Login | Register

Design of a Graphite Based Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrated Solar Power Applications

Title:

Design of a Graphite Based Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrated Solar Power Applications

De Luca, Cedric (2017) Design of a Graphite Based Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrated Solar Power Applications. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[img]
Preview
Text (application/pdf)
De Luca_M.A.Sc_F2017.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.
3MB

Abstract

This thesis presents the feasibility of a residential scale, low cost, high temperature, graphite
based sensible thermal energy storage (TES) device and proposes a design for such a device. The
intended use for the proposed design is as a component of a larger concentrated solar power
(CSP) generation system. A scaled down model of the prototype was tested for performance and
durability. Measurements of thermal properties, discharge power, charging and discharging
efficiencies and resistance to degradation by oxidation and vibration were taken to quantify the
performance and durability. Oxidation rates were measured at 700 0C with SiC and Al2O3 based
protective coatings as well as with inert gas blanketing using argon, CO2 and evacuation. The
graphite was also subjected to vibration at 1000 rpm to evaluate any damage caused by contact
with a reciprocating heat engine. To quantify the performance, the relationship between
temperature and thermal conductivity was determined as well as the variation of specific heat
capacity with temperature. These were measured in the range of 50 0C to 400 0C. Solar irradiance
heat flux on the heat storage was simulated on the test samples to determine the temperature
variation throughout the charging period of one day. All tests were done on two grades of
graphite that vary in density, porosity and microstructure. Results obtained from testing the
device indicate an effective lifespan of 31 years before needing to be replaced and yields a
charging efficiency of 40.2%. Based on these results, a detailed design is presented. Finally,
based on the results, a more detailed design of the device is proposed.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:De Luca, Cedric
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Building Engineering
Date:31 August 2017
Thesis Supervisor(s):Elektorowicz, Maria and Zaheeruddin, Mohammed
Keywords:sensible heat storage, thermal energy storage (TES), concentrated solar power, thermal properties of graphite
ID Code:982935
Deposited By: CEDRIC DE LUCA
Deposited On:10 Nov 2017 14:38
Last Modified:01 Mar 2018 06:38

References:

