Login | Register

Discourses and Practices of Whiteness in the Alternative Food Movement in Halifax, Nova Scotia

Title:

Discourses and Practices of Whiteness in the Alternative Food Movement in Halifax, Nova Scotia

MacSwain, Kayleigh (2017) Discourses and Practices of Whiteness in the Alternative Food Movement in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[img]
Preview
Text (application/pdf)
MacSwain_MSc_S2017.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.
1MB

Abstract

The alternative food movement is a collaborative effort to build more environmentally and socially just food systems in order to enhance the health and resiliency of communities. Contemporary trends in food politics have emerged in Canada over the past 40 years, as people work to develop equitable alternatives to the dominant agrifood system. This thesis intervenes at this point and interrogates the discourses and practices within the alternative food movement with the aim of illustrating how race and class based oppressions can be unknowingly embedded in the workings of an organization. It does this through discourse analysis and participant observation, which forms the basis of a case study of The Food Action Committee (FAC) in Halifax, N.S. Drawing on an interdisciplinary literature with a particular emphasis on critical geography, this thesis demonstrates that the circulation of whitened discourses and practices in FAC can inadvertently naturalize and reinforce exclusionary processes which may engender particular exclusions. These forms of inequality - including historical processes of dispossession and racial and other exclusions – are felt most strongly in the marginal communities the committee aims to support. This occurs through an adherence in the organization to discourses of universalism and colour blindness, as well as to universalizing practices such as exclusionary conceptualizations of community and participation. While it is clear that FAC is well intentioned in regards to diversity within the organization, this critique opens a path towards a more genuine form of social inclusion in the organization and in the alternative food movement.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Geography, Planning and Environment
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:MacSwain, Kayleigh
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M. Sc.
Program:Geography, Urban & Environmental Studies
Date:6 May 2017
Thesis Supervisor(s):Gould, Kevin
Keywords:Alternative Food Movement, Food, Race, Class, Power, Social Memory, National Mythology
ID Code:982532
Deposited By: KAYLEIGH MACSWAIN
Deposited On:09 Jun 2017 15:23
Last Modified:10 Jun 2019 00:00

References:

Alkon, A. (2011). Resisting spatial injustice through sustainable agriculture: Some examples from Latin America in environmental inequalities beyond borders. In J. Agyeman, and J. Carmin (Eds.), Environmental Justice Beyond Borders. Cambridge: MA: MIT Press.

Alkon, A., Agyeman, J. (2011). Cultivating food justice: Race, class & sustainability. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Allen, P. (1999). Reweaving the food security safety net: Mediating entitlement and entrepreneurship. Agriculture and Human Values, 16, 117–129.

Allen, P., FitzSimmons, M., Goodman, M., & Warner, K. (2003). Shifting plates in the agrifood landscape: The tectonics of alternative agrifood initiatives in California. Journal of Rural Studies, 19(1), 61–75.

Allen, P. (2004). Together at the table: Sustainability and sustenance in the American agrifood system. State College: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Anderson, M. & Cook, J. (1999). Community food security: Practice in need of theory? Agriculture and Human Values 16(2), 141-150.

Arsenault, N., Grant, S., Chapman, G., Hanavan, L., & Mcloud, M. (2010). Growing the food movement in Nova Scotia. Journal for Activist Science and Technology Education, 2(1), 1-9.

Bellows, A. & Hamm, M. (2002). U.S.-based community food security: Influences, practice, debate. Journal for the Study of Food and Society, 6(1), 31-44.

Brenner, N. & Theodore, N. (2002). Cities and geographies of 'actually existing neoliberalism'. Antipode, 34(3), 348-379.

Buttel, F., Olaf, L., Gilbert, W., & Gillespie, J. (1990). The Sociology of Agriculture. New York, NY: Greenwood Press.

Campbell, D. (1997). Community-controlled economic development as a strategic vision for the sustainable agriculture movement. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 12(1), 37-44.

Connerton, P. (1989). How societies remember. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cresswell, T. (2009). Discourse. In Thrift, N. & Kitchen, R. (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, Vol. 3 (211-214). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Crown; Province of Nova Scotia. (2017). African Nova Scotians Collection: In the Age of Slavery and Abolition. “Slavery and Freedom, 1749-1782”. The Nova Scotia Archives.

Douglas, M. & Isherwood, B. (1996). The world of goods: Towards an anthropology of
consumption. New York, NY: Routledge.

Ecology Action Centre. (2011). Food action committee. Halifax, NS. Retrieved November 26th, 2011, from <http://www.ecologyaction.ca/content/food>

Ecology Action Centre. (2013). Home. Halifax, NS. Retrieved July 4th, 2013, from https://ecologyaction.ca/

Ecology Action Centre. (2017). Home. Halifax, NS. Retrieved April 16th, 2017, from https://ecologyaction.ca/

Feagan, R. (2007). The place of food: Mapping out the ‘local’ in local food systems, Progress in Human Geography, 31(1), 23-42.

