Login | Register

Impact of future climate change on the building performance of a typical Canadian single-family house retrofitted to the PassiveHaus

Title:

Impact of future climate change on the building performance of a typical Canadian single-family house retrofitted to the PassiveHaus

Sehizadeh, Ali (2015) Impact of future climate change on the building performance of a typical Canadian single-family house retrofitted to the PassiveHaus. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[img]
Preview
Text (application/pdf)
Sehizadeh_MASc_F2015.pdf - Accepted Version
4MB

Abstract

As a response to the global warming, building sector aims to be more energy efficient. The adoption of some energy efficient measures may have potential negative impacts on the building performance under a changing future climate. This study investigates the impact of future climate changes on the building performance of a typical Canadian single-family house built in compliance with current Quebec Energy Code (QEC) and retrofitted to the Passivehaus standard (PH). The building performance is evaluated in terms of energy consumption, thermal comfort, and durability over the current year, 2020, 2050, and 2080. For the energy consumption and the thermal comfort five shading device scenarios are proposed. The thermal comfort is evaluated using an adaptive model for naturally ventilated houses. Durability is also evaluated in terms of the freeze thaw risk on brick and the biochemical risk on plywood. Durability analysis is carried out on two types of above-grade wall assemblies that meet the QEC standards and retrofitted options to the PH. The future weather files are generated using General Circulation Models (GCM) HadCM3 with the IPCC’s A2 emission scenario.
Simulation results showed that by upgrading the current typical houses in Canada to the PH standard, compared to the current climate, the overall thermal performance of the PH in terms of the energy consumption and the thermal comfort would decrease by 2080. This study concludes that upgrading the current wall assemblies to the PH standard would increase the freeze thaw risk of the brick veneer, however, compared to the current climate this risk would decrease under 2080 climate. While the biochemical risk of the plywood sheathing defined by the moisture content criteria would decrease, the risk defined by RHT criteria would increase over future climates. The mold growth risk on the plywood sheathing would likely decrease under the future climates.

Divisions:Concordia University
Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science
Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Sehizadeh, Ali
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Building Engineering
Date:12 August 2015
Thesis Supervisor(s):Ge, Hua
Keywords:Energy Efficiency, Hygrothermal, Climate change, PassivHaus
ID Code:980602
Deposited By: ALI SEHIZADEH
Deposited On:02 Nov 2015 16:02
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:51

References:

References
Aarle, M. V., Schellen, H. & Schijndel, J. V., 2015. Hygro Thermal Simulation to Predict the Risk of Frost Damage in Masonry; Effects of Climate Change. Torino, IBPC.
Aguiar, R., Oliveira, M. & Goncalves, H., 2002. Climate change impacts on the thermal performance of Portuguese buildings Results of the SIAM study. Build, Serv, Eng, Technol, 44(12), pp. 223-231.
Alfano, F. R., Lanniello, E. & Palella, B. I., 2013. PMV-PPD and acceptability in naturally ventilated schools. Building and Environment, Volume 67, pp. 129-137.
Al-Tamimi, N. A. & Fadzil, S. F. S., 2011. The potential of shading devices for temperature reduction in high rise residential buildings in the tropics. Procedia Engineering, Volume 21, pp. 273-282.
Asadi, E., Da Silva, M. G., Antunes, C. H. & Dia, L., 2012. Multi-objective optimization for building retrofit strategies: A model and an application. Energy and Buildings, Volume 44, pp. 81-87.
ASHRAE, 2010. Standard for the design of high – performance green buildings except low-rise residential buildings, Athlanta: American Society of Heating. Refrigerating and Air Airconditioning.
Athienitis, A. & Santamouris, M., 2002. Thermal Analysis and Design of Passive Solar Buildings., London: Jame & James (Science Publishers) Ltd.,.
Badea, A. et al., 2014. A life-cycle cost analysis of the passive house “POLITEHNICA” from Bucharest. Energy and Buildings, Volume 80, pp. 542-555.
Barlow, S. & Fiala, D., 2007. Occupant comfort in UK offices—How adaptive comfort theories might influence future low energy office refurbishment strategies. Energy and Building, Volume 39, pp. 837-846.
Berger, T. et al., 2014. Impacts of climate change upon cooling and heating energy demand of office buildings in Vienna, Austria. Energy and buildings, Volume 80, pp. 517-530.
Bill Dunster Architects, 2005. UK Housing and climate change. Heavyweight vs. lightweight construction, London: Arup Research and Developement.
Bjorsell, N. et al., 1999. IDA indoor climate and energy. Kyoto, IBPSA Building Simulation 99 conference.
BSI, 1992. BS8104, Code of practice for assessing exposure of walls to wind-driven rain, s.l.: British Standard.
Canada, N. r., 2011. Complementary Programs and Incentives for Homes. [Online]
Available at: http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/residential/personal/retrofit/272?attr=4
[Accessed 28 05 2013].
CANLII, 2013. Regulation respecting energy conservation in new buildings. [Online]
Available at: http://canlii.ca/t/11gw
Chan, A., 2012. Effect of adjacent shading on the thermal performance of residential buildings in a subtropical region. Applied Energy, Volume 92, pp. 516-522.
Chowa, D. C., Li, Z. & Darkwaa, J., 2013. The effectiveness of retrofitting existing public buildings in face of future climate change in the hot summer cold winter region of China. Energy and Buildings, p. 176–186.
CMHC, 2004. Renovating for Energy Savings: Case Studies. [Online]
Available at: http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/co/grho/reensa/index.cfm
[Accessed 15 March 2015].
CMHC, 2011. Research Report: Near Net Zero - Energy Retrofits for Houses , Vancouver: Canada Morgage and housing Corporation.
CMHC, 2012. Highly energy Efficienct Building Envelope Retrofits for Houses, Ottawa: Canada Mortgage Housing Corporation.
Coley , D., Kershaw, T. & Eames, M., 2012. A comparison of structural and behavioural adaptations to future proofing buildings against higher temperatures. Building and Environment, Volume 55, pp. 159-166.
Coley, D. & Kershaw, T., 2010. Changes in internal temperatures within the built envienvironment as a response to a changing climate. Building and Environment, 45(1), pp. 89-93.
De Dear, R. & Brager, G., 1998. Towards an adaptive model of thermal comfort and preference. ASHRAE transaction, pp. 145-167.
de Wilde, P., Rafiq, Y. & Beck, M., 2008. Uncertainties in predicting the impact of climate change on thermal performance of domestic buildings in the UK. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, 29(1), pp. 7-26.
Dear, R. d. & Brager, G. S., 2001. The adaptive model of thermal comfort and energy conservation in the built environment. International Journal of Biometeorol, Volume 45, pp. 100-108.
Department of Resources, E. a. T., 2010. Improving the energy efficiency of commercial and government buildings. [Online]
Available at: http://www.climatechange.gov.au/what-you-need-to-know/buildings/commercial.aspx
[Accessed 1 September 2013].
Djebbar, D., Mukhopadhyaya, P. & Kumaran, M. K., 2002. Retrofit strategies for a high-rise wall system and analysis of their hygrothermal effects, s.l.: National Research council Canada.
DOE, 2009. DOE to Fund up to $454 Million for Retrofit Ramp-Ups in Energy Efficiency. [Online]
Available at: http://energy.gov/articles/doe-fund-454-million-retrofit-ramp-ups-energy-efficiency
[Accessed 1 September 2013].
DOECC, 2010. Warmer homes, greener homes: a strategy for household energy management. [Online]
Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-of-energy-climate-change
[Accessed 2 September 2013].
Egricon, 2010-2011. MarkSim™ DSSAT weather file generator. [Online]
Available at: http://gismap.ciat.cgiar.org/MarkSimGCM/
[Accessed 06 08 2014].
EN 15026, 2007. Hygrothermal performance of building components and building elements. Assessment of moisture transfer by numerical simulation. EN 15026:2007, s.l.: BSI.
Environment Canada, 2008. Canadian weather energy and engineering data files (CWEEDSfiles), canadian weather for energy calculation (CWEC files) user manual, Canada: Environment Canada.
Environment canada, 2014. Canada's national climate archive. [Online]
Available at: http://climate.weather.gc.ca/index_e.html
[Accessed 03 10 2014].
Environment Canada, 2014. Current Weather in Montréal. [Online]
Available at: http://montreal.weatherstats.ca/
[Accessed 13 09 2014].
Environment Canada's National Climate Services, 2013. historical climate data. [Online]
Available at: http://climate.weather.gc.ca/index_e.html#access
Fedorik, F. & Illikainen, K., 2013. HAM and mould growth analysis of a wooden wall. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Volume 2, pp. 19-26.
Fenech, A. & Comer, N., 2013. Future Projections of Climate Change for the Atlantic Region of Canada Using Global Climate Models Used in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (2014), Charlottetown: University of Prince Edward Island.
Fraunhofer IBP, 2013. WUFI (Version 5.2) [Software]. [Online]
Available at: www.wufi.de
[Accessed 28 01 2014].
Freewan, A. A., 2014. Impact of external shading devices on thermal and daylighting performance of offices in hot climate regions. Solar Energy, Volume 102, pp. 14-30.
Gamtessa, S. & L.Ryan, D., 2007. Utilization of energy saving retrofit programs in Canada. Who? What? Why?, Edmonton: Canadian Building Energy End-use data and analysis centre.
Gaterell, M. & McEvoy, M., 2005. The impact of climate change uncertainties on the performance of energy efficiency measures applied to dwellings. Energy and Buildings, 37(9), pp. 982-995.
Ge, H. & Krpan, R., n.d. Wind-driven Rain Study in the Coastal Climate of British Columbia, Burnaby: British Colombia Institute of Technology.
George Brown College, 2013. ARGILE retrofit Guide, Toronto: George Brown College.
Grossi, C. M., Brimblecombe, P. & Harris, L., 2007. Predicting long term freeze-thaw risks on Europe built heritage and archeological sites in a changing climate. Science of The Total Environment, 377(2), pp. 273-281.
Gupta, R. & Gregg, M., 2012. Using UK climate change projections to adapt existing English homes for a warming climate. Building and Environment, pp. 8-17.
Gupta, R. & Gregg, M., 2012. Using UK climate change projections to adapt existing English homes for a warming climate. Building and Environment, Volume 55, pp. 20-42.
Halawa, E. & Van Hoof, J., 2012. The adaptie approach to thermal comfort: Critical overview. Energy and Buildings, pp. 101-110.
Halawa, E. & Van Hoof, J., 2012. The Adaptive Approach to Thermal Comfort: A Critical Overview. Energy and Buildings, pp. 101-110.
Haojie, W. & Chen, Q., 2014. Impact of climate change heating and cooling energy use in buildingsin the United States. Energy and Building, Volume 82, pp. 428-436.
Haupl, K., Jurk, K. & Petzold, H., 2003. Inside thermal insulation for historical facades, Lisse: Balkema Publishers.
Huang, Yu; Niu, Jian-lei; Chung, Tse-ming, 2013. Study on performance of energy-efficient retrofitting measures on commercial building external walls in cooling-dominant cities. Applied Energy, Volume 103, p. 97–108.
Huang, Y., Niu, J.-l. & Chung, T.-m., 2012. Energy and carbon emission payback analysis for energy-efficient retrofitting in buildings_overhang shading options. Energy and Buildings, p. 94–103.
Hughes, R. & Bargh, B., 1982. The weathering of brick: Causes, assessment and measurement., Champaign: Report of the joint Agreement between the US. Geological Survey and the Illinois State Geological Survey.
Hukka, A. & Viitanen, H., 1999. A mathematical model of mould growth on wooden material. Wood Sci Technol, 33(6), pp. 475-85.
Hulme, M. et al., 2002. Climate Change Scenarios for the United Kingdom: The UKCIP02 Scientific Report, Norwich: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia.
Humphreys , M. & Hancock, M., 2007. Do people like to feel ‘neutral’? Exploring the variation of the desired thermal sensation on the ASHRAE scale. Energy Build, Volume 39, pp. 867-878.
IBP, 2011. WUFI Pro Version 5.1, Holzkirchen: Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics.
IEA Annex 14 Final Report, 1991. Condensation and Energy, Sourcebook, K.U.Leuven: International Energy Agency, Energy Conservation in Buildings.
IEA, 2011. Annex 50, Prefabricated Systems for Low Energy Renovation of Residential Buildings. [Online]
Available at: http://www.ecbcs.org/annexes/annex50.htm
[Accessed 20 05 2015].
IEA, 2015. Annex 55-Reliability of Energy Efficient Building Retrofitting-Probability Assessment of Performance and Cost (RAP-RETRO), Gothenburg: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY.
Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction, 2011. Climate change information for adoption. [Online]
Available at: http://www.iclr.org/images/Bruce_climate_change_info_march_2011.pdf
[Accessed 09 09 2014].
IPCC, 2007. The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University.
IPHA, 2010. Passive House Guidelines. [Online]
Available at: http://www.passivehouse-international.org/index.php?page_id=80
[Accessed 19 12 2013].
ISO, 2009. Hygrothermal performance of buildings – Calculation and presentation of climatic data – Part 3: Calculation of a driving rain index for vertical surfaces from hourly wind and rain data. ISO 15927-3:2009 , s.l.: International Organization for Standardization.
Jacob, D. et al., 2008. Klimaauswirkungen undAnpassung in Deutschland—Phase 1: Erstellung regionaler Klimaszenarien fürDeutschland, UBA, Roßlau: Umweltbundesamt.
Jentch, M., Bahaj, A. & James, P., 2008. Climate change future proofing of buildings generation and assessment of building simulation weather files. Energy and Buildings, 40(12), pp. 2148-2168.
Johns, T. C. et al., 2003. Anthropogenic climate change for 1860 to 2100 simulated with the HadCM3model under updated emissions scenarios. Climate dynamics, Volume 20, pp. 583-612.
Jonas, T., Marty, C. & Magnusson, J., 2009. Estimating the snow water equivalent from snow depth measurements in the Swiss Alps. Journal of Hydrology, 378(2009), pp. 161-167.
Jylha, K. et al., 2015. Energy demand for the heating and cooling of residential houses in Finland in a changing climate. Energy and Buildings, Volume 99, pp. 104-116.
Jylha, K. et al., 2009. The changing climate in Finland: estimates for adaption studies. ACCUM project report 2009, Helsinki: Finnish Meteorological Institute.
Karimpour, M. et al., 2015. Impact of Future Climate change on the Design of energy Efficient Residential Building Envelopes. Energy and Buildings, Volume 87, pp. 142-154.
Kesik, T. & Saleff, I., 2009. Tower Renewal Guidelines; For the Comprehensive Retrofit of Multi-Unit Residential Buildings in Cold Climates, Toronto: University of Toronto.
Köliö, A., Pakkala, T. A., Lahdensivu, J. & Kiviste, M., 2014. Durability demands related to carbonation induced corrosion for Finnish concrete buildings in changing climate. Engineering Structures, Volume 62-63, pp. 42-52.
Konstantinoua, T. & Knaackb, U., 2013. An approach to integrate energy efficiency upgrade into refurbishment design process, applied in two case-study buildings in Northern European climate. Energy and Building, pp. 301-309.
Kwong, Q. J., Adam, N. M. & Sahari, B., 2014. Thermal comfort assessment and potential for energy efficiency enhancement in modern tropical buildings: A review. Energy and Building, pp. 547-557.
