Login | Register

In Search of Homoeostasis: Arts-Based Inquiry on Focusing-Oriented Art Therapy.


In Search of Homoeostasis: Arts-Based Inquiry on Focusing-Oriented Art Therapy.

Martin, Chloe (2018) In Search of Homoeostasis: Arts-Based Inquiry on Focusing-Oriented Art Therapy. [Graduate Projects (Non-thesis)] (Unpublished)

Text (application/pdf)
Martin_MA_F2018.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


This arts-based heuristic inquiry explores the somatic and emotional experiences of integrating the focusing-oriented method into the creative process. Through Moustakas’ (1990) six-step inquiry and Rappaport’s (2009) focusing-oriented art therapy method, the researcher (who is a student art therapist) examines her own somatic and emotional interaction with the focusing technique coined by Gendlin (1996a). Over a six-week period, the arts-based exploration was divided into two phases. The first part involved regular focusing sessions followed by art-making. The resulting images were divided into themes related to emotions and somatic responses, as well as the body-mind relationship. The first part of the research was an inspiration for the second part, which was a weekly creation of a large-scale canvas. The art process was assessed weekly through the video-recording of the sessions with the Art Therapy Self-Inquiry Scale (ATSI) and the Expressive Therapies Continuum Observation Tool (Hinz, Riccardi, Gotshall & Nan, 2017). The purpose of the research is to explore how focusing can serve as a visual representation of the author’s somatic and emotional experiences. The findings indicated that access to the visual representation of the body while creating in a focused setting could help foster a better understanding of inner experiences. Furthermore, four different concepts emerged from the research: active, inactive, liminal, and uncertain. This is further reinforced through the Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC) framework as it provides parallels into the felt sense through the author’s inner representation of the art process explored, thus pointing to the value of applying the ETC Assessment under a focusing paradigm to explore the mind and body relationship.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Fine Arts > Creative Arts Therapies
Item Type:Graduate Projects (Non-thesis)
Authors:Martin, Chloe
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A.
Program:Creative Arts Therapies (Art Therapy Option)
Date:1 September 2018
Keywords:Focusing Oriented Art Therapy, BodyMind, Somatic And Emotion, Expressive Therapies Continuum, ETC, Art Therapy, Arts-Based, Heuristics, Felt Sense, Material Properties, FOAT, Symbolic Imagery, Symbols, Focusing Attitude,
ID Code:984340
Deposited By: CHLOE MARTIN
Deposited On:24 Sep 2018 15:51
Last Modified:24 Sep 2018 15:51


American Art Therapy Association. (2013). Ethical Principles for Art Therapists. Retrieved from http://www.americanarttherapyassociation.org/upload/ ethicalprinciples.pdf

Bakal, D., Steiert, M., Coll, P., & Schaefer, J. (2006). An experiential mind-body approach to the management of medically unexplained symptoms. Medical Hypotheses, 67(6), 1443–1447. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2006.05.028

Brooker, M. R. (2015). Focusing and art as ways to explore the implicit and non-verbal aspects of women’s abortion experiences. Outskirts Online Journal, (32), 1–14. Retrieved from http://www.focusing.org/docs/Focusing-and-art-womens-abortion-experiences-Outskirts-2015.pdf

Bodena, M. T., & Berenbaum, H. (2011). What you are feeling and why: Two distinct types of emotional clarity. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(5), 652–656. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.06.009

Charoensukmongkol, P. (2014). Benefits of mindfulness meditation on emotional intelligence, general self-efficacy, and perceived stress: Evidence from Thailand. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 16(3), 171–192. doi: 10.1080/19349637.2014.925364

Cooney, A. (2012). An Investigation of the Role of the Felt sense in Art Therapy. Retrieved from http://www.focusing.org/docs/arts_therapy/Cooney-An-Investigation-of-the-Role-of-the-Felt%20Sense-in-Art-Therapy.pdf