Agrafiotis, C., Roeb, M., Schmucker, M., & Sattler, C. (2015). Exploitation of Thermochemical
Cycles Based on Solid Oxide Redox Systems for Thermochemical Storage of Solar Heat.
Part 2: Redox Oxide-coated Porous Ceramic Structures as Integrated Thermochemical
Reactors/Heat Exchangers. Solar Energy, 114, 440-458.
Anastasovski, A. (2017). Design of Heat Storage Units for use in repeatable Time Slices. Applied
Thermal Engineering, 112, 1590-1600.
Bartl, J., & Baranek, M. (2004). Emissivity of Aluminum and its Importance for Radiometric
Measurement. Measurements of Physical Quantities, 4, 31-36
Beltran, J. I., Wang, J., Montero-Chacon, F., & Cui, Y. (2017). Thermodynamic Modelling of
Nitrate Materials for Hybrid Thermal Energy Storage: Using Latent and Sensible
Mechanisms. Solar Energy, 155, 154-166.
Cengel, Y., & Boles, M. (2004). Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, 5th Edition.
McGraw-Hill.
Cengel, Y., & Boles, M. (2009). Heat and Mass Transfer A Practical Approach. McGraw-Hill.
CERAM Research. (2016). http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=1630. Retrieved from
azom.com: http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=1630
Colbert, M., Ribeiro, F., & Treglia, G. (2014). Atomistic Study of Porosity Impact on Phonon
Driven Thermal Conductivity. Journal of Applied Physics, 115, 034902 - 034902.10
125
Criado, Y., Alonso, M., & Anxionnaz-Minvielle, Z. (2014). Conceptual Process Design of a
CaO/Ca(OH)2 Thermochemical Energy Storage System Using Fluidized Bed Reactors.
Applied Thermal Engineering, 73 (1), 1087 - 1094
Dayan, J., Lynn, S., & Foss, A. (1979). Evaluation of a Sulfur Oxide Chemical Heat Storage
Process for a Steam Solar Electric Plant. U.S. Department of Energy.
De Luca, F., Ferraro, V., & Marinelli, V. (2015). On the Performance of CSP Oil-Cooled Plants,
With and Without Heat Storage in Tanks of Molten Salts. Energy, 230-239.
Dincer, I., & Rosen, M. A. (2011). Thermal Energy Storage Systems and Applications.
Chichester: Wiley.
energyplus.net. (2016). (World Meteoroligical Organization) Retrieved 2016, from
https://energyplus.net/weather
Entegris Inc. (2013). Properties and Characteristics of Graphite. Billerica: Entegris, Inc.
Frazzica, A., Manzan, M., Sapienza, A., Freni, A., Toniato, G., & Restuccia, G. (2016).
Experimental Testing of a Hybrid Sensible-Latent Heat System for Domestic Hot Water
Applications. Applied Energy, 183, 1157-1167.
Halikia, I., Zoumpoulakis, L., Christodoulou, E., & Prattis, D. (2001). Kinetic Study of the
Thermal Decomposition of Calcium Carbonate by Isothermal Methods of Analysis. The
European Journal of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection, 1, 89 - 102
Hawes, D. W. (1991). Latent Heat Storage in Concrete. Thesis (M.A.Sc.), Montreal: Concordia
University.
126
Herrmann, U., Kelly, B., & Price, H. (2004). Two-Tank Molten Salt Storage for Parabolic
Trough Solar Power Plants. Energy, 29 (5/6), 883 - 893
http://graphiteenergy.com/graphite.php. (n.d.). Retrieved from graphiteenergy.com:
http://graphiteenergy.com/graphite.php
IEA-ETSAP and IRENA. (2013). Thermal Energy Storage Technology Brief. IEA-ETSAP and
IRENA.
International Energy Agency. (2017, 06 15). Retrieved from International Energy Agency:
https://www.iea.org/statistics/monthlystatistics/monthlyelectricitystatistics/
Jensen, L. (2013). topsil.com. Retrieved 02 07, 2017, from
http://www.topsil.com/media/123122/hitran_application_note_october2013.pdf
Jessup, R. S. (1938). Heats of Combustion of Diamond and Graphite. US National Bureau of
Standards.
Johansen, J. B., Englmair, G., Dannemand, M., Kong, W., Fan, J., Dragsted, J., . . . Furbo, S.
(2016). Laboratory testing of Solar Combi System with Compact Long Term PCM Heat
Storage. Energy Procedia, 91, 330-337.
Kalaiselvam, S. (2014). Thermal Energy Storage Technologies for Sustainability. Oxford:
Elsevier.
Karim Lee, A. (2014). Application of PCM to Shift and Shave Peak Demand: Parametric
Studies. Thesis (M.A.Sc.), Montreal: Concordia University.
127
Khalifa, A., Tan, L., Mahoney, D., Date, A., & Akbarzadeh, A. (2016). Numerical Analysis of
Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Using Miniature Heat Pipes: A Potential
Enhancement for CSP Plant Development. Applied Thermal Engineering, 108, 93-103.
Liu, F., Wang, J., & Qian, X. (2017). Integrating Phase Change Materials Into Concrete Through
Microencapsulation Using Cenospheres. Cement and Concrete Composites, 80, 317-325.
Lovegrove, K., & Luzzi, A. (1996). Endothermioc Reactors for an Ammonia Based Thermo-
Chemical Solar Energy Storage and Transport System. Solar Energy, 76, 361-371.
Ma, Z., Yang, W.-W., Yuan, F., Jin, B., & He, Y.-L. (2017). Investigation on the Thermal
Performance of a High-Temperature Latent Heat Storage System. Applied Thermal
Engineering, 122, 579-592.
Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (2016). http://www.merriamwebster.
com/dictionary/sensible%20heat. Retrieved from www.merriam-webster.com.
Mikron Instrument Company. (2016). Retrieved from http://wwweng.
lbl.gov/~dw/projects/DW4229_LHC_detector_analysis/calculations/emissivity2.pdf
Miliozzi, A., Liberatore, R., Creszenzi, T., & Veca, E. (2015). Experimental Analysis of Heat
