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A wave pipeline-based WCDMA multipath searcher for a high speed operation

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A wave pipeline-based WCDMA multipath searcher for a high speed operation

Laporte, Pierre-André (2007) A wave pipeline-based WCDMA multipath searcher for a high speed operation. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

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Abstract

The multiplexing technique of the Wideband-Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) is widely applied in the third generation (3G) of cellular systems. The WCDMA uses scrambling codes to differentiate the mobile terminals. In a channel, multipaths may occur when the transmitted signal is reflected from objects in the receiver's environment, so that multiple copies of the signal arrive at the antenna at different moments. Thus, a wideband signal may suffer frequency selective fading due to the multipath propagations. A Rake receiver is often used to combine the energies received on different paths, and a multipath searcher is needed to identify the multipath components and their associated delays. Correlating some shifted versions of the scrambling code with an incoming signal results in energy peaks at the multipath locations, when the locally generated scrambling sequence is aligned with the scrambling sequence of the incoming signal. A path acquisition in such a process requires a speed of millions of Multiply-Accumulate (MAC) cycles per second. The performances of the multipath searcher are mainly determined by the resolution and the acquisition time, which are often limited by the operation speed of the hardware resources. This thesis presents the design of a multipath searcher with a high resolution and a short acquisition time. The design consists of two aspects. The first aspect is of the searching algorithm. It is based on a double-dwell algorithm and a verification stage is introduced to lower the rate of false alarms. The second aspect in the design is the circuit of the searcher. This circuit is expected to operate at the chip rate of 3.84 MHz and the search period is chosen to be equal to the time interval of 5 slots, which requires a high operation speed of the computation units employed in the circuit. Moreover, in order to reduce the circuit complexity, only one Complex Multiplier-Accumulator (CMAC), instead of several ones in many existing searcher circuits, is employed to perform all the computation tasks without extending the search period, which make the computation time in the circuit more critical. Aiming at this challenge of the high speed requirement, a structure of the CMAC cell is designed with the technique of the wave pipeline, which permits the signal propagation through the circuit stages without constraints of clocks. For a good use of this technique, the circuit blocks are made to have equalized delay, by means of pass transistor logic cells, and by keeping such a delay short, the total computation time of the CMAC can be made within the required time limit of the searching. A complete circuit of the CMAC has been developed. It has two versions, with the Normal Process Complementary Pass Logic (NPCPL) and the Complementary Pass-Logic Transmission-Gates (CPL-TG), respectively. The structures of the arithmetic units have been chosen carefully so that the fan-in/fan-out constraints of the NPCPL and the CPL-TG logics are taken into consideration. The results of the simulation with a 0.18 om models have shown that this wave pipelined CMAC can process four inputs of 8 bits at a rate of 830 Mb/s. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the searching algorithm, a Matlab simulation of the searcher circuit has been conducted. It has been observed that the proposed multipath searcher can lead to low probabilities of misdetection and false alarm for the test cases recommended by the 3 rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standard. A test chip of the CMAC circuit has been fabricated in a CMOS 0.18 om technology process. The circuit is currently under test.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Electrical and Computer Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Laporte, Pierre-André
Pagination:xix, 96 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Electrical and Computer Engineering
Date:2007
Thesis Supervisor(s):Wang, Chunyan
ID Code:975598
Deposited By: Concordia University Library
Deposited On:22 Jan 2013 16:11
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:40
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