Czamanski-Cohen, J., & Weihs, K. L. (2016). The Bodymind Model: A platform for studying the mechanisms of change induced by art therapy. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 51, 63–71. doi:10.1016/j.aip.2016.08.006

Douglass, B. G., & Moustakas, C. (1985). Heuristic Inquiry. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 25(3), 39. doi:10.1177/0022167885253004

Fleisch, G. (2009). Right in Their Hands: How gestures imply the body’s next steps in focusing-oriented therapy. Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies, 8(3), 173–188. Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/5062197/Right_in_Their_Hands_How_gestures_imply_the_bodys_next_steps_in_Focusing-oriented_therapy

Franklin, M. A. (2012). Know thyself: Awakening the self-referential awareness through art-based research. Journal of Applied Arts & Health, 3(1), 87–96. doi: 10.1386/jaah.3.1.87_1

Gendlin, E. T. (1969). Focusing. Psychotherapy, 6(1), 4–15. doi: 10.1037/h0088716 Gendlin, E. T. (1981). Focusing. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

Gendlin, E. T. (1991). On emotion in therapy. In J. D. Safran & L. S. Greenberg (Eds.), Emotion, Psychotherapy, and Change (pp. 255–279). New York & London: Guilford.

Gendlin, E. T. (1996a). An Introduction to Focusing: Six Steps. New York, NY: The Focusing Institute. Retrieved from http://www.focusing.org/gendlin/docs/gol_2234.html

Gendlin, E. T. (1996b). Focusing-Oriented Psychotherapy: A Manual of the Experiential Method. New York & London: Guilford.

Hendricks, M. N. (2007). Focusing-Oriented Experiential Psychotherapy: How To Do It. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 61(3), 271–284. Retrieved from https://psychotherapy.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.2007.61.3.271

Hikasa, M. (2012). The Benefits of Focusing: A Qualitative Analysis of Thirty Interviews With Focusers. Focusing, Research, and Contemporary Science: New Movements Forward, 23(1), 168. Retrieved from http://www.focusing.org/folio/Vol23No12012/13_Hikasa_FocusingResearch_rev.pdf

Hinz, L. D. (2009). Expressive Therapies Continuum: A Framework for Using Art in Therapy. New York, NY: Routledge.

Hinz, L. D. (2015). Expressive Therapies Continuum: Use and Value Demonstrated With Case Study. Canadian Art Therapy Association Journal, 28(102), 43–50. doi: 10.1080/08322473.2015.1100581

Hinz, L., Riccardi, M., Nan, J. K., & Périer C. (2015, September). ETC as an inclusive cultural landscape for expressive therapies. Workshop presented at the 13th European Arts Therapies Conference, Sicily, Italy.

Hinz, L., Riccardi, M., Gotshall, K., & Nan, J. (2017, November). Experimenting with the expressive therapies continuum: Reflection upon an arts-based assessment through heart and mind. Workshop presented at the 48th annual conference of the American Art Therapy Association, Albuquerque, NM.

Ichiki, Y., & Hinz, L. D. (July, 2015). Exploring media properties and the expressive therapies continuum: Survey of art therapists. Paper presented at the 46th American Art Therapy Association Conference, Minneapolis, MN.

Kagin, S. L., & Lusebrink, V. B. (1978). The expressive therapies continuum. Art Psychotherapy, 5, 171–180. doi: 10.1016/0090-9092(78)90031-5

Kapitan, L. (2018). Introduction to Art Therapy Research. New York, NY: Routledge

Klagsbrun, J., Rappaport, L., Marcow-Speiser, V., Post, P., Stepakoff, S., & Karman, S. (2005). Focusing and Expressive Arts Therapy as a Complementary Treatment for Women with Breast Cancer. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 1(1), 107–137. doi: 10.1300/J456v01n01_08

Kossak, M. (2012). Art-based enquiry: It is what we do! Journal of Applied Arts & Health, 2(1), 21–29. doi: 10.1386/jaah.3.1.21_1

Lin, Y., & Payne, H. (2014). The BodyMind Approach™, medically unexplained symptoms and personal construct psychology. Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy, 9(3), 154–166. doi:10.1080/17432979.2014.918563

Lusebrink, V. B. (1990). Imagery and Visual Expression in Therapy. New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Lusebrink, V. B. (1991). Levels of Imagery and Visual Expression. In R. G. Kunzendorf (Ed.), Mental imagery (pp. 35–44). New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Lusebrink, V. B. (2004). Art therapy and the brain: An attempt to understand the underlying processes of art expression in therapy. Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 21(3), 125–135. doi: 10.1080/07421656.2004.10129496

Lusebrink, V. B. (2010). Assessment and therapeutic application of the expressive therapies continuum: Implications for brain structures and functions. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 27(4), 168–177. doi: 10.1080/07421656.2010.10129380

Lusebrink, V., Mārtinsone, K., & Dzilna-Šilova, I. (2013). The Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC): Interdisciplinary bases of the ETC. International Journal of Art Therapy: Inscape, 18(2), 75–85. doi: 10.1080/17454832.2012.713370

Millon, G., & Halewood, A. (2015). Mindfulness meditation and countertransference in the therapeutic relationship: A small-scale exploration of therapists’ experiences using grounded theory methods. Counselling & Psychotherapy Research, 15(3), 188–196.

Moon, C. H. (2010). Materials and Media in Art therapy: Critical Understandings of Diverse Artistic Vocabularies. New York, NY: Routledge.

Moustakas, C. E. (1990). Heuristic Research: Design, Methodology, and Applications. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

O’Donoghue, D. (2009). Are we asking the wrong questions in arts-based research? Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research, 50(4), 352–368. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40650347

Pénzes, I., van Hooren, S., Dokter, D., Smeijsters, H., & Hutschemaekers, G. (2014). Material interaction in art therapy assessment. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 41(5) 484–492. doi: 10.1016/j.aip.2014.08.003

Rappaport, L. (1988). Focusing and Art Therapy. The Focusing Connection, 5(3), 1–2. Retrieved from http://www.focusing.org/chfc/articles/en/rappaport-arttherapy.htm

Rappaport, L. (2009). Focusing-Oriented Art Therapy: Accessing the Body’s Wisdom and Creative Intelligence. Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Rappaport, L., & Kalmanowitz, D. (2013). Mindfulness, Psychotherapy, and the Arts Therapies. In L. Rappaport (Ed.), Mindfulness and the Arts Therapies: Theory and Practice (pp. 24–37). Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Rappaport, L. (2014). Focusing-oriented expressive arts therapy: Cultivating mindfulness and compassion, and accessing inner wisdom. In L. Rappaport (Ed.), Mindfulness and the Arts Therapies: Theory and Practice. London, Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory. London, UK: Constable & Robinson Publishers.

Sela-Smith, S. (2002). Heuristics research: A review and critique of Moustakas’ method. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 42(3), 53–88. doi:10.1177/0022167802423004

Sherwood, P. (2008). Expressive artistic therapies as mind-body medicine. Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy, 3(2), 81–95. doi:10.1080/17432970802080040

Wagner, K. (2006). Inside out: Focusing as a therapeutic modality. Journal of Humanistic Counselling, Education and Development, 45(1), 45–59. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-1939.2006.tb00004.x

Welwood, J. (1980). Reflections on Psychotherapy, Focusing, and Meditation. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 12(2). Retrieved from http://www.atpweb.org/jtparchive/ trps-12-80-02-127.pdf

Whitaker, P. (2004). Art Moves: Exploring the Implications of the Body and Movement Within Art Therapy. Canadian Art Therapy Association Journal, 17(1), 3–97. doi: 10.1080/08322473.2004.11432255
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top