Login | Register

CFD Based Analysis and Parametric Study of a Novel Wind Turbine Design: the Dual Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Title:

CFD Based Analysis and Parametric Study of a Novel Wind Turbine Design: the Dual Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Naccache, Gabriel (2016) CFD Based Analysis and Parametric Study of a Novel Wind Turbine Design: the Dual Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[img]
Preview
Text (application/pdf)
Naccache_MASc_F2016.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.
9MB

Abstract

Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are good candidates to extract energy from wind in urban areas because they are easy to install, service and do not generate much noise; however, the aerodynamic efficiency of small turbines is low. Here-in a new turbine, with high aerodynamic efficiency, is proposed. The novel design is based on the classical H-Darrieus VAWT. VAWTs produce the highest power when the blade chord is perpendicular to the incoming wind direction. The basic idea behind the proposed turbine is to extend that said region of maximum power by having the blades continue straight instead of following a circular path. This motion can be performed if the blades turn along two axes; hence it was named Dual Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (D-VAWT). The analysis of this new turbine is done through the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with 2D and 3D simulations. While 2D is used to validate the methodology, 3D is used to get an accurate estimate of the turbine performance. The analysis of a single blade is performed and the turbine shows that a power coefficient of 0.4 can be achieved. So far, reaching performance levels high enough to compete with the most efficient VAWTs. The D-VAWT is still far from full optimization, but the analysis presented here shows the hidden potential and serves as proof of concept. The study of the D-VAWT is concluded with a preliminary parametric study of the turbine sensitivity to different incoming wind angles, turbine axes spacing, number of blades, airfoil profile and blade mounting point.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Naccache, Gabriel
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Mechanical Engineering
Date:August 2016
Thesis Supervisor(s):Paraschivoiu, Marius
Keywords:Wind Turbine, VAWT, Dual Axis, Innovative, Power Coefficient, CFD, Parametric Study
ID Code:981601
Deposited By: GABRIEL NACCACHE
Deposited On:08 Nov 2016 16:01
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:53

References:

[1] OECD and IEA, “Key World Energy Statistics,” IEA Publishing, Paris, 2015.
[2] Natural Resources Canada, “Energy Fact Book,” 2015-2016.
[3] Global Wind Energy Council, “Global Wind Report - Annual Market Update,” Brussles, 2015.
[4] World Wind Energy Association, J.-D. Pitteloud, and S. Gsanger, “Small Wind World Report,” Tokyo, 2016.
[5] Reve, “Siemens Provides 157 Wind Turbines for Three Wind Power Projects in South Africa.” [Online]. Available: http://www.evwind.es/2015/02/18/siemens-provides-157-wind-turbines-for-three-wind-power-projects-in-south-africa/50574. [Accessed: 23-Jul-2016].
[6] Québec en Saisons, “Découvrez les secrets de «Éole Cap-Chat».” [Online]. Available: http://www.quebecensaisons.com/ete2009/eole_cap_chat.php. [Accessed: 23-Jul-2016].
[7] R. D, “Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Installed in P-Town.” [Online]. Available: http://www.alternativeconsumer.com/2009/06/30/vertical-axis-wind-turbine-installed-in-p-town/. [Accessed: 23-Jul-2016].
[8] Quiet Revolution, “The qr6 Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.” [Online]. Available: http://www.quietrevolution.com/. [Accessed: 23-Jul-2016].
[9] Wind Harvest International, “WHI 70 kW.” [Online]. Available: http://www.windharvest.com/. [Accessed: 23-Jul-2016].
[10] P. Kozak, “Effects of Unsteady Aerodynamics on Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Performance,” MS Thesis, Dept. of Mech. and Aero. Eng., Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Ill., 2014.
[11] S. Eriksson, H. Bernhoff, and M. Leijon, “Evaluation of different turbine concepts for wind power,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1419–1434, 2008.
[12] R. Guillo, “Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine.” [Online]. Available: http://www.ecosources.info/en/topics/Darrieus_vertical_axis_wind_turbine. [Accessed: 02-Feb-2016].
[13] E. Hau, Renewable Energy, Fundamental, Technology, Applications and Economics, Berlin Heidelberg. Springer-Verlag, 2006.
[14] Gamma Energy, “Teoria delle turbine eoliche.” [Online]. Available: http://www.gammaenergy.it/eolico/teoria-delle-turbine.html. [Accessed: 07-Jul-2016].
[15] I. Paraschivoiu, Wind Turbine Design with Emphasis on Darrieus Concept. Montreal: Presse Internationales Polytechniques, 2002.
[16] S. N. Zadeh, M. Komeili, and M. Paraschivoiu, “Mesh Convertence Study for 2-D Straight-Blade Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Simulations and Estimation for 3-D Simulations,” Can. Scociety Mech. Eng., vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 487–504, 2014.
[17] ANSYS Inc., 2011. ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 User’s Guide, URL: www.fluent.com.
[18] X. Jin, G. Zhao, K. Gao, and W. Ju, “Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine: Basic research methods,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., vol. 42, pp. 212–225, 2015.
[19] F. L. Ponta, J. J. Seminara, and A. D. Otero, “On the aerodynamics of variable-geometry oval-trajectory Darrieus wind turbines,” Renewable Energy, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 35–56, 2007.
[20] F. L. Ponta and L. I. Lago, “Analysing the suspension system of variable-geometry oval-trajectory (VGOT) Darrieus wind turbines,” Energy Sustain. Dev., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 5–16, 2008.
[21] T. Kinsey and G. Dumas, “Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of a Hydrokinetic Turbine Based on Oscillating Hydrofoils,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., vol. 134, no. 2, p. 021104, 2012.
[22] T. Kinsey and G. Dumas, “Three-Dimensional Effects on an Oscillating-Foil Hydrokinetic Turbine,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., vol. 134, no. 7, p. 071105, 2012.
[23] T. Kinsey, G. Dumas, G. Lalande, J. Ruel, a. Méhut, P. Viarouge, J. Lemay, and Y. Jean, “Prototype testing of a hydrokinetic turbine based on oscillating hydrofoils,” Renewable Energy, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1710–1718, 2011.
[24] É. Gauthier, T. Kinsey, and G. Dumas, “Impact of blockage on the hydrodynamic performance of oscillating-foils hydrokinetic turbines,” vol. 138, no. 9, p. 091103, 2016.
[25] P. Delafin, T. Nishino, L. Wang, A. Kolios, and T. Bird, “Comparison of RANS CFD and lower-order aerodynamic models for 3D Vertical Axis Wind Turbines,” Eur. Wind Energy Conf. Exhib., 2015.
[26] M. H. Mohamed, A. M. Ali, and A. A. Hafiz, “CFD analysis for H-rotor Darrieus turbine as a low speed wind energy converter,” Eng. Sci. Technol. an Int. J., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2015.
[27] W. Yamazaki and Y. Arakawa, “Inexpensive airfoil shape optimization for vertical axis wind turbine and its validation,” J. Fluid Sci. Technol., vol. 10, no. 2, 2015.
[28] Q. Xiao, W. Liu, and A. Incecik, “Flow control for VATT by fixed and oscillating flap,” Renewable Energy, vol. 51, pp. 141–152, 2013.
[29] Y. C. Lim, W. T. Chong, and F. B. Hsiao, “Performance investigation and optimization of a vertical axis wind turbine with the omni-direction-guide-vane,” Procedia Eng., vol. 67, pp. 59–69, 2013.
[30] W. T. Chong, A. Fazlizan, S. C. Poh, K. C. Pan, W. P. Hew, and F. B. Hsiao, “The design, simulation and testing of an urban vertical axis wind turbine with the omni-direction-guide-vane,” Appl. Energy, vol. 112, pp. 601–609, 2013.
[31] R. Gosselin, G. Dumas, and M. Boudreau, “Parametric study of H-Darrieus vertical-axis turbines using uRANS simulations,” 21st Annu. Conf. CFD Soc. Canada, vol. 178, 2013.
[32] F. Balduzzi, A. Bianchini, R. Maleci, G. Ferrara, and L. Ferrari, “Critical issues in the CFD simulation of Darrieus wind turbines,” Renewable Energy, vol. 85, pp. 419–435, 2016.
[33] P. Chatterjee and R. N. Laoulache, “Performance Modeling of Ducted Vertical Axis Turbine Using Computational Fluid Dynamics,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J., vol. 47, no. 4, 2013.
[34] A. Untaroiu, H. G. Wood, P. E. Allaire, and R. J. Ribando, “Investigation of Self-Starting Capability of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Using a Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach,” J. Sol. Energy Eng., vol. 133, no. 4, p. 041010, 2011.
