Login | Register

The Third World First Nations Reserve: Framing Crises on First Nations Reserves In Canadian Newspaper Coverage

Title:

The Third World First Nations Reserve: Framing Crises on First Nations Reserves In Canadian Newspaper Coverage

Chandler, Harry (2014) The Third World First Nations Reserve: Framing Crises on First Nations Reserves In Canadian Newspaper Coverage. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[img]
Preview
Text (application/pdf)
Chandler_MA_F2014.pdf - Accepted Version
1MB

Abstract

This study is an examination of recent Canadian newspaper coverage of First Nations reserves, specifically focusing on whether this coverage marginalizes Aboriginals through the use of ethnocentric language, stereotypes and news frames that conform to a larger historical-colonial discourse of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Using a combined methodology of critical discourse analysis and frame analysis, this research examined the press coverage of the water crisis of 2005 on the Cree First Nation reserve of Kashechewan and the housing crisis on the neighboring reserve of Attawapiskat in 2011. Both of these incidents warranted significant press coverage and drew national attention to the conditions of Canada’s First Nations reserves. Examining selected newspaper coverage of these events in The Globe and Mail and The National Post, this study determined that the newspapers framed these reserves in such a way that emphasized their poverty and hopelessness, equating them with Third World nations, thereby serving to further marginalize Aboriginal people. A comparative analysis of the coverage using the Aboriginal newspaper The Wawatay News established a counter frame to those of Canada’s mainstream newspapers.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Journalism
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Chandler, Harry
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A.
Program:Journalism Studies
Date:June 2014
Thesis Supervisor(s):Gabrial, Brian
Keywords:First Nations Reserves, Media Coverage of First Nations, Media Coverage of Aboriginals, Aboriginal Issues, Attawapiskat, Kashechewan
ID Code:979029
Deposited By: HARRY CHANDLER
Deposited On:07 Nov 2014 16:29
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:48

References:

Alia, Valerie, and Simone Bull, Media and Ethnic Minorities, Edinburgh University, Press, Edinburgh, 2005

Anderson, Mark Cronlund, and Robertson, Carmen L., Seeing Red: A history of Natives in Canadian Newspapers, University of Manitoba Press, Winnipeg, 2011

Berkhoffer, Robert F., The white man's Indian: images of the American Indian, from Columbus to the present, Vintage Books 1978, New York, 1993

Cannon, Martin John, and Lina Sunseri. Racism, Colonialism, and Indigeneity in Canada: A Reader. Don Mills, Ont.: OUP, 2011

Coward, John, The Newspaper Indian: Native American Identity in the Press, University of Illinois Press, 1999

Cummins, Bryan D. "Only God Can Own the Land": The Attawapiskat Cree. Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004

Davis, Helen, Understanding Stuart Hall, London ; Thousand Oaks, Calif. : SAGE Publications, 2004

Dickason, Olive Patricia and Long, David Alan, Visions of the Heart: Canadian Aboriginal Issues, Harcourt Brace, Toronto, 2011

Entman, Robert M. "Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm." Journal of Communication 43.4 (1993)

Fairclough, Norman. Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: Routledge, 2003

Fairclough, Norman. Media Discourse. London: E. Arnold, 1995

Fleras, Augie, Media and minorities : representing diversity in a multicultural Canada, Thompson Educational Publishing, Toronto, 2001

Fleras, Augie, THE MEDIA GAZE: Representations of Diversities in Canada, UBC Press, Vancouver, 2011

Fleras, Augie, and Jean Leonard. Elliott. Multiculturalism in Canada: The Challenge of Diversity. Scarborough, Ont.: Nelson Canada, 1992

Fleras, Augie, and Jean Leonard. Elliott. The "nations Within": Aboriginal-state Relations in Canada, the United States, and New Zealand. Toronto: Oxford UP, 1992

Foucault, Michel, Power/knowledge : selected interviews and other writings, 1972-1977, New York, N.Y. : Pantheon Books, 1980

Fowler, Roger. Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press. London: Routledge, 1991

Furniss, Elizabeth, The Burden of History: Colonialism and the Frontier Myth in a Rural Canadian Community, Vancouver, BC: UBC, 1999

Gitlin, Todd. The Whole World Is Watching: Mass Media in the Making & Unmaking of the New Left. Berkeley: University of California, 1980

Goffman, Erving. Frame Analysis. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974

Hall, Stuart, Representation: cultural representations and signifying practices, Thousand Oaks, London, 1997

Harding, Robert, The Media, Aboriginal People and Common Sense, The Canadian Journal of Native Studies XXV, 1(2005):311-335.

Harding, Robert, Historical Representations of Aboriginal People in the Canadian News Media, Discourse & Society, Mar2006, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p205-235, 31p

Henry, Frances, and Carol Tator. The Colour of Democracy: Racism in Canadian Society. 3rd ed. Toronto: Nelson Canada, 2006

Henry, Frances and Carol Tator, Discourses of Domination: Racial Bias in the Canadian English-language Press, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 2002

Jenrick, Amanda Louise, Completely Normal Chaos: The Kashechewan Crisis and the Public Normalization of Risks on Indigenous Reservations, Trent University,
Peterborough, Ont, 2008

Lambertus, Sandra, Wartime images, peacetime wounds: the media and the Gustafsen Lake standoff, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 2004

Lippmann, Walter, Public Opinion, New York, Free Press, 1922

Long, John. Treaty No. 9: Making the Agreement to Share the Land in Far Northern Ontario in 1905. Montreal: McGill-Queen's UP, 2010

Lytwyn, Victor P. Muskekowuck Athinuwick: Original People of the Great Swampy Land. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba, 2002

Manuel, George, and Michael Posluns, The Fourth World: An Indian Reality, Don Mills, Ont.: Collier-Macmillan Canada, 1974

Maslin, Crystal, The Social Construction of Aboriginal Peoples in the Saskatchewan Print Media, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, 2002

McCue, Duncan, Jorge Barrera, Mike Metatawabin, Robert Harding, Cindy Blackstock, and Robin Pierro. Buried Voices: Media Coverage of Aboriginal Issues in Ontario,. Rep. N.p.: Journalists for Human Rights, 2013

McMillan, Alan D., and Eldon Yellowhorn. First Peoples in Canada. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2004

Miller, Autumn, and Ross Susan, They Are Not Us: Framing of American Indians by the Boston Globe, Howard Journal of Communications, Volume 15, Issue 4, 2004, Pages 245 – 259

Miller, John, Ipperwash and the Media: A critical analysis of how the story was covered, Ryerson University 2005,

Ponting, Rick J., First Nations in Canada: perspectives on opportunity, empowerment, and self-determination, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, Whitby, Ont, 1997

Richardson, John E. Analysing Newspapers: An Approach from Critical Discourse Analysis. Basingstoke [England: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007

Roth, Lorna, with Bev Nelson and Marie David. “Three Women, a Mouse, a Microphone, and a Telephone: Information (Mis)Management During the Mohawk/Canadian Governments’ Conflict of 1990,” in Feminism, Multiculturalism, and the Media: Global Diversities. Angara Valdivia (ed.), Pennsylvania State University. Sage Publication 1995,

Said, Edward, Orientalism, Vintage Books, New York, 1979

Skea, Warren, 1993, The Canadian Newspaper Industry's Portrayal of the Oka Crisis. Native Studies Review, 9(1), 15-27.

Shewell, Hugh, "Enough to keep them alive”: Indian welfare in Canada, 1873-1965, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 2004

Smyth, Heather, The Mohawk Warrior: Reappropriating the Colonial Stereotype, Topia: A Canadian Journal of Cultural Studies 3 (Spring 2000): 58-80.

Spurr, David, The rhetoric of empire : colonial discourse in journalism, travel writing, and imperial administration, Duke University Press, Durham N.C., 1993

Terdiman, Richard. Discourse/counter-discourse: The Theory and Practice of Symbolic Resistance in Nineteenth-century France. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1985

Tomlinson, B.R. "What Was the Third World?" Journal of Contemporary History 38.2 (2003): 307-21

Trigger, Bruce G. Natives and Newcomers: Canada's "Heroic Age" Reconsidered. Kingston: McGill-Queen's UP, 1985

van Dijk, Teun., ‘Analyzing Racism Through Discourse Analysis’, Race and ethnicity in Research Methods, Ed. J. Stanfield, Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993

van Dijk, Teun A, The Mass Media Today: Discourse of Domination or Diversity, Javnost/The Public 2 (2): p.28-42

van Dijk, Teun A, News as Discourse. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1988

van Dijk, Teun, Racism and the Press, London ; New York, NY : Routledge, 1991

Warry, Wayne, Ending denial: understanding Aboriginal issues, Broadview Press, Orchard Park, N.Y., 2007

Weston, Mary Ann, Native Americans in the news: images of Indians in the twentieth century press, Greenwood Press, Wesport, Con, 1996.