Laefer, D., Boggs, J. & Cooper N, 2004. Engineering properties of historic brick - variability considerations as a function of stationary versus nonstationary kiln type.. Journal of American Institue of conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 4(3), pp. 255-272.
Levy, P. E., Cannel, M. G. & Friend, A. D., 2004. Modelling the impact of future changesin climate, CO2concentration and land use on natural ecosystems andthe terrestrial carbon sink. Global Environmental Change, Volume 14, pp. 21-30.
Lis, K. M. et al., 2007. A frost decay exposure index for porous, mineral building materials. Building and Environment, Volume 42, pp. 3547-3555.
Lomas, K. & Giridharan, R., 2012. Thermal comfort standards, measured internal temperatures and thermal resilience to climate change of free runningbuildings : A case study of hospital wards. Building and Environment, Volume 55, pp. 57-72.
Lomas, K. & Giridharan, R., 2012. Thermal comfort standards, measured internal temperatures and thermal resilience to climate change of free-running buildings: a case-study of hospital wards. Building and Environment, Volume 55, pp. 57-72.
Maeyens, J., Janssens, A. & Breesch, H., 2001. Ontwerpregels voor zomercomfort in woningen, Belguim: Division of Architecture, Department of applied Science, University of Gent.
Mavrogianni, A. et al., 2012. Building characteristics as determinants of propensity to high indoor summer temperatures in London dwellings. Building and Environment, Volume 55, pp. 117-130.
Ma, Z., Cooper, P., Daly, D. & Ledo, L., 2012. Existing building retrofits: Methodology and state-of-the-art. Energy and Buildings, pp. 889-902.
McLeod, R. S., Hopfe, C. J. & Kwan, A., 2013. An investigation into future performance and overheating risks in Passivhaus dwellings PassiveHaus dwellings. Building and Environment, pp. 189-209.
Ministry of Energy, 2013. Conservation First: A Renewed Vision for Energy Conservation in Ontario. [Online]
Available at: http://www.energy.gov.on.ca/en/conservation-first/
[Accessed 20 05 2015].
Morelli, M. et al., 2012. Energy retrofitting of a typical old Danish multi-family building to a “nearly-zero” energy building based on experiences from a test apartment. Energy and Buildings, Volume 54, pp. 395-406.
Nakicenovic, N. & Swart, R., 2007. IPCC Special Report on Emmission Scenarios, Geneva: International Panel on Climate Change.
National Research Council, 2010. Canadian Centre for Housing Technology. [Online]
Available at: ccht-cctr.gc.ca: http://www.ccht-cctr.gc.ca/eng/index.html
[Accessed 02 01 2014].
Nijland, T. G., Adan, O. C., Van Hees, R. P. & Van Etten, B. D., 2009. Evaluation of the effects of expected climate change on the durability of building materials with suggesstions for adoption. HERON, Volume 54, pp. 1-37.
Nikoofard, S., Ugursal, I. & Beausoleil-Morrison, I., 2014. Technoeconomic assessment of the impact of window shading retrofits on the heating and cooling energy consumption and GHG emissions of the Canadian stock. Energy and Buildings, Volume 69, pp. 354-366.
Nik, V. M. & Kalagasidis, A. S., 2013. Impact study of the climate change on the energy performance of the building stock in Stockholm considering four climate uncertainties. Building and Environment, Volume 60, pp. 291-304.
Nik, V. M., Kalagasidis, A. S. & Kjellstrom, E., 2012. Assessment of hygrothermal performance and mould growth risk in ventilated attics in respect to possible climate changes in Sweden. Building and Environment, Volume 55, pp. 96-109.
Orme, M., Palmer, J. & Irving, S., 2003. Control of overheating in well-insulated housing housing. In: Building sustainibility. [Online]
Available at: http://www.cibse.org/pdfs/7borme.pdf
Orosa, J. A. & Oliveira, A. C., 2011. A new thermal comfort approach comparing adaptive and PMV models. Renewable Energy, Volume 36, pp. 951-956.