Food Action Committee. (2005). Annual Report. Halifax, NS: McLeod, M.

Food Action Committee. (2006). Annual Report. Halifax, NS: McLeod, M.

Food Action Committee. (2007). Annual Report. Halifax, NS: McLeod, M.

Food Action Committee. (2008). Annual Report. Halifax, NS: McLeod, M. & Chapman, G.

Food Action Committee. (2009). Annual Report. Halifax, NS: McLeod, M. & Chapman, G.

Food Action Committee. (2010). Annual Report. Halifax, NS: McLeod, M.

Food Action Committee. (2011). Annual Report. Halifax, NS: McLeod, M.

Foucault, M. (1972). The archaeology of knowledge (A. M. Sheridan Smith, Trans.). Paris, France: Éditions Gallimard.

Frankenberg, R. (1993): White women, race matters: The social construction of whiteness. London, UK: Routledge.

Fraser, R. (2008) Race, memory and reclamation: Social memory and American slavery. American Nineteenth Century History, 9(3), 287-288.

Gilbert, J., Sharpe, G., & Sindy Felin, M. (2002). The loss and persistence of black owned farms and farmland: A review of the research literature and its implications. Southern Royal Sociology 18(2), 1-30.

Goodman, D. & DuPuis, M. (2005). Should we go “home” to eat?: Toward a reflexive politics of localism. Journal of Rural Studies, 21(3), 359-371.

Guthman, J. (2003). Fast food/organic food: Reflexive tastes and the making of 'Yuppie Chow'. Social and Cultural Geography, 4(1), 44-58.

Guthman, J. (2006). Squaring farm security and food security in two types of alternative food institutions. Rural Sociology, 71(4). 662-684.

Guthman, J. (2008a). Bringing good food to others: Investigating the subjects of alternative food practice. Cultural Geographies, 15(4), 431-447.

Guthman, J. (2008b). “If they only knew”: Color blindness and universalism in California alternative food institutions, The professional geographer, 60(3), 387-97.

Guthman, J. (2008c). Neoliberalism and the making of food politics in California. Geoforum, 39, 1171-1183.

Guthman, J. (2011). “If they only knew”: The unbearable whiteness of alternative food. In Alkon, A. & Agyeman, J. (Eds.), Cultivating food justice: Race, class, and sustainability (263-282). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hall, A. & Mogyorody, V. (2001). Organic farmers in Ontario: An examination of the conventionalization argument. Sociologia Ruralis, 44(4), 399-422.

Halwell, B. (2002). Homegrown: The case for local food in a global market. Washington: DC: Worldwatch Institute.

Haraway, D. (1988). Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. Feminist studies, 14(3), 575-599.

Harvey, D. (2005). A brief history of neoliberalism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Hinrichs, C. & Kremer, K.S. (2002). Social inclusion in a Midwest local food system project. Journal of Poverty 6 (l), 65-90.

Holloway, L. & Kneafsey, M. (2000). Reading the space of the farmers’ market: A case-study from the United Kingdom. Sociologia Ruralis, 40, 285–299.

Holt-Giménez, E. (2011). Food security, food justice, or food sovereignty?: Crisis, food movements, and regime chance. In Alkon, A. & Agyeman, J. (Eds.), Cultivating food justice: Race, class, and sustainability (309-330). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hughes, L. (2010). Conceptualizing just food in alternative agrifood initiatives. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, 33(1/2), 30-63.

Huyssen, A. (2003). Present pasts: Urban palimpsests and the politics of memory. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

Ilbery, B. & Maye, D. (2005). Alternative (shorter) food supply chains and specialist livestock products in the Scottish - English borders. Environment and Planning A, 37(5), 823-844.

INCITE! (2011). INCITE! Women of colour against violence. Philadelphia, PA. Retrieved November 26th, 2011, from <http://www.incite-national.org/>

Johnson, C. Personal interview. July 12th, 2015.

Katsiaficas, G. & Cleaver, K. (2001). Liberation, imagination and the Black Panther Party: A new look at the legacy. New York, NY: Routledge.

Kobayashi, A. (1994). Coloring the field: Gender, “race,” and the politics of fieldwork. The Professional Geographer, 46(1), 73-80

Kobayashi, A. & Peake, L. (1994). Unnatural discourse: “Race” and gender in geography. Gender, Place and Culture, 1, 225-244.

Kobayashi, A. & Peake, L. (2000) Racism out of place: Thoughts on whiteness and antiracist geography for the new millennium. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90(2), 392–403.

