Login | Register

Is There a Time and Place for Transformational Leadership? The Daily Impact of Leader Behaviors on Follower Task Performance

Title:

Is There a Time and Place for Transformational Leadership? The Daily Impact of Leader Behaviors on Follower Task Performance

Rothwell, Tracy (2017) Is There a Time and Place for Transformational Leadership? The Daily Impact of Leader Behaviors on Follower Task Performance. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[img]
Preview
Text (application/pdf)
Rothwell_MSc_S2017.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.
1MB

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to weigh the value of Transformational Leadership (TFL) and Contingent-Reward Leadership (CRL) behaviors in determining followers' objective task performance. Past empirical evidence has suggested that TFL behaviors were relatively less important for influencing individual task performance in comparison to CRL behaviors. This study was designed to test the boundaries of this empirical conclusion. There were two main goals: 1) to investigate the daily effects of TFL and CRL behaviors on follower task performance given a "chaotic" work context, and 2) to address a temporal issue related to the measurement of TFL and its influence on individual task performance. Daily data were collected from a sample of 46 Canadian tree planters over a period of nine work days. The sample was composed of novice and experienced personnel. The data were hierarchically cross-classified, with days nested within individuals, and individuals nested between leaders. Hierarchical multiple regression and PROCESS moderation analysis results point to short-term effects of CRL and long-term effects of TFL for influencing task performance in both groups. Interestingly, the vision item from the inspirational motivation dimension of TFL demonstrated both a significant daily and lingering association to the task performance of novice and experienced tree planters. Implications of the results for leadership theory and practice are discussed, along with a review of the study strengths and limitations. To conclude, the author offers suggestions for the direction and focus of future leadership research given the changing nature of 21st century work environments.

Divisions:Concordia University > John Molson School of Business > Management
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Rothwell, Tracy
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Administration (Management option)
Date:3 March 2017
Thesis Supervisor(s):Boies, Kathleen
Keywords:Longitudinal Daily Diary Study Task Performance Transformational Leadership Behaviors
ID Code:982214
Deposited By: TRACY-LEE ROTHWELL
Deposited On:09 Jun 2017 15:40
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:54

References:

Antonakis, J., Bendahan, S., Jacquart, P., & Lalive R. (2010). On making causal claims: A review and recommendations. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(6), 1086-1120.

Antonakis, J., Fenley, M., & Liechti, S. (2012). Learning charisma. Harvard Business Review, 90(6), 127-130.
Avolio, B. (2007). Promoting more integrative strategies for leadership theory building.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social-cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Barling, J. (2014). The science of leadership. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Barling, J., Christie, A., & Hoption, A. (2010). Leadership. In S. Zedeck et al (Ed.) Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 183-240). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., Jung, D. I., & Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), 207-218.
Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational leadership (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
BBC. (2016). World's Toughest Jobs: Tree Planting-Canada. Retrieved From: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/3Pdg2Xq5Hz00lfJfKvsdBkq/tree-planting-canada.
Beehr, T. A., & Glazer, S. (2005). Organizational role stress. In Barling, J., Kelloway, E. K., & Beauchamp, & Frone, M. R. (Eds), Handbook of work stress, 7-33. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Bergkvist, L., & Rossiter, J. R. (2009). Tailor-made single-item measures of doubly concrete constructs. International Journal of Advertising, 28(4), 607–621.
Bluedorn, A. C., & Jaussi, K. S. (2008). Leaders, followers, and time. The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 654-668.
Boal, K. B., Hooijberg, R. (2000). Strategic leadership research: Moving on. The Leadership Quarterly, 11, 515-549.

Boies, K., Fiscet, J., & Gill, H. (2015). Communication and trust are key: Unlocking the relationship between leadership and team performance and creativity. The Leadership Quarterly, 26, 1080-1094.

Bolger, N., Davis, A., & Rafaely, E. (2003). Diary methods: Capturing life as it is lived. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 579–616.

Bono J.E., Foldes H.J., Vinson G., Muros J.P. (2007). Workplace emotions: The role of supervision and leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(5), 1357-1367.

Borman W.C., Motowidlo S.J. (1997). Task performance and contextual performance: The meaning for personnel selection research. Human Performance, 10(2), 99-109.

Breevaart, K., Bakker, A., Hetland, J., Demerouti, E., Olsen, O. K., et al. (2014). Daily transactional and transformational leadership and daily employee engagement. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(1), 138-157.
Breevaart, K., Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2014). Daily self-management and employee work engagement. Journal Of Vocational Behavior, 8431-38.
Breevaart, K., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., Sleebos, D. M., & Maduro, V. (2014). Uncovering the underlying relationship between transformational leaders and followers’ task performance. Journal Of Personnel Psychology, 13(4), 194-203.
Cavazotte F., Valter M. & Bernard J. (2013) Transformational leaders and work performance: The mediating roles of identification and self-efficacy. Brazilian Administration Review, 10(4), 490-512.
Cleavenger, D. J., & Munyon, T. P. (2013). It's how you frame it: Transformational leadership and the meaning of work. Business Horizons, 56(3), 351-360.

Conger J.A., Kanungo R.N. (1987). Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review, 12, 637-647.
Cook, R. D., & Weisberg, S. (1982). Residuals and influence in regression. New York: Chapman & Hall.
Corley, K., & Gioia, D. (2011). Building theory about theory building: What constitutes a theoretical contribution? Academy of Management Review, 36(1), 12-32.

Diebig, M., Bormann, K., C., & Rowold, J. (2016). A double-edged sword: Relationship between full-range leadership behaviors and followers' hair cortisol level, The Leadership Quarterly, 27(4), 684-696.
DeChurch, L. A., Burke, C. S., Shuffler, M. L., Lyons, R., Doty, D., & Salas, E. (2011). A historiometric analysis of leadership in mission critical multiteam environments. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 152-169.
Deloitte University Press. (2015). Global Human Capital Trends 2015: The New Organization, Different by Design. Retrieved From: http://dupress.com/periodical/trends/human-capital-trends-2015/

Dixon, M.A., & Cunningham, G.B. (2006). Multi-level analysis in sport management: Conceptual issues and review of aggregation techniques. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 10(2), 85–107.

Dvir, T., Eden, D., Avolio, B. J., & Shamir, B. (2002). Impact of transformational leadership on follower development and performance: A field experiment. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 735-744.

Earley, P. C., & Lituchy, T. R. (1991). Delineating Goal and Efficacy Effects: A Test of Three Models. Journal Of Applied Psychology, 76(1), 81-98.

Field, A. P. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS: and sex and drugs and rock 'n' roll (third edition). London: Sage publications.

Fielder, F.E. A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.
Fisher, C. D. & To, M. L. (2012). Using experience sampling methodology in organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33, 865-877.
Gibbons, D. E., & Weingart, L. R. (2001). Can I do it? Will I try? Personal efficacy, assigned goals, and performance norms as motivators of individual performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(3), 624-648.
Gill, C. (2011). Eating dirt: Deep forests, big timber, and life with the tree-planting tribe.
Vancouver: D & M Publishers Inc.

Gelman, A., & Hill, J. (2007). Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/ Hierarchical Models. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Geyery, A. L. J. & Steyrer, J. M. (1998). Transformational leadership and objective performance in banks. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 47(3), 397- 420.

Gurdjian, P., Halbeisen, T., & Lane, K. (2014). Why leadership development programs fail. McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved from: http://www.mckinsey.com/global- themes/ leadership /why-leadership-development-programs-fail.
Guay, R. P., & Choi, D. (2015). To whom does transformational leadership matter more? An examination of neurotic and introverted followers and their organizational citizenship behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 26, (5). 851-862.
Harrison, D. A., Newman, D. A., & Roth, P. L. (2006). How important are job attitudes? Meta-analytic comparisons of integrative behavioral outcomes and time sequences. Academy of Management Journal, 49(2), 305-325.
Hater, J. J., & Bass, B. M. (1988). Superiors’ evaluations and subordinates’ perceptions of transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(4), 695–702.
Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [White paper]. Retrieved from http://www.afhayes.com/ public/process2012.pdf.
Howell, J. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1993). Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, locus of control, and support for innovation: Key predictors of consolidated-business-unit performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(6), 891–902.
Howell, J.M., & Hall-Merenda, K.E. (1999). The ties that bind: The impact of leader-member exchange, transformational and transactional leadership, and distance on predicting follower performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 680-694.
Hunter, S. T., Bedell-Avers, K. E., & Mumford, M. D. (2007). The typical leadership study: Assumptions, implications, and potential remedies. Leadership Quarterly, 18, 435-446.
Judge, T. A., & Piccolo, R. F. (2004). Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Test of Their Relative Validity. Journal Of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 755-768.
Keller R. T. (2006) Transformational leadership, initiating structure, and substitutes for leadership: a longitudinal study of research and development project team performance. Journal of Applied Psychology,91, 202-210.
Kellerman, B. (2012). The end of leadership. 1st ed. New York : Harper Business.

Kellerman, B. (2013). Leading questions: The end of leadership–redux. Leadership, 9(1), 135-139.

Kirkpatrick, S., A. & Locke, E., A. (1996). Direct and indirect effects of three core charismatic leadership components on performance and attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(1), 36-51.

Klein, K. J., Conn, A. B., Smith, D. B., & Sorra, J. S. (2001). Is everyone in agreement? An exploration of within-group agreement in employee perceptions of the work environment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 3-16.

LeBreton, J. M., & Senter, J. L. (2008). Answers to 20 questions about interrater reliability and interrater agreement. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 815-852.
Lerner, B. S., & Locke, E. A. (1995). The effects of goal setting, self-efficacy, competition and personal traits on the performance of an endurance task. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17, 138-152.
Lewin, K. (1947). Frontiers in group dynamics: Concept, method and reality in social science; Social equilibria and social change. Human Relations, 1, 4-41.
Liao, H., & Chuang, A. (2007). Transforming service employees and climate: A multi-level multi-source examination of transformational leadership in building long-term service relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1006-1019.

Liden, R. C., Antonakis, J. (2009). Considering context in psychological leadership research. Human Relations, 62(11), 1587-1605.

Loew, L. & O’Leonard, K. (2012) Leadership Development Factbook 2012: Benchmarks and Trends in U.S. Leadership Development. Bersin: Deloitte. Retrieved from: http://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/leadership/why-leadership-development-programs-fail.

Long, J. S., & Ervin, L. H. (2000). Using heteroscedasticity consistent standard errors in the linear regression model. The American Statistician, 54, 217-224.
Locke, E. A. (1991). The motivation sequence, the motivation hub, and the motivation core. Organizational Behavior And Human Decision Processes, 50, 288-299.
Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: a 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57(9) 705-717.
Maas C. J., & Hox J. J. (2005). Sufficient sample sizes for multilevel modelling. Methodology, 1, 86-92.

Meindl, J.,R. Ehrlich, S.,B., Dukerich J.,M. (1985). The romance of leadership. Administrative Science Quarterly, 30, 78-102.

Neck, C. P., & Houghton, J. D. (2006). Two decades of self-leadership theory and research, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(4), 270 - 295.


Nübold, A., Muck, P., M., & Maier, G., W. (2014). A new substitute for leadership? Followers' state core self-evaluations, The Leadership Quarterly, 24(1), 29-44.

Osborn, R. N., Hunt, J. G., & Jauch, L. R. (2002). Toward a contextual theory of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 797−837.

Peterson, S. J., Walumbwa, F. O., Byron, K., & Myrowitz, J. 2009. CEO positive psychological traits, transformational leadership, and firm performance in high-technology start-up and established firms. Journal of Management, 35: 348-368.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Bommer, W. H. (1996). Transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership as determinants of employee satisfaction, commitment, trust, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Management, 22, 259–298.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879-903.
Porter, L.W. & McLaughlin, G.B. (2006). Leadership and the organizational context: Like the weather? Leadership Quarterly,17, 559–76.
Rossiter, J. R. (2002). The C-OAR-SE procedure for scale development in marketing. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 19, 305–335.
Seo, M., & Ilies, R. (2009). The role of self-efficacy, goal, and affect in dynamic motivational self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 109, 120-133.
Shamir, B., & Howell, J. M. (1999). Organizational and contextual influences on the emergence and effectiveness of charismatic leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 10, 257–283.
Shamir, B., House, R., & Arthur, M.B. (1993). The motivation effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organization Science, 4, 584.
Shamir, B. (2011). Leadership takes time: Some implications of (not) taking time seriously in leadership research. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(2), 307-315.
Schriesheim, C. A., Castro, S. L., Zhou, X., & DeChurch, L. A. (2006). An investigation of path-goal and transformational leadership theory predictions at the individual level of analysis. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(1), 21–38.
Shea, C, M., & Howell, J. S. (2000). Efficacy-performance spirals: An empirical test. Journal of Management, 26(4), 791-812.
Smith K. G, Locke E. A, Barry D. (1990). