Login | Register

Dynamic Modeling and Gain Scheduling Control of a Chilled Water Cooling System


Dynamic Modeling and Gain Scheduling Control of a Chilled Water Cooling System

Liu, Jun (2013) Dynamic Modeling and Gain Scheduling Control of a Chilled Water Cooling System. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

Text (application/pdf)
Liu_MASc_S2014.pdf - Accepted Version



Dynamic Modeling and Gain Scheduling Control of a Chilled Water Cooling System

Jun Liu

In this thesis, a dynamic model of a chilled water (ChW) cooling system with a stratified ChW tank was developed. The model-based analysis of the energy consumption and the cost under different control strategies were studied. The dynamic model consists of a zone, a cooling coil, a chiller, a stratified ChW tank, and a cooling tower. Nonlinear differential equations were written to describe and evaluate the performance of the entire chiller plant with the ChW tank.

A PI-based gain scheduling (GS) control was designed and its performance was compared with the constant gain PI control by subjecting to setpoint changes and load disturbances. The simulation results showed that the system with GS control gives good control and has more stable performance.

Five different operation strategies were simulated for comparing the energy consumption and the cost of the ChW cooling system under full load and partial load conditions. The results showed that the operating strategy with optimized chilled water setpoint saved 7.16% energy (21.5% cost) compared to the case with constant setpoint. These savings were more significant (36%) under partial load conditions.

The gain scheduling control with optimal setpoint has great potential for energy savings as demonstrated by the results presented in the thesis.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Liu, Jun
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Building Engineering
Date:6 December 2013
Thesis Supervisor(s):Zaheeruddin, Mohammed
Keywords:Chilled water cooling system, gain scheduling control, stratified chilled water tank
ID Code:978055
Deposited By: JUN LIU
Deposited On:09 Jun 2014 14:41
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:45


Andrepont, J.S., 2006, Practical Development in Sensible Heat Diurnal Cool Thermal Energy Storage (TES): Large Applications, Low Temps, Energy Efficiency, and Operating Plus Capital Savings. ECOSTOCK 2006 Conference Proceedings, TES systems.

Antienitis, A.K. and Santamouris, M., Thermal Analysis and Design of Passive Solar Buildings, Chapter 1 Introduction and basic concepts, 2002, 9 – 16.

ASHREA, 1979, Cooling and Heating Load Manual (GRP-158), The cooling load factor cooling load calculation method.

Bahnfleth, W.P. and Joyce, W.S., 1994, Energy use in a district cooling system with stratified chilled-water storage, ASHRAE Transactions, 100(1), 1767-1778.

Bahnfleth, W.P. and Musser, A., 1999, Field-measured performance of Four Full-Scale Cylindrical Stratified Chilled-Water Thermal Storage Tanks, ASHRAE Transaction, Vol 105 Part 2, 218-230.

Bai, J.B. and Zhang, X.S., 2006, A new adaptive PI controller and its application in HVAC systems, ScienceDirect, Energy Conversion and Management 48, 1043 – 1054

Braun, J. E., 1992, A comparison of chiller-priority, storage-priority, and optimal control of an ice system, ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 98 part 1: 893-902.

Braun, J. E., 2007a, A near-optimal control strategy for cool storage systems with dynamic electric rates. HVAC&R Research. Vol. 13 number 4, 557-580.

Braun, J.E., 2007b. Impact of control on operating costs for cool storage systems with
dynamic electric rates, ASHRAE Transactions Vol. 113 part 2, 343-354.

Bryan, P.R., 2000, Control-Oriented Modeling of Transcritical Vapor Compression Systems, Thesis for the degree of Master of Science, Graduate College ,University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Caldwell, J.S. and Bahnfleth, W.P., September 1997, Chilled water thermal energy storage without electric rate incentives or rebates, Journal of Architectural Engineering, Vol. 3 No 3, 133-140.

Cypress Ltd, Stratified chilled water storage (SCHWS), Shift & Save, reference available in the link (http://cyp-res.com/stratified-chilled-water-storage-schws/).

Hajiah, A.E.H., 2000, Development and implementation of an optimal controller of a central cooling plant using ice storage system and building thermal mass, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, and Architecture Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder.

Guan, Y. and Zaheer-uddin, M., 2005, Dynamic Modeling and Capacity Control of Multiple Chiller System, A thesis in Department of Building, Civil, and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University at Montreal.

Henze, G. P., Dodier, R.H., and Krarti, M., 1997, Development of a predictive optimal controller for thermal energy storage systems, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 35 number 3, 313-325.

Henze, G. P. and Schoenmann, J., 2003, Evaluation of reinforcement learning control for thermal energy storage systems. HVAC&R Research Vol. 9 number 3, 259-276.

Henze, G. P., Biffar, B., Kohn, D., and Becker, M.P., 2008, Optimal design and operation of a thermal storage system for a chilled water plant serving pharmaceutical buildings. Energy and Buildings Vol. 40 number 6, 1004-4019.

Homan, K.O., Chang, W.S., and Soo, S.L., April 1996, Thermal Performance of Stratified Chilled Water Storage Tanks, HVAC&R Research, Vol. 2, No 2. 158-169

Hydeman, M., Sreedharan, P., and Webb, N,, 2002, Development and Testing of a Reformulated Regression-Based Electric Chiller Model, ASHRAE Transactions, Vol 108 Part 2.

Khan, J. and Zubair, S.M., August 2001, An Improved Design and Rating Analyses of Counter Flow Wet Cooling Tower, The Transactions of the ASME, Vol 123.

Khan, J., Qureshi, B.A., and Zubair, S.M., April 2004, A Comprehensive Design And Performance Evaluation Study of Counter Flow Wet Cooling Towers, International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 27, 914-923.

Krarti, M., Brandemuehl, M. J., and Henze, G. P., 1995, RP-809 – Evaluation of Optimal Control for Ice Storage Systems, Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

Kreith, F. and Bohn, M.S., 2001, Principles of Heat Transfer, Chapter 8 Heat Exchangers, six edition, 485 – 523.

Kuehn, T.H., Ramsey, J.W., and Threlkeld, J.L.,1998, Thermal Environmental Engineering, 3rd edition, Part 4 Heat- and Mass- Transfer Processes and Applications, 268 – 280.

Lee, T.S. and Lu, W.C., 2010, An Evaluation of Empirically-Based Models for Predicting Energy Performance of Vapor-Compression Water Chiller, Applied Energy, Vol 87, 3486-3493.

Li, B. and Alleyne, A.G., 2009, A Full Dynamic Model of a HVAC Vapor Compression Cycle Interacting with a Dynamic Environment, 2009 American Control Conference. 3662 – 3668

Li, Z.F. and Sumathy, K., February 2002, Performance Study of a Partitioned Thermally Stratified Storage Tank in a Solar Powered Absorption Air Conditioning System, Applied Thermal Enegineering, Vol. 22, 1207-1216.

Long, J.Y., 2013, Steady State Model of Cooling Tower Used in Air Conditionning, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computer Science and Electronics Engineering, Atlantis Press, Paris, France.

Massie, D.D., 2002, Optimization of a building’s cooling plant for operating cost and energy use. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Vol. 41 issue 12: 1121-1129.

McQuiston, F.C., Parker, J.D., and Spitler, J.D., Heating, Ventilating, and Air conditioning Analysis and Desgin, Chapter 14 Extended Surface Heat Exchangers, 6 edition, 2005, 483 – 513.

Napps, Application Manual, Scroll liquid chillers, NWC 410A chillers, reference available in the link (http://www.nappstech.com/uploads/05-25-11_NTC_App_Manual_NCC-NWC_Rev_4.pdf)

Roth, K., Zogg, R., and Brodrick, J., September 2006, Cool Thermal energy Storage, ASHRAE Journal, Vol. 48. 94-96.

Sedaghati, A., 2006, A PI Controller Based on Gain-Scheduling For Synchronous Generator, Turk J Elec Engin, Vol 14, number 2, 241-251.

Wang, S.W. and Jin, X.Q., Model-based optimal control of VAV air-conditioning system using genetic algorithm, Building and Environment, issue 35, 471 – 487.

Swider, D.J., 2002, A comparison of empirically based steady-state models for vapor compression liquid chillers, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol 23, 539-556.

Tashtoush, B., Molhim, M., and AI-Rousan, M., April 27, 2004, Dynamic Model of an HVAC System for control analysis, Energy, Vol. 30 issue 10, 1729-1746.

Teeter, J. and Chow, M.Y., 1998, Application of Functional Link Nerual Network to HVAC Thermal Dynamic System Identification, IEEE Transactions Vol 45, No. 1, 170 – 176.

Tran, N. and Kreider, J.F., 1989, Field Measurement of Chilled Water Storage Thermal Performance, ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 95 part 1, 1106-1112.

Wildin, M.W., and Truman, C.R., 1985, A Summary of Experience With Stratified Chilled Water tanks, ASHRAE Transaction, Vol. 91 part 1B, 956-976.

Yoshida, H. and Gotou., Y., 1999. Development of optimal operation of thermal storage tank and the validation by simulation tool, Kyoto, Japan: Building Simulation 1999.

Yoshida, H. and Yamaguti, H., 2001, Optimal operation of a HVAC systm with a thermal storage water tank, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Seventh International IBPSAConference.

Zaky, M.S. and Ismaeil, E.M., December 2008, Gain Scheduling Adaptive PI Control of Hybrid Stepper Motor Drives, Proceedings of the 14th International Middle East Power Systems Conference, Cairo University, Egypt, 160-167.

Zhang, Z.Q., May 2010, Methodology for determining the opimal operating strategies for a chilled water storage system, PhD. Dissertation, Office of Graduate Studies of Texas, A&M University.

Zheng, G.R., 1997, Dynamic Modeling and Global Optimal Operation of Multizone Variable Air Volume HVAC System, PhD. Dissertation, Concordia University.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top