Wilkes, Rima, Nationalism and Media Coverage of Indigenous People’s Collective Action in Canada,

York, Geoffrey. The Dispossessed: Life and Death in Native Canada. Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1989


Websites Cited

Aboriginal Affairs

"Audit of the AANDC and Attawapiskat First Nation (AFN) Management Control Framework." Government of Canada; Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada;. N.p., 28 Sept. 2012. Web.

"First Nations." Government of Canada; Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada; Communications Branch;. N.p., n.d. Web

"Indian Status." Government of Canada; Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada; Communications Branch;. N.p., n.d. Web

"Minister Duncan Announces Support for Kashechewan First Nation Housing." Government of Canada; Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada;. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.

Pope, Alan. "Report on the Kashechewan First Nation and Its People." www.collectionscanada.gc.ca. Aboriginal Affars Canada, 31 Oct. 2006. Web.

"Treaty Research Report - Treaty No. 9 (1905-1906)." Government of Canada; Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada; Communications Branch;. Government of Canada, n.d. Web.

Indian Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. I-6, s. 18

Assembly of First Nations

‘The Reality for First Nations in Canada’, Assembly of First Nations, N.p., n.d. Web

CBC NEWS

News, CBC. "Feds Aware of Attawapiskat Crisis for Years." CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, 03 Dec. 2011. Web.

News, CBC. "Attawapiskat Chief Slams Audit Leak as 'distraction'" CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, 08 Jan. 2013. Web.

Rose, Priscella. "My Attawapiskat Is More than a Housing Crisis - Aboriginal - CBC." CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, 12 Dec. 2013. Web.

Spence, Richard. "Attawapiskat's Housing Crisis: A Ground-level Perspective - Aboriginal - CBC." CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, 12 Dec. 2013. Web.

TOXIC WATER: THE KASHECHEWAN STORY." Newsinreview.cbclearning.ca. CBC, Dec. 2005. Web

The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

Canada. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. By Georges Erasmus and René Dussault. Vol. 1. Ottawa: Commission, 1996. Looking Forward Looking Back. Part One: The Relationship in Historical Perspective

Canada. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. By Georges Erasmus and René Dussault. Vol 4. Ottawa: Commission, 1996 Public Education: Building Awareness and Understanding

ARCHIVED - Highlights from the Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples." Government of Canada; Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada; Communications Branch;. N.p., n.d. Web

Newspaper Articles Cited

Daily Newspaper Circulation Data | Newspapers Canada." Daily Newspaper Circulation Data | Newspapers Canada. N.p., n.d. Web

"Canadian Newsstand on Proquest." Canadian Newsstand on Proquest. N.p., n.d. Web

The Globe and Mail

Heat, water and transparency” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 01 Dec 2011: A.24.

“It’s no answer to throw money at Aboriginal ills” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 03 Nov 2005: A.22.

Campbell, Murray.” Indifference to native people shows again” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 27 Oct 2005: A.9.

Curry, Bill. “Evacuate reserve, chief urges Ottawa” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 20 Oct 2005: A.7.

Flanagan, Tom. “How the first nations can own their future” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 16 Dec 2011: A.23.

Galloway, Gloria. “Federal help headed for troubled first-nations village” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 26 Nov 2011: A.8.

Galloway, Gloria; Howlett, Karen. “Officials investigate state of emergency” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 29 Nov 2011: A.7

Galloway, Gloria. ““Ottawa strips Attawapiskat of authority over finances.” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 01 Dec 2011: A.4.

Galloway, Gloria. “Arguing the agony of Attawapiskat” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 01 Dec 2011: A.4.

Howlett, Karen; Curry, Bill. “Polluted reserve to be evacuated” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 26 Oct 2005: A.1.

Howlett, Karen. “Water plight on reserve a disgrace: Ramsay” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 25 Oct 2005: A.14.

Howlett, Karen; Curry, Bill. “Tempers flare with Ottawa as airlift of natives begins” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 27 Oct 2005: A.1.

MacGregor, Roy. “Only a bay and 20 years separate one aboriginal tragedy from another” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 27 Oct 2005: A.2.

Rusk, James.” Conditions on reserve ‘atrocious,’ doctor says” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 24 Oct 2005: A.5.

Scoffield, Heather. “In Attawapiskat, officials find toddlers living in shack with mouldy mattresses” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 30 Nov 2011: A.4.

Simpson, Jeffrey. “The Black Hole of our Nation’s Consciousness” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 28 Oct 2005: A.23.

Simpson, Jeffrey. “Fixing the water is easy; asking tough questions is harder” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 01 Nov 2005: A.21.

Strauss, Julius. “ESCAPE FROM KASHECHEWAN” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 28 Oct 2005: A.1.

Strauss, Julius. “Running from the shadows of despair” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 31 Oct 2005: A.1.

Switzer, Maurice, “Reserve Judgment” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 12 Nov 2005: D.23.

Strauss, Julius. “Welcome to Peawanuck, a reserve that works” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 12 Nov 2005: F.6.

Wagamese, Richard. “The Stain of Kashechewan’s Dirty Water” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 29 Oct 2005: A.29.

Wente, Margaret. “All because of a broken $30 part” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 15 Nov 2005: A.27.

Wente, Margaret. “The place without a future” The Globe and Mail [Toronto, Ont] 01 Nov 2005: A.21.


The National Post

“Communities too sad to survive” National Post [Don Mills, Ont] 01 Dec 2011: A.16.

“The disgrace of our native policy” National Post [Don Mills, Ont] 31 Oct 2005: A16.

Chung, Amy “Reserve under new management”, National Post [Don Mills, Ont] 01 Dec 2011: A.7.

Gough, Laurie. “All the lost boys and girls” National Post [Don Mills, Ont] 19 Nov 2005: A3.

Gunter, Lorne. “Political correctness caused Attawapiskat” National Post [Don Mills, Ont] 02 Dec 2011: A.17.

Ivison, John. “The rising toll of a 'failed experiment'; Money can't fix remote reserves like Attawapiskat” National Post [Don Mills, Ont] 29 Nov 2011: A.1.

Kathryn Blaze Carlson. “A 'homeland' at the crossroads; Relocation: A dirty word on remote reserves” National Post [Don Mills, Ont] 03 Dec 2011: A.1.

Mallen, Sean.”Reserve may be unlivable: Residents angry” National Post [Don Mills, Ont] 27 Oct 2005: A10

Milke, Mark. “Crunching Attawapiskat’s Numbers” National Post [Don Mills, Ont] 09 Dec 2011: A.19.

Smyth, Julie. “What effect does it have?” National Post [Don Mills, Ont] 23 Nov 2005: A9.

The Wawatay News

"About Wawatay." Wawatay RSS News. N.p., n.d. Web

"Archive." Wawatay RSS News. N.p., n.d. Web

“Kashechewan will not be evacuated: INAC” The Wawatay News, 21 Oct 2005

Garrick, Rick, “Sewage thrown in ditch from lack of housing” The Wawatay News, 24 Nov 2011

Garrick, Rick “Attawapiskat put under third party management” The Wawatay News, 9 Dec 2011

Hunter, Joyce, “Guarding a ‘Ghost town’” The Wawatay News, 17 Nov 2005

Kataquapit, Xavier, “Housing crisis needs solutions”, The Wawatay News, 10 Nov 2011

Kataquapit, Xavier, “Living up to the Canadian dream” The Wawatay News, 24 Nov 2011

Kornacki, Chris, “Housing crisis continues in Attawapiskat” The Wawatay News, 28 Oct 2011

Moon, Peter, “Kashechewan Junior Rangers earn praise” The Wawatay News, 17 Nov 2005

The Toronto Star

"Broken People, Broken Policy." Toronto Star [Toronto] 31 Oct. 2010, A 9 sec.: n. pag. Print.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top