Transfer in Passive Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems for CSP Plants. Energy
Procedia, 82, 730-736.
Mira-Hernandez, C. F., & Garimella, S. (2014). Numerical Simulation of Single and Dual Media
Thermocline Tanks for Energy Storage in Concentrating Solar Power Plants. Energy
Procedia, 49, 916-926.
128
Mostafavi, S. S., Taylor, R. A., Nithyanandam, K., & Shafiei Ghazani, A. (2017). Annual
Comparative Performance and Cost Analysis of High Temperature, Sensible Thermal
Energy Storage Systems Integrated with a Concentrated Solar Power Plant. Solar Energy,
153, 153-172.
Nepustil, U., Laing-Nepustil, D., Lodemann, D., Sivabalan, R., & Hausmann, V. (2016). High
Temperature Latent Heat Storage with Direct Electrical Charging - Second Generation
Design. Energy Procedia, 99, 314-320.
N'Tsoukpoe, K. E., Osterland, T., Opel, O., & Ruck, W. K. (2016). Cascade Thermochemical
Storage with Internal Condensation Heat Recovery for Better Energy and Exergy
Efficiencies. Applied Energy, 181, 562-574.
Obermeier, J., Sakellariou, K., Tsongidis, N., Baciu, D., Charalambopoulou, G., Steriotis, T., . . .
Arlt, W. (2017). Material Development and Assessment of an Energy Storage Concept
Based on the CaO-looping Process. Solar Energy, 150, 298-309.
Page, D. (1991). The Industrial Graphite Engineering Handbook. Cornell University: UCAR
Carbon Co.
Paksoy, H. O. (2007). Thermal Energy Storage for Sustainable Energy Consumption:
Fundamentals, Case Studies and Design. Adana: NATA Science Series.
Pan, Z., & Zhao, C. (2017). Gas-Solid Thermochemical Heat Storage Reactors for High-
Temperature Applications. Energy, 130, 155-173.
Parker, R., & Jenkins, C. (1961). A Flash Method of Determining Thermal Diffusivity, Heat
Capacity, and Thermal Conductivity. Journal of Applied Physics, 32 (9), 1679-1684.
129
Paskevicius, M., Sheppard, K., Williamson, C., & Buckley, C. (2015). Metal Hydride Thermal
Heat Storage Prototype for Concentrating Solar Thermal Power. Energy, 88, 469-477.
Renewable Energy and Climate Change Program, SAIC Canada. (2013). Compact Thermal
Energy Technology Assessment Report. Ottawa.
Sakellariou, K. G., Karagiannakis, G., Criado, Y. A., & Konstandopoulos, A. G. (2015). Calcium
Oxide Based Materials for Thermochemical Heat Storage in Concentrated Solar Power
Plants. Solar Energy, 122, 215-230.
Scalat, S. G. (1996). Full Scale Thermal Performance of Latent Heat Storage in PCM
Wallboard. Thesis (M.A.Sc), Montreal: Concordia University.
Schmidt, M., Robkopf, C., Afflerbach, S., Gortz, B., Kowald, T., Linder, M., & Trettin, R.
(2015). Investigations of Nano-Coated Calcium Hydroxide Cycled in a Thermochemical
Heat Storage. Energy Conservation and Management, 97, 94-102.
Schroeder, D. (2000). An Introduction to Thermal Physics (p. 28). San Francisco: Addison
Wesley Longman.
Strohle, S., Haselbacher, A., Jovanovic, Z., & Steinfeld, A. (2017). Upgrading Sensible-Heat
Storage with a Thermochemical Storage Section Operated at Variable Pressure: An
Effective Way Toward Active Control of the Heat-Transfer Fluid Outflow Temperature.
Applied Energy, 196, 51-61.
Tao, Y., Lin, C., & He, Y. (2015). Preparation and Thermal Properties Characterization of
Carbonate Salt/Carbon Nanomaterial Composite Phase Change Material. Energy
Conversion and Management, 97, 103-110.
130
Tescari, S., Agrafiotis, C., Breuer, S., de Oliviera, L., Puttkamer, M., Roeb, M., & Sattler, C.
(2014). Thermochemical Solar Energy Storage Via Redox Oxides: Materials and
Reactor/Heat Exchanger Concepts. Proceedings of the SolarPACES 2013 International
Conference, 49, 1034-1043.
Tiskatine, R., Oaddi, R., Ait El Cadi, R., Bazgaou, A., Bouirden, L., Aharoune, A., & Ihlal, A.
(2017). Suitability and Characteristics of Rocks for Sensible Heat Storage in CSP Plants.
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 169, 245-257.
UCAR Carbon Company Inc. (1991). Typical Room-Temperature Properties of Graphite. In The
Industrial Graphite Engineering Handbook (p. 4.06).
Vincenti, W., & Kruger, C. (1967). Introduction to Physical Gas Dynamics. Malabar, Krieger
Publishing Company.
Wikimedia Commons. (2017). Retrieved January 30, 2017, from
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Solar_Spectrum.png
Williams, D. R. (2016). Sun Fact Sheet. Retrieved from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center:
https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/sunfact.html
World Energy Outlook. (2016). International Energy Agency. Retrieved 02 11, 2017, from
http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/resources/energydevelopment/energyaccessdatabase/
Yan, J., Zhao, C., & Pan, Z. (2017). The Effect of CO2 on Ca(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2
Thermochemical Heat Storage Systems. Energy, 124, 114-123.
131
Yan, T., Wang, R. Z., Li, T. X., Wang, L., & Ishugah, F. (2015). A Review of Promising
Candidate Reactions for Chemical Heat Storage. Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Reviews, 43, 13-31.
Zauner, C., Hengstberger, F., Morzinger, B., Hofmann, R., & Walter, H. (2017). Experimental
Characterization and Simulation of a Hybrid Sensible-Latent Heat Storage. In Applied
Energy, 189, 506-519.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top