Krook, M. (2007). Are there feminist research methods? Paper presented at the Second Conference of the Association of Feminist Epistemologies, Methodologies, Metaphysics, and Science Studies, Women and Gender Studies Program, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, February 8-10.

Levkoe, C. (2014). The food movement in Canada: A social movement network perspective. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 41(3), 385-403.

Library and Archives Canada. Black Loyalists: Our History; Our People. Canada’s Digital Collections. Retrieved from <http://blackloyalist.com/cdc/index.htm>

MacRae, R. & Toronto Food Policy Council. (1999). Not just what, but how: Creating agricultural sustainability and food security by changing Canada’s agricultural policy making process. Agriculture and Human Values 16, 187-201.

MacLeod, I. (2011). The history of the Nova Scotia Federation of Agriculture. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Federation of Agriculture.

Magdoff, F. (2008). The world food crisis: Sources and solutions. Monthly Review 60(1). <http://monthlyreview.org/2008/05/01/the-world-food-crisis-sources-and-solutions>

Maye, D. & Holloway, L. (2007). Alternative food geographies: Representation and practice. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

McKinney, K. (2005). Being white: Stories of race and racism. New York, NY: Routledge.

McMichael, P. (2004). Development and social change. A global perspective. (3rd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Mechlem, K. (2004). Food security and the right to food in the discourse of the United Nations. European Law Journal, 10(5), 631-648.

Miller, S. (2009). Edible action: Food activism and alternative economics. Black Point, NS: Fernwood Publishing.

Ministry of Education for Ontario (1946). (Eds). Ontario Public School Geography. Toronto, ON: W.J. Gage Publishing.

Moss, P. (2002). Feminist geography in practice: Research & methods. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.

Nestle, M. & Guttmacher, S. (1992). Hunger in the United States: Policy implications. Nutrition Reviews, 50(8), 242-245.

NSFA. (2017) Nova Scotia Federation of Agriculture. Halifax, NS. Retrieved April 27th 2017 from http://nsfa-fane.ca/

Omi, M. & Winant, H. (1994). Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s. New York, NY: Routledge.

Patel, R. (2007). Stuffed and starved: Markets, power and the hidden battle for the world food system. London, UK: Portobello Books.

Peck, J. & Tickell, A. (2002). Neoliberalizing space. Antipode, 34(3), 380-404.

Peake, L. (2009) Social and cultural geography: Whiteness. In R., Kitchin, & N., Thrift, (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (247-253). London, UK: Elsevier.

Pothukuchi, K. & Jerome, K. (2000). The food system: A stranger to the planning field. Journal of the American Planning Association 66(2), 112-124.

Pulido, L. (2000). Rethinking environmental racism: White privilege and urban development in Southern California. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90(1), 12-40.

Razack, S. (2002). Race, space, and the law: Unmapping a white settler society. Toronto, ON: Between the Lines.

Reay, D. (1996). Dealing with difficult differences: Reflexivity and social class in feminist research. Feminism and Psychology, 6(3), 443–456.

Reinharz, S. (1992). Feminist methods in social research. New York, NY: Oxford Press.

Rice, K., Hughes, S., Morales, S., Cosidetto, H., & Best, L. (2009). Nova Scotia Food Summit Report. Halifax, NS: Friends of Agriculture in Nova Scotia.

Rose, G. (2007). Visual methodologies: An introduction to the interpretation of visual materials. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Schiavoni, C. (2016). The contested terrain of food sovereignty construction: Toward a
historical, relational and interactive approach. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 44(1), 1-32.

Shucksmith, M. (2000). Endogenous development, social capital and social inclusion: Perspectives from Leader in the UK. Sociologia Ruralis, 40, 208-218.

Slocum, R. (2006). Anti-racist practice and the work of community food organizations. Antipode, 38(2), 327-349.

Slocum, R. (2007). Whiteness, space and alternative food practice. Geoforum 38, 520-533.

Sullivan, S. (2006). Revealing whiteness: the unconscious habits of racial privilege. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press.

Tuhiwai, L. (1999). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. London, UK: Zed books.

Venn, L., Kneafsey, M., Holloway, L., Cox, R., Dowler, E., & Tuomainen, H. (2006). Researching European ‘alternative’ food networks: Some methodological considerations. Area 38(3), 248-258.

Wekerle, G. (2016). Food justice movements: Policy, planning, and networks. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 23(4), 378-386.

Winders, J. (2009). Race. In R., Kitchin, & N., Thrift, (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (53-58). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Young, I. (1995). Communication and the other: Beyond deliberative democracy. In M. Wilsonand & A. Yeatman (Eds.), Justice and identity: Antipodean practices. Wellington, NZ: Bridget Williams Books.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top