Login | Register

Data Annotation and Ontology Provisioning for Semantic Applications in Virtualized Wireless Sensor Networks


Data Annotation and Ontology Provisioning for Semantic Applications in Virtualized Wireless Sensor Networks

Jafrin, Rifat (2015) Data Annotation and Ontology Provisioning for Semantic Applications in Virtualized Wireless Sensor Networks. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

Text (application/pdf)
Jafrin_MASc_S2016.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


In recent years, virtualization in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has become very popular for many reasons including efficient resource management, proper sharing and using the same WSN physical infrastructure by multiple applications and services. Semantic applications are very much pertinent to provide situational awareness to the end-users. Incorporating semantic applications in the virtualized WSNs can play a crucial role in providing contextual information to understand the situation, increase usability and interoperability. However, provisioning of semantic applications in virtualized WSNs remains as a big challenge. The reason is the data collected by the virtual sensors needs to be annotated in-network, and the pre-requisite of the data annotation process is to have an ontology that needs to be provisioned, i.e., developed, deployed and managed. Unfortunately, annotating sensor data and ontology provisioning in virtualized WSNs is not straightforward because of limited resources of sensors, on-demand creation of virtual sensors, and unpredictable lifetime. As the existing researches do not consider data annotation in virtualized WSN infrastructure level, these solutions are domain specific and lack of providing support for multiple applications. Moreover, the major drawback of the current ontology provisioning mechanisms requires domain experts to develop, deploy, and manage the ontologies in WSNs. This thesis aims to propose a solution for provisioning of multiple semantic applications in the virtualized WSNs.
The main contribution of this thesis is twofold. First, we have proposed an architecture to annotate sensor data in the virtualized WSN infrastructure and defined an ontology in sensor domain to perform data annotation. Second, we have proposed an architecture for provisioning ontology in the virtualized WSNs that consists of an ontology provisioning center, an ontology-enabled virtualized WSN, and an ontology deployment protocol. The proposed architectures use overlay network as a foundation. We have built a proof-of-concept prototype for a semantic wildfire monitoring application in the cloud environment using the Google App Engine. In order to evaluate the viability of the proposed architecture, we have made performance measurement of the implemented prototype. We ran a simulation to justify our proposed ontology provisioning protocol.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Computer Science and Software Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Jafrin, Rifat
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M. Sc.
Program:Computer Science
Date:26 November 2015
Thesis Supervisor(s):Glitho, Roch H.
Keywords:Virtualized Wireless Sensor Network, Semantic Computing, Semantic Data annotation, Ontology
ID Code:980897
Deposited By: RIFAT JAFRIN
Deposited On:16 Jun 2016 14:41
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:52


[1] L. M. Vaquero, L. Rodero-Merino, J. Caceres, and M. Lindner, “A Break in the Clouds: Towards a Cloud Definition,” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communications review, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 50–55, Dec. 2008.
[2] P. Mell and T. Grance, "The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing", NIST Special Publication 800-145 (Draft), US National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 2011.
[3] S. Loveland, E. M. Dow, F. LeFevre, D. Beyer, and P. F. Chan, “Leveraging virtualization to optimize high-availability system configurations,” IBM Systems Journal, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 591–604, 2008.
[4] M. Pearce, S. Zeadally, and R. Hunt, “Virtualization: Issues, Security Threats, and Solutions,” ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 17:1–17:39, Mar. 2013.
[5] A. Sheth, C. Henson, and S. S. Sahoo, “Semantic Sensor Web,” IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 78–83, Jul. 2008; ISSN:1089-7801.
[6] Koivunen, Marja-Riitta, and Eric Miller. “W3C Semantic Web Activity,” in Proceedings of the Semantic Web Kick-off Seminar, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 27–44, Nov. 2001.
[7] A. Kiryakov, B. Popov, I. Terziev, D. Manov, and D. Ognyanoff, “Semantic annotation, indexing, and retrieval,” Web Semantics: Science, Services, and Agents on the World Wide Web, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 49–79, Dec. 2004.
[8] T. R. Gruber, “A translation approach to portable ontology specifications,” Knowledge Acquisition, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 199–220, 1993.
