Hadadian, Armin (2019) Finite Element Analysis and Design Optimization of Deep Cold Rolling of Titanium Alloy at Room and Elevated Temperatures. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

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Abstract
High strengthtodensity ratio, high corrosion resistance and superior biocompatibility are the main advantages of Ti6Al4V (Ti64), making it a long been favored titanium alloy for aerospace and biomedical applications. Designing titanium components to last longer and refurbishing of aged ones using surface treatments have become a desirable endeavor considering high environmental damage, difficulty in casting, scarcity and high cost associated with this metal.
Among mechanical surface treatments, Deep Cold Rolling (DCR) has been shown to be a very promising process to improve fatigue life by introducing a deep compressive residual stress and workhardening in the surface layer of components. This process has shown to be superior compared with other surface treatment methods as it yields a better surface quality and induces a deeper residual stress profile which can effectively be controlled through the process parameters (i.e. ball diameter, rolling pressure and feed). However, residual stresses induced through this process at room temperature are generally relaxed upon exposure of the components to elevated operating temperatures.
In this work, highfidelity Finite Element (FE) models have been developed to simulate the DCR process in order to predict the induced residual stresses at room temperature and their subsequent relaxation following exposure to temperature increase. Accuracy of the developed models has been validated using experimental measurements available in the literature. A design optimization strategy has also been proposed to identify the optimal process parameters to maximize the induced beneficial compressive residual stress on and under the surface layer and thus prolong the fatigue life. Conducting optimization directly on the developed highfidelity FE model is not practical due to high computational cost associated with nonlinear dynamic models. Moreover, responses from the FE models are typically noisy and thus cannot be utilized in gradient based optimization algorithms. In this research study, wellestablished machine learning principles are employed to develop and validate surrogate analytical models based on the response variables obtained from FE simulations. The developed analytical functions are smooth and can efficiently approximate the residual stress profiles with respect to the process parameters. Moreover the developed surrogate models can be effectively and efficiently utilized as explicit functions for the optimization process.
Using the developed surrogate models, conventional (onesided) DCR process is optimized for a thin Ti64 plate considering the material fatigue properties, operating temperature and external load. It is shown that the DCR process can lead to a tensile balancing residual stress on the untreated side of the component which can have a detrimental effect on the fatigue life. Additionally, application of conventional DCR on thin geometries such as compressor blades can cause manufacturing defects due to unilateral application of the rolling force and can also lead to thermal distortion of the part due to asymmetric profile of the induced residual stresses.
Doublesided deep rolling has been shown as a viable alternative to address those issues since both sides of the component are treated simultaneously. The process induces a symmetric residual stress which can be further optimized to achieve a compressive residual stress on both sides of the component. For this case, a design optimization problem is formulated to improve fatigue life in high stress locations on a generic compressor blade.
All the optimization problems are formulated for multiobjective functions to achieve most optimal residual stress profiles both at room temperature as well as elevated temperature of 450℃. A hybrid optimization algorithm based on combination of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) technique with stochastic based genetic algorithm (GA) has been developed to accurately catch the global optimum solutions. It has been shown that the optimal solution depends on the stress distribution in the component due to the external load as well as the operating temperature.
Divisions:  Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Mechanical, Industrial and Aerospace Engineering 

Item Type:  Thesis (PhD) 
Authors:  Hadadian, Armin 
Institution:  Concordia University 
Degree Name:  Ph. D. 
Program:  Mechanical Engineering 
Date:  22 October 2019 
Thesis Supervisor(s):  Sedaghati, Ramin 
Keywords:  Deep Cold Rolling, Nonlinear Finite Element, Optimization, Residual Stress, Thermal Relaxation,Ti6Al4V 
ID Code:  986224 
Deposited By:  ARMIN HADADIAN 
Deposited On:  25 Jun 2020 18:50 
Last Modified:  25 Jun 2020 18:50 
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