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Broadband Linearization Technologies for Broadband Radio-over-Fiber Transmission Systems

Title:

Broadband Linearization Technologies for Broadband Radio-over-Fiber Transmission Systems

Zhu, Ran (2015) Broadband Linearization Technologies for Broadband Radio-over-Fiber Transmission Systems. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

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Abstract

Wireless access networks consist of three sections, i.e., back-haul, front-haul, and wireless transmission, where the front-haul transmission systems are to distribute radio frequency (RF) signals to antenna towers. For current low-capacity wireless access, RF signals over coaxial cables, digital fiber-optic transmission, microwave point-to-point transmission, and narrowband radio-over-fiber (RoF) transmission have been used for the front-haul transmission systems. However, with the increase of demand of high capacity wireless access and also use of massive multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) antennas, low-cost, simple and broadband front-haul transmission systems are required in current 4G and in particular the future 5G wireless.
RoF transmission system, which is based on optical subcarrier modulation, combines the advantages of both optical fiber and radio transmission, where the optical fiber has low loss, low cost, extremely high capacity, lightweight, and immunity to electromagnetic interference, and the radio transmission simplifies remote radio units (RRUs) at antenna towers. Furthermore, radio transmission based front-haul is transparent to RF signal frequency and wireless protocol, i.e., upgradable, in addition to simplified RRUs.
Unfortunately, RoF is an analog optical transmission, and it is well known that any analog transmission is susceptible to nonlinear distortion. To be more specific, nonlinear distortion is the major limit for RoF transmission. In fact, all inline functional optical and electrical components used in RoF transmission systems may induce the nonlinear distortion. Specifically in RoF based front-haul systems, two key functions, i.e., RF power amplification and optical subcarrier modulation, are the main factors in introducing nonlinear distortions. The nonlinear distortions from RF power amplifiers (PAs) have been studied for decades. Therefore, the nonlinear distortions from the optical subcarrier modulation are the main concern in this thesis. The nonlinear distortions include harmonic distortions (HDs) and intermodulation distortions (IMDs). For narrow band RF signals, the HDs can be suppressed by RF filtering, but it may be impossible for the IMDs to be filtered out. For broadband RF signals, both HDs and IMDs could fall in the passband of RF signals and introduce crosstalk, and therefore both of them are required to be suppressed, i.e., linearization required.
In the past decades, linearization for RF PAs has been investigated extensively, mainly focusing on signal processing based linearization, i.e., digital linearization. Unfortunately, the digital linearization is typically limited to the RF signals with up to 20 MHz bandwidth. Based on the current technologies of signal processing hardware, linearization for 1 GHz RF signals can be done, but the complexity and cost are beyond the practical applications. In order to explore broadband RoF transmission systems that support broadband front-haul, simple, low cost, and broadband linearization is pivotal.
In this thesis, two linearization technologies for RoF transmission systems are investigated comprehensively, i.e., analog predistortion circuit (PDC) and dual wavelength optical linearization. Two novel PDCs are designed and investigated to suppress 3rd order IMD (IMD3) of RoF transmission systems. The PDCs have the advantages of broad bandwidth, compact size, and low cost. The first PDC is designed to have a bandwidth from 7 to 18 GHz, using two zero-bias Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Schottky diodes as predistorter. The linearization using this PDC is verified in externally modulated RoF transmission systems. When a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is used for the optical subcarrier modulation, the input power at 1 dB compression point (P1dB) of the RoF transmission system is improved by 0.4 and up to 2.2 dB from 7 to 18 GHz. The spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is improved by more than ~10 dB from 7 to 14 GHz and ~6 dB from 15 to 18 GHz. When an electro-absorption modulator (EAM) is used, the input P1dB is improved by 0.8 and up to 3.8 dB from 8 to 17 GHz. The SFDR is improved by more than ~9 dB from 7 to 14 GHz and ~4 dB from 15 to 18 GHz.
The second PDC is designed to have an ultra broad bandwidth from 10 MHz to 30 GHz, using a dual Schottky diode as the predistorter. The linearization using this PDC is investigated in both directly and externally modulated RoF transmission systems. The SFDR at 8 GHz is improved by 11.9 dB for a directly modulated RoF transmission. The SFDR is improved by more than 10 dB from 1 to 5 GHz and more than 5 dB from 1 to 30 GHz for an externally EAM modulated RoF transmission. Similarly, the SFDR is improved by more than 12 dB from 2 to 5 GHz and more than 5 dB from 2 to 30 GHz for an externally MZM modulated RoF transmission. When WiFi signals are transmitted over the externally modulated RoF systems for back-to-back (BTB) and 20 km single mode fiber (SMF), the error vector magnitudes (EVMs) are improved by 0.4 and up to 5.1 dB by using the PDC.
Dual wavelength linearization (DWL) technique is investigated compressively to suppress 2nd and 3rd order nonlinearities of externally modulated RoF transmission systems simultaneously, including HDs and IMDs. The linearization is verified in both EAM and MZM modulated RoF transmission systems. Theoretical analysis is given for the first time to understand DWL technique. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analyses. In the externally EAM modulated RoF transmission systems, when the 2nd order nonlinearity is maximally suppressed, 11.5 and 1.8 dB improvements of the SFDRs with respect to HD2 and HD3 respectively are achieved by using DWL simultaneously. 8.5 and 1.3 dB improvements of the SFDRs with respect to IMD2 and IMD3 respectively are also achieved. Correspondingly, 3 and 4 dB improvements of the input and output P1dBs respectively are obtained. When the 3rd order nonlinearity is maximally suppressed, the SFDRs with respect to HD3 and IMD3 are improved by 8.1 and 20.4 dB, respectively, and corresponding 7.7 and 11.7 dB improvements of the input and output P1dBs respectively are achieved. Furthermore, IMD5 is also suppressed, and the SFDR5 with respect to IMD5 is improved by 7.1 dB. Moreover, the RoF transmission of WiFi signals at 2.4 and 5 GHz are also linearized by using DWL technique. 3.5 dB at 2.4 GHz and 2.8 dB at 5 GHz improvements of the EVMs are obtained.
For an externally MZM modulated RoF transmission system, DWL is also investigated theoretically and experimentally. In the system, it is found that the SFDRs with respect to HD2 and HD3 are both improved at the same time when the even order nonlinearities are suppressed, in which the power of the RF signal and 3rd order nonlinearity is increased by the same level. Thus, the SFDR3 is still improved even the 3rd order nonlinearity is increased. Compared to using a single 1553 nm laser, the SFDRs with respect to HD2 and HD3 are improved by 38.4 and 12.1 dB.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Electrical and Computer Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:Zhu, Ran
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Program:Electrical and Computer Engineering
Date:28 August 2015
Thesis Supervisor(s):Zhang, Xiupu
ID Code:980493
Deposited By: RAN ZHU
Deposited On:28 Oct 2015 12:20
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:51

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