[35] M. R. Castelli, A. Englaro, and E. Benini, “The Darrieus wind turbine: Proposal for a new performance prediction model based on CFD,” Energy, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 4919–4934, 2011.
[36] M. R. Castelli, G. Pavesi, L. Battisti, E. Benini, and G. Ardizzon, “Modeling Strategy and Numerical Validation for a Darrieus Vertical Axis Micro-Wind Turbine,” Int. Mech. Eng. Congr. Expo., vol. Vol. 7, no. IMECE2010–39548, pp. 409 – 418, 2010.
[37] F. Trivellato and M. Raciti Castelli, “On the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy criterion of rotating grids in 2D vertical-axis wind turbine analysis,” Renewable Energy, vol. 62, pp. 53–62, 2014.
[38] M. H. Mohamed, “Performance investigation of H-rotor Darrieus turbine with new airfoil shapes,” Energy, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 522–530, 2012.
[39] R. Howell, N. Qin, J. Edwards, and N. Durrani, “Wind tunnel and numerical study of a small vertical axis wind turbine,” Renewable Energy, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 412–422, 2010.
[40] H. Beri and Y. Yao, “Effect of Camber on Airfoil on Self Starting of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine,” J. Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 302–312, 2011.
[41] B. Yang and C. Lawn, “Fluid dynamic performance of a vertical axis turbine for tidal currents,” Renewable Energy, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 3355–3366, 2011.
[42] T. Maître, E. Amet, and C. Pellone, “Modeling of the flow in a Darrieus water turbine: Wall grid refinement analysis and comparison with experiments,” Renewable Energy, vol. 51, pp. 497–512, 2013.
[43] S. Lain and C. Osorio, “Simulation and evaluation of a straight-bladed darrieus-type cross flow marine turbine,” J. Sci. Ind. Res. (India)., vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 906–912, 2010.
[44] A. Rossetti and G. Pavesi, “Comparison of different numerical approaches to the study of the H-Darrieus turbines start-up,” Renewable Energy, vol. 50, pp. 7–19, 2013.
[45] C. J. S. Ferreira, H. Bijl, G. van Bussel, and G. van Kuik, “Simulating Dynamic Stall in a 2D VAWT: Modeling strategy, verification and validation with Particle Image Velocimetry data,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 75, p. 012023, 2007.
[46] J. McNaughton, F. Billard, and a. Revell, “Turbulence modelling of low Reynolds number flow effects around a vertical axis turbine at a range of tip-speed ratios,” J. Fluids Struct., vol. 47, pp. 124–138, 2014.
[47] R. Lanzafame, S. Mauro, and M. Messina, “2D CFD modeling of H-Darrieus Wind Turbines using a transition turbulence model,” Energy Procedia, vol. 45, pp. 131–140, 2014.
[48] M. S. Siddiqui, N. Durrani, and I. Akhtar, “Quantification of the effects of geometric approximations on the performance of a vertical axis wind turbine,” Renewable Energy, vol. 74, pp. 661–670, 2015.
[49] M. R. Castelli, A. D. Monte, M. Quaresimin, and E. Benini, “Numerical evaluation of aerodynamic and inertial contributions to Darrieus wind turbine blade deformation,” Renewable Energy, vol. 51, pp. 101–112, 2013.
[50] S. M. Salim and S. C. Cheah, “Wall y + Strategy for Dealing with Wall-bounded Turbulent Flows,” Int. MultiConference Eng. Comput. Sci., vol. II, 2009.
[51] K. M. M. Almohammadi, D. B. B. Ingham, L. Ma, and M. Pourkashan, “Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) mesh independency techniques for a straight blade vertical axis wind turbine,” Energy, vol. 58, pp. 483–493, 2013.
[52] T. Lee and Y. Y. Su, “Surface Pressures Developed on an Airfoil Undergoing Heaving and Pitching Motion,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., vol. 137, no. 5, pp. 1–11, 2015.
[53] J. Dacles-Mariani, G. G. Zilliac, J. S. Chow, and P. Bradshaw, “Numerical Simulations of a Wingtip Vortex in the Near Field,” AIAA J., vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1561–1568, 1995.
[54] J. Dacles-Mariani, D. Kwark, and G. G. Zilliac, “On numerical errors and turbulence modeling in tip vortex flow prediction,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, vol. 30, pp. 65–82, 1999.
[55] ANSYS Inc., 2011. ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 Theory Guide, URL: www.fluent.com.
[56] M. F.R., “Two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence models for engineering applications,” AIAA J., vol. 32–8, no. 8, pp. 1598–1605, 1994.
[57] F. R. Menter, M. Kuntz, and R. Langtry, “Ten Years of Industrial Experience with the SST Turbulence Model,” Turbul. Heat Mass Transf. 4, vol. 4, pp. 625–632, 2003.
[58] F. R. Menter, R. B. Langtry, S. R. Likki, Y. B. Suzen, P. G. Huang, and S. Völker, “A Correlation-Based Transition Model Using Local Variables—Part I: Model Formulation,” J. Turbomach., vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 413–422, 2004.
[59] R. B. Langtry, F. R. Menter, S. R. Likki, Y. B. Suzen, P. G. Huang, and S. Völker, “A Correlation-Based Transition Model Using Local Variables—Part II: Test Cases and Industrial Applications,” J. Turbomach., vol. 128, no. 3, p. 423, 2006.
[60] I. Paraschivoiu, Aérodynamique Subsonique. Montreal Canada: Ed. École Polytechnique, 1998.
[61] G. Naccache and M. Paraschivoiu, “Two Dimensional Flow Simulations of a Dual Axis Wind Turbine,” in EIC Climate Change Technology Conference, 2015.
[62] P. J. Roache, “Perspective: A method for Uniform Reporting of Grid Refinement Studies,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., vol. 158, pp. 109–121, 1993.
[63] W. A. Timmer, “Two-dimensional low-Reynolds number wind tunnel results for airfoil NACA 0018,” Wind Eng., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 525–537, 2009.
[64] M. S. Selig and J. J. Guglielmo, “High-Lift Low Reynolds Number Airfoil Design,” J. Aircr., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 72–79, 1997.
[65] A. J. Fiedler and S. Tullis, “Blade Offset and Pitch Effects on a High Solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine,” Wind Eng., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 237–246, 2009.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top