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Modeling and Control of Diesel-Hydrokinetic Microgrids


Modeling and Control of Diesel-Hydrokinetic Microgrids

Ashourianjozdani, Mohammadhossein ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1082-8744 (2018) Modeling and Control of Diesel-Hydrokinetic Microgrids. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

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A large number of decentralized communities in Canada and particularly in Québec rely on diesel power generation. The cost of electricity and environmental concerns suggest that hydrokinetic energy is a potential for power generation. Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems (HKECSs) are clean, reliable alternatives, and more beneficial than other renewable energy sources and conventional hydropower generation. However, due to the stochastic nature of river speed and variable load patterns of decentralized communities, the use of a hybrid diesel- hydrokinetic (D-HK) microgrid system has advantages. A large or medium penetration level has a negative effect on the short-term (transient) and long-term (steady-state) performance of such a hybrid system if the HKECS is controlled based on conventional control schemes. The conventional control scheme of the HKECS is the maximum power point tracking (MPPT). In the long-term conditions, the diesel generator set (genset) can operate at a reduced load where the role of the HKECS is to reduce the electrical load on the diesel genset (light loading). In the short-term, the frequency of the microgrid can vary due to the variable nature of water speed and load patterns. This can lead to power quality problems like a high rate of change of frequency or power, frequency fluctuations, etc. Moreover, these problems are magnified in storage-less DHK microgrids where a conventional energy storage system is not available to mitigate power as well as frequency deviations by controlling active power. Therefore, developing sophisticated control strategies for the HKECS to mitigate problems as mentioned above are necessary. Another challenging issue is a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) platform for testing and developing a D-HK microgrid.
A dispatchable power controller for a fixed-pitch cross-flow turbine-based HKECS operating in the low rotational speed (stall) region is presented in this thesis. It delivers a given power requested by an operator provided that the water speed is high enough. If not, it delivers as much as possible, operating with an MPPT algorithm while meeting the basic operating limits (i.e., generator voltage and rotor speed, rated power, and maximum water speed), shutting down automatically if necessary. A supervisory control scheme provides a smooth transition between modes of operation as the water speed and reference power from the operator vary. The performance of the proposed dispatchable power controller and supervisory control algorithm is verified experimentally with an electromechanical-based hydrokinetic turbine (HKT) emulator.
The permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is preferred in small HKECSs. So, a converter-based PMSG emulator as a testbed for designing, analyzing, and testing of the generator’s power electronic interface and its control system is developed. A 6-switch voltage source converter (VSC) is used as a power amplifier to mimic the behaviour of the PMSG supplying linear and non-linear loads. Technical challenges of the PMSG emulator are considered, and proper solutions are suggested.
Finally, an active power sharing control strategy for a storage-less D-HK microgrid with medium and high penetration of hydrokinetic power to mitigate: 1) the effect of the grid frequency fluctuation due to instantaneous variation in the water speed/load, and 2) light loading operation of the diesel engine is proposed. A supplementary control loop that includes virtual inertia and frequency droop control is added to the conventional control system of HKECS in order to provide load power sharing and frequency support control. The proposed strategy is experimentally verified with diesel engine and HKT emulators controlled via a dSPACE® rapid control prototyping system. The transient and steady-state performance of the system including grid frequency and power balancing control are presented.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Electrical and Computer Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:Ashourianjozdani, Mohammadhossein
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Program:Electrical and Computer Engineering
Date:27 April 2018
Thesis Supervisor(s):Pillay, Pragasen and Lopes, Luiz A. C.
ID Code:984099
Deposited On:31 Oct 2018 17:20
Last Modified:01 May 2020 00:00
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