[9] S. Abdelwahab, B. Hamdaoui, M. Guizani, and A. Rayes, “Enabling Smart Cloud Services Through Remote Sensing: An Internet of Everything Enabler,” IEEE Internet Things Journal, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 276–288, Jun. 2014.
[10] A. Merentitis, F. Zeiger, M. Huber, N. Frangiadakis, K. Mathioudakis, K. Sasloglou, G. Mazarakis, V. Gazis, and Z. Boufidis, “Wsn trends: Sensor infrastructure virtualization as a driver towards the evolution of the internet of things,” presented at the UBICOMM 2013, The Seventh International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services and Technologies, Porto, Portugal, 2013, pp. 113-118.
[11] I. Khan, F. Belqasmi, R. Glitho, and N. Crespi, “A multi-layer architecture for wireless sensor network virtualization,” in Wireless and Mobile Networking Conference (WMNC), 6th Joint IFIP, 2013, pp. 1–4.
[12] M. Hamdaqa, and L. Tahvildari, “Cloud Computing Uncovered: A research landscape”. Advances in Computers, Elsevier, 2012, vol. 86, pp. 41-85, ISSN 0065-2458.
[13] R. Buyya, J. Broberg, and A. M. Goscinski, “Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms”, John Wiley & Sons publications, vol. 87, 2011.
[14] Q. Zhang, L. Cheng, and R. Boutaba, “Cloud computing: state-of-the-art and research challenges,” Journal of Internet Services and Applications., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 7–18, Apr. 2010.
[15] I. Sriram and A. Khajeh-Hosseini, “Research agenda in cloud technologies,” In Proceedings of the 1st ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing, SOCC 2010, Indianapolis, IN, USA, pp. 10–11, Jun. 2010.
[16] S. Kuyoro, F.Ibikunle, and O.Awodele, "Cloud Computing Security Issues and Challenges," International Journal of Computer Networks (IJCN), Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 247-255, Dec. 2011.
[17] VMWare,“Virtualization Overview”. White Paper: http://www.vmware.com/pdf/virtualization.pdf.
[18] M. M. Islam, M. M. Hassan, G.-W. Lee, and E.-N. Huh, “A Survey on Virtualization of Wireless Sensor Networks,” Sensors Journal, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 2175–2207, Feb. 2012.
[19] I. Khan, F. Belqasmi, R. Glitho, N. Crespi, M. Morrow, and P. Polakos, “Wireless Sensor Network Virtualization: A Survey,” I EEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol.PP, no. 99, pp. 1–1, 2015.
[20] J. Carapinha and J. Jiménez, “Network virtualization: a view from the bottom,” in Proceedings of the 1st ACM workshop on Virtualized infrastructure systems and architectures, New York, NY, USA, 2009, pp. 73–80.
[21] Y. Yu, L. J. Rittle, V. Bhandari, and J. B. LeBrun, “Supporting Concurrent Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, New York, NY, USA, 2006, pp. 139–152.
[22] A. P. Jayasumana, Q. Han, and T. H. Illangasekare, “Virtual Sensor Networks - A Resource Efficient Approach for Concurrent Applications,” in Fourth International Conference on Information Technology, 2007. ITNG ’07, 2007, pp. 111–115.
[23] T. Bokareva, W. Hu, S. Kanhere, B. Ristic, N. Gordon, T. Bessell, M. Rutten, and S. Jha, “Wireless Sensor Networks for Battlefield Surveillance,” in Proceedings of the Land Warfare Conference 2006 (LWC 2006), Brisbane, Australia, Oct. 2006.
[24] C. Perera, A. Zaslavsky, P. Christen, and D. Georgakopoulos, “Sensing as a service model for smart cities supported by Internet of Things,” Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 81–93, Jan. 2014.doi: 10.1002/ett.2704
[25] Example Semantic Web Applications, http://www.cambridgesemantics.com/semanticuniversity/example-semantic-web-applications.
[26] Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences (HCLS) Interest Group, http://www.w3.org/2011/09/HCLSIGCharter.
[27] Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Management Using Semantic Web Technology: Case Study, http://www.americanlaboratory.com/914-Application-Notes/35621-Pharmaceutical-Supply-Chain-Management-Using-Semantic-Web-Technology-Case-Study/
[28] T. Berners-Lee, J. Hendler, and O. Lassila, ‘The Semantic Web’, Scientific American., vol. 284, no. 5, pp. 28–37, May 2001.
[29] Introduction to the Semantic Web, http://www.cambridgesemantics.com/semantic-university/introduction-semantic-web.
[30] M. M. Taye, “Understanding Semantic Web and Ontologies: Theory and Applications,” Journal of Computing, vol. 2, no. 6, June 2010, ISSN 2151-9617.
[31] T. Segaran, C. Evans, J. Taylor, "Programming the Semantic Web". O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2009, ISBN 978-0-596-15381-6.
[32] J. Rao, P. Kungas, and M. Matskin, “Logic-based Web services composition: from service description to process model,” in Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Web Services, 2004, pp. 446–453.
[33] J. Kuriakose, "Understanding and Adopting Semantic Web Technology," Cutter IT Journal (Cutter Information Corporation.) white paper, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 10–18, September 2009.
[34] A. Kiryakov, B. Popov, I. Terziev, D. Manov, and D. Ognyanoff, “Semantic annotation, indexing, and retrieval,” Web Semantics: Science, Services, and Agents on the World Wide Web, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 49–79, Dec. 2004.
[35] O. Lassila and R. Swick, "Resource Description Framework (RDF) Model and Syntax Specification," W3C Recommendation, World Wide Web Consortium, Feb. 1999; www.w3.org/TR/REC-rdf-syntax
[36] National Interagency Fire Center, http://www.nifc.gov/fireInfo/fireInfo_main.html.
[37] A. Sheth and K. Thirunarayan, “Semantics empowered Web 3.0: managing enterprise, social, sensor, and cloud-based data and services for advanced applications,” Synthesis Lectures on Data Management, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 1–175, 2012.
[38] W. Wei and P. Barnaghi, “Semantic Annotation and Reasoning for Sensor Data,” in Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Smart Sensing and Context, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009, pp. 66–76.
[39] K. Thirunarayan and J. Pschorr, “Semantic information and sensor networks,” in Proceedings of the 2009 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 2009, pp. 1273–1274.
[40] A. Zafeiropoulos, N. Konstantinou, S. Arkoulis, D.-E. Spanos, and N. Mitrou, “A Semantic-Based Architecture for Sensor Data Fusion,” in The Second International Conference on Mobile Ubiquitous Computing, Systems, Services and Technologies, 2008. UBICOMM ’08, 2008, pp. 116–121.
[41] A. Moraru, C. Fortuna, and D. Mladenić, ‘Using semantic annotation for knowledge extraction from geographically distributed and heterogeneous sensor data’, 4th SensorKDD, ACM, 2010.
[42] D. B. Lenat, “CYC: A Large-scale Investment in Knowledge Infrastructure,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 33–38, Nov. 1995.
[43] U. Haque, "Pachube," http://www.pachube.com
[44] D. Pfisterer, K. Romer, D. Bimschas, O. Kleine, R. Mietz, C. Truong, H. Hasemann, A. Kröller, M. Pagel, M. Hauswirth, M. Karnstedt, M. Leggieri, A. Passant, and R. Richardson, “SPITFIRE: toward a semantic web of things,” IEEE Communication Magazine, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 40–48, Nov. 2011.
[45] F. Amato, V. Casola, A. Gaglione, and A. Mazzeo, “A semantic enriched data model for sensor network interoperability,” Simulation Modeling Practice and Theory, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1745–1757, Sep. 2011.
[46] A. Gyrard, “A Machine-to-machine Architecture to Merge Semantic Sensor Measurements,” in Proceedings of the 22Nd International Conference on World Wide Web, Republic and Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, 2013, pp. 371–376.
[47] X. Su, H. Zhang, J. Riekki, A. Keränen, J. K. Nurminen, and L. Du, “Connecting IoT Sensors to Knowledge-based Systems by Transforming SenML to RDF,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 32, pp. 215–222, 2014.
[48] V. Komulainen, A. Valo, and E. Hyvönen, “A collaborative ontology development and service framework ONKI,” Paper, Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory for Media Technology,2005.
[49] N. F. Noy and M. A. Musen, “Ontology versioning in an ontology management framework,” IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 6–13, Jul. 2004.
[50] A. Alishevskikh and G. Subbiah, "Simple Ontology Framework API", http://sofa.projects.semwebcentral.org
[51] S. Zhou, H. Ling, M. Han, and H. Zhang, “Ontology Generator from Relational Database Based on Jena”, Computer and Information Science, vol. 3, no. 2, Apr. 2010
[52] J. D. Case, M. Fedor, M. L. Schoffstall, and J. Davin, “Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP),” RFC Editor, RFC1157, May 1990; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17487/RFC1157
[53] W. Chen, N. Jain, and S. Singh, “ANMP: ad hoc network management protocol,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1506–1531, Aug. 1999; ISSN: 0733-8716
[54] I. Khan, F. Belqasmi, R. Glitho, N. Crespi, M. Morrow, and P. Polakos, “Wireless Sensor Network Virtualization: Early Architecture and Research Perspectives,” IEEE Network Magazine, vol. 29, pp. 104–112, 2015.
[55] M. Liu, T. Leppanen, E. Harjula, Z. Ou, A. Ramalingam, M. Ylianttila, and T. Ojala, “Distributed resource directory architecture in Machine-to-Machine communications,” in 2013 IEEE 9th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), 2013, pp. 319–324.
[56] J. Mäenpää, J. J. Bolonio, and S. Loreto, “Using RELOAD and CoAP for wide area sensor and actuator networking,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2012, no. 1, pp. 1–22, Mar. 2012.
[57] E.K. Lua, J. Crowcroft, M. Pias, R. Sharma, and S. Lim, “A survey and comparison of peer-to-peer overlay network schemes,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol.7, no.2, pp.72,93, Second Quarter 2005.
[58] M. Compton, P. Barnaghi, L. Bermudez, R. GarcíA-Castro, O. Corcho, S. Cox, J. Graybeal, M. Hauswirth, C. Henson, and A. Herzog, “The SSN ontology of the W3C semantic sensor network incubator group,” Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web, vol. 17, pp. 25–32, 2012.
[59] M. Botts, G. Percivall, C. Reed, and J. Davidson, “OGC® sensor web enablement: Overview and high level architecture,” in GeoSensor Networks, Springer, 2008, pp. 175–190.
[60] C. Jennings, Z. Shelby, and J. Arkko, "Media types for sensor markup language (SenML)," IETF Network Working Group, Internet-Draft, Jan. 2012; https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-jennings-core-senml-00.
[61] I. Khan, S. Sahoo, R. Glitho, and N. Crespi, “A genetic algorithm-based solution for efficient in-network sensor data annotation in virtualized wireless sensor networks,” presented at the 13th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC), Las Vegas, USA, 2016.
[62] A. Zahariev, “Google App Engine,” in TKK T-110.5190 Seminar on Internetworking, pp. 1-5, Apr 27, 2009.
[63] Apache Jena, “A free and open source Java framework for building Semantic Web and Linked Data applications,” 2011; http://jena.apache.org/
[64] H. Li, “RESTful Web service frameworks in Java,” in Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC), 2011 IEEE International Conference on 14-16 Sept. 2011, pp. 1–4.
[65] L. Gong, “JXTA: A network programming environment,” IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 88–95, 2001.
[66] A. Dunkels, B. Gronvall, and T. Voigt, "Contiki - a lightweight and flexible operating system for tiny networked sensors," in 29th Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks, 2004, pp. 455-462, 16-18 Nov. 2004; doi: 10.1109/LCN.2004.38
[67] F. Crivellaro, “μ Jena: Gestione di ontologie sui dispositivi mobile,” Thesis, M.Sc., Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy, 2007.
[68] R. Hoare, J. Ahn, and J. Graves, "Discrete event simulator", Google Patents, 2002.
[69] Weisstein, W. Eric, "Normal Distribution." From MathWorld A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/NormalDistribution.html
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top