Oseland, N. A., 1994. comparison of the predicted and reported thermal sensation vote in homes during winter and summer. Energy Build, Volume 21, pp. 45-54.
Palmero-Marrero, A. & Oliveira, A. C., 2010. Effect of louver shading devices on building energy requirements. Applied Energy, Volume 87, pp. 2040-2049.
Passive House Institue, 2011. Quality Approved Passive House Certification-Criteria for Residential Passive Houses. [Online]
Available at: www.passiv.de
[Accessed 15 01 2015].
Passive House Institute, 2012. Passive House Requirements. [Online]
Available at: http://passiv.de/en/02_informations/02_passive-house-requirements/02_passive-house-requirements.htm
Passive House Institute, 2012. What is a Passive House?. [Online]
Available at: http://www.passiv.de/en/02_informations/01_whatisapassivehouse/01_whatisapassivehouse.htm
Peeters, L., Dear , R. D., Hensen, J. & D'haeseleer, W., 2009. Thermal Comfort in Residential Buildings: comfort Values and Scale for Building Energy simulation. Applied Energy, Volume 86, pp. 772-780.
Ren, Z., Chen, Z. & Wang, X., 2011. Climate change adaptation pathways for Australian residential buildings. Building and Environment, 46(11), pp. 2398-412.
Robert, A. & Kummert, M., 2012. Designing net-zero energy buildings for the future climate, not for the past. Building and environment, pp. 150-158.
Roy, L., Leconte, R., Brissette, F. & Marche, C., 2001. The Impact of Climate Change on Seasonal Floods of a Southern Quebec River Basin. Hydrological Processes, Volume 15, pp. 3167-3179.
Sahlin , P. et al., 2004. Whole building simulation with symbolic DAE equations and general purpose solvers. Building and Environment, Volume 39, pp. 949-958.
Sajjadian, S., Lewis, j. & Sharpless, S., 2013. Risk and Uncertainty in Sustainable Building Performance. Berlin, Springer, pp. 903-912.
Santamouris, M. & Hestnes, A., 2002. O ce—passive retro#tting of o ce buildings to improve their energy performance and indoor working conditions. Building and Environment, pp. 555 - 556.
SDC, 2007. Stock Take: Delivering Improvements in Existing Housing. Sustainable Development Commission. [Online]
Available at: http://www.sd-www.sd-commission.org.uk/publications/downloads/Stock_Take_UK_Housing.pdf
[Accessed 24 05 2013].
SEDLBAUER, K., 2002. Prediction of Mould Growth by Heygrothermal Calculation. Thermal Environment and Building Science, pp. 321-335.
SEI, 2009. Retrofitted Passive Homes- Huideline for upgrading exiswting dwelings to the PassiveHaus Standard, Clonakility: Sustainable Energy Ireland (SEI).
Sharpless, S., 2009. Use of climate change scenarios for building simulation: the CIBSE future weather years, London: CIBSE.
Simons, R., 2008. Altering existing buildings in the UK. Energy Policy, p. 4482–4486.
Solomon, S. et al., 2007. Contribution of Working Croup I to the fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Pannel on Climate Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Straaten, R. V., 2014. Improving access to the frost dilatometry methodology for assessing brick masonry freeze thaw degradation risk. Waterloo, Building Science Consulting Inc.
Straube , J., 2009. The Passive House (Passivhaus) Standard: A comparison to other cold climate low-energy houses. [Online]
Available at: http://www.buildingscience.com/documents/insights/bsi-025-the-passivhaus-passive-house-standard
Straube, J. & Schumacher, C., 2007. Interior Insulation Retrofits of Load-Bearing MAsonry Walls in Cold Climates, Toronto: Building Science Press.
Straube, J., Schumacher, C. & Mensigna, P., 2010. Assessing the FreezeThaw Clay Brick for Interior Insulation Retrofit Projects. Florida, s.n.
Sustainable Energy Research Group, 2009. Climate change Weather File Generator (CCWeatherGen) manual , Southampton: Department of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton.
Tobias, L. & Vavaroutsos, G., 2009. Retrofitting Office Buildings to be Green and Energy-Efficient: Optimizing Building Performance, Tenant Satisfaction, and Financial Return, Washington DC: Urban Land Institute ULI.
TRCCG, 2008. Your Home in a Changing Climate. Retrofitting Existing Homes for Climate Change Impacts. [Online]
Available at: http://www.london.gov.uk/trccg/docs/pub1.pdfS
[Accessed 09 07 2013].
U.S. Department of Energy, 2012. Energy Plus Energy Simulation Software. [Online]
Available at: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/cfm/weather_data3.cfm/region=4_north_and_central_america_wmo_region_4/country=3_canada/cname=CANADA
[Accessed 23 07 2014].
Uneo, K., Straube , J. & Straaten, R. V., 2013. Field monitoring and simulation of a historic mass masonry building retrofitted with interior insulation. Florida, In Proceeding of the Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings.
University of Waterloo, 2012. Waterloo News. [Online]
Available at: https://uwaterloo.ca/news/news/climate-change-warm-canada-increased-temperatures-2c-2020
[Accessed 14 September 2014].
Van Den, H. B. et al., 2006. KNMI climate change scenarios 2006 for the Netherlands, De bilt: KNMI.
van der Linden, A., Boerstra, A., Kurvers, S. & De Dear, R., 2006. Adaptive etemperature limits: a new guideline in The Netherlands. A new approach for the assessment of building performance with respect to thermal indoor climate. Energy Build, Volume 38, pp. 8-9.
Vereecken, E., Van Gelder, L., Janssen, H. & Roels, S., 2015. Interior insulation for wall retrofitting – A probabilistic analysis of energy savings and hygrothermal risks. Energy and Buildings, Volume 89, pp. 231-244.
Viitanen, H. & Ojanen, T., 2007. Improved Model to Predict Mold Growth in Building Materials, Paper based on the VTT Projects “Building Biology” and “Integrated Prevention of Moisture and Mould Problems", Finland: Building Biology.
Wang, F. et al., 2014. Developing a weather responsive internal shading system for atrium spaces of a commercial building in tropical climates. Building and Environment, Volume 71, pp. 259-274.
Wang, H. & Chen, Q., 2014. Impact of climate change heating and cooling energy use in buildingsin the United States. Energy and Buildings, Volume 82, pp. 428-436.
Wang, X., Chen, D. & Ren, Z., 2010. Assessment of climate change impact on residential building heating and cooling energy requirement in Australia. Building and Environment, 45(7), pp. 1663-1682.
Wan, L., Li, D., Pan, W. & Lam, J., 2012. Impact of climate change on building energy use in different climate zones and mitigation and adaptation implications. Applied Energy, Volume 97, pp. 274-282.
Warner, M., 2012. Climate change to warm Canada with increased temperatures of up to 2C by 2020 and 4C by 2050. [Online]
Available at: https://uwaterloo.ca/news/news/climate-change-warm-canada-increased-temperatures-2c-2020
Wilkinson, J., Rose, D., Sullivan, B. & Straube, J., 2009. Measuring the Impact of Interior Insulation on Solid Masonry Walls in a Cold Climate. Journal of Building Enclosure Design, Summer, Volume Summer 2009, pp. 11-17.
Wytrykowska, H., Uneo, K. & Straaten, V., 2012. Byggmeister test home: Cold Climate multifamily masonry building condition assessment and retrofit analysis., Golden: Building America Report, US Department of Energy.
Zmeureanu, R. & Renaud, G., 2008. Estimation of potential impact of climate change on the heating energy use of existing houses. Energy Policy, 36(1), pp. 303-310.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top