology 2009;14(8):1144-55.
36. Souissi N, Sesboüé B, Gauthier A, Larue J, Davenne D. Effects of one night’s sleep deprivation on anaerobic performance the following day. European Journal of Applied Physiology 2003;89:359-66.
37. Scott JP, McNaughton LR, Polman RC. Effects of sleep deprivation and exercise on cognitive, motor performance and mood. Physiology & Behavior 2006;87:396-408.
38. Azboy O, Kaygisiz Z. Effects of sleep deprivation on cardiorespiratory functions of the runners and volleyball players during rest and exercise. Acta Physiologica Hungarica 2009;96(1):29–36.
39. Oliver SJ, Costa RJ, Laing SJ, Bilzon JL, Walsh NP. One night of sleep deprivation decreases treadmill endurance performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 2009;107:155-61.
40. Lucas SJ, Anson JG, Palmer CD, Hellemans IJ, Cotter JD. The impact of 100 hours of exercise and sleep deprivation on cognitive function and physical capacities. Journal of Sports Sciences 2009;27(7):719-28.
41. Booth CK, Probert B, Forbes-Ewan C, Coad RA. Australian Army Recruits in Training Display Symptoms of Overtraining. Military Medicine 2006;171(11):1059-64.
42. Wall SP, Mattacola CG, Swanik CB, Levenstein S. Sleep Efficiency and Overreaching in Swimmers. Journal of Sports Rehabilitation 2003;12:1-12.
43. Reilly T, Atkinson G, Edwards B, et al. coping with jet-lag: A Position Statement for the European College of Sport Science. European Journal of Sport Science 2007;7(1):1-7.
44. Waterhouse J, Reilly T, Edwards B. The stress of travel. Journal of Sports Sciences 2004;22:946-66.
45. Waterhouse J, Reilly T, Atkinson G, Edwards B. Jet lag: trends and coping strategies. Lancet 2007;369:1117-29.
46. Montaruli A, Roveda E, Calogiuri G, Latorre A, Carandente F. The sportsman readjustment after transcontinental flight: a study on marathon runners. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2009;49(4):372-81.
47. Walters PH. Sleep, the Athlete, and Performance. Strength and Conditioning Journal 2002;24(2):17-24.
48. Black W, Roundy E. Comparisons of Size, Strength, Speed, and Power in NCAA 1-A Football Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 1994;8(2):80-5.
49. Mathiowetz V, Weber K, Volland G, Kashman N. Reliability and validity of grip and pinch strength evaluations. Journal of Hand Surgery 1984;9A:222-6.
50. Kuzmits FE, Adams AJ. The NFL Combine: Does it Predict Performance In The National Football League? Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2008;22(6):1721-7.
51. Pauole K, Madole K, Garhammer J, Lacourse M, Rozenek R. Reliability and Validity of the T-test as a Measure of Agility, Leg Power, and Leg Speed in College-Aged Men and Women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2000;14(4):443-50.
52. Eckner JT, Kutcher JS, Richardson JK. Pilot Evaluation of a Novel Clinical Test of Reaction Time in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Players. Journal of Athletic Training 2010;45(4):327-32.
53. Mathiowetz V. Comparison of Rolyan and Jamar dynamometers for measuring grip strength. Occupational Therapy International 2002;9(3):201-9.
54. Espana-Romero V, Ortega FB, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Artero EG, Rey JP, Ruiz JR. Elbow Position Affects Handgrip Strength In Adolescents: Validity and Reliability of Jamar, DYNEx, and TKK Dynamometers Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2010;24(1):272-7.
55. HAIDAR S, KUMAR D, BASSI R, DESHMUKH S. Average versus Maximum Grip Strength: Which is more Consistent? Journal of Hand Surgery (British and European Volume) 2004;29B(1):82-4.
56. Kamimura T, Ikuta Y. Evaluation of grip strength with a sustained maximal isometric contraction for 6 and 10 seconds. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2001;33:225-9.
57. Trossman P, Li P-W. The effect of the duration of intertrial rest periods on isometric grip strength performance in young adutls. The Occupational Therapy Journal of Research 1989;9:362-78.
58. Kraemer WJ, Fry AC, Rubin MR, et al. Physiological and performance responses to tournament wrestling. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2001;33(8):1367-78.
59. Peolsson A, Hedlund R, Öberga B. Intra- and Inter-Tester Reliability and Reference Values for Hand Strength. J Rehab Med 2001;33:36-41.
60. McGuigan MR, Winchester JB. The relationship between isometric and dynamic strength in college football players. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 2008;7:101-5.
61. Davis DS, Barntette BJ, Kiger JT, Mirasola JJ, Young SM. Physical Characteristics That Predict Functional Performance in Division I College Football Players Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2004;18(1):115-20.
62. Canavan PK, Vescovi JD. Evaluation of Power Prediction Equations: Peak Vertical Jumping Power in Women. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2004;36(9): 1589-93.
63. Leard JS, Cirillo MA, Katsnelson E, et al. Validity of Two Alternative Systems for Measuring Vertical Jump Height. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2007;21 (4):1296-9.
64. Semenick D. The T-Test. National Strength & Conditioning Association Journal 1990. 65. Lim J, Dinges DF. Sleep Deprivation and Vigilant Attention. Annals of the New York
Academy of Sciences 2008;1129:305-22. 66. Carskadon MA. Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Children and Adolescents: Relevance
for Athletic Performance of Young People. Clinics in Sports Medicine 2005;24:319-28. 67. ShieldsJr CL, Whitney FE, Zomar VD. Exercise performance of professional football
players. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 1984;12(6):455-9. 68. Smith M, Perlis M, Smith M, Giles D, Carmody T. Sleep Quality and Presleep Arousal in
Chronic Pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2000;23(1):1-13. 69. Horne J, Ostberg O. A Self-Assessment Questionnaire to Determine Morningness- Eveningness in Human Circadian Rhythms. International Journal of Chronobiology
1976;4:97-110. 70. Spielberger C, Gorsuch R, Lushene R, Vagg P, Jacobs G. Manual for the State-Trait
Anxiety Inventory (STAI Form Y). Consulting psychologists Press 1983. 71. Erlacher D, Ehrlenspiel F, Adegbesan OA, El-Din HG. Sleep habits in German athletes
before important competitions or games. Journal of Sports Sciences 2011;29(8):859-66.
72. Hoffman JR, Maresh CM, Newton RU, et al. Performance, biochemical, and endocrine changes during a competitive football game. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2002;34(11):1845-53.
73. Mah CD, Mah KE, Kezirian EJ, Dement WC. The Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players. Sleep 2011;34(7):943-50.
74. Bliwise D. Normal aging. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders, 2005. 75. Leeder J, Glaister M, Pizzoferro K, Dawson J, Pedlar C. Sleep duration and quality in
elite athletes measured using wristwatch actigraphy. Journal of Sports Sciences 2012;30
(6):541-5. 76. Silva A, Queiroz SS, Winckler C, et al. Sleep quality evaluation, chronotype, sleepiness
and anxiety of Paralympic Brazilian athletes: Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games. British
Journal of Sports Medicine 2012;46:150-4. 77. Dancey DR, Tullis ED, Heslegrave R, Thornley K, Hanly PJ. Sleep quality and daytime
function in adults with cystic fibrosis and severe lung disease. European Respiratory
Journal 2002;19:504-10. 78. Posmontier B. Sleep Quality in Women With and Without Postpartum Depression.
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 2008;37:722-37. 79. Schupp M, Hall N, Sharpe P, Rowbotham D. Actigraphic measurments of sleep variables
and circadian rhythm in chronic pain patients compared with healthy controls. British
Journal of Anaesthesia 2002. 80. Kang J-H, Chen S-C. Effects of an irregular bedtime schedule on sleep quality, daytime
sleepiness, and fatigue among university students in Taiwan. BMC Public Health 2009;9 (248).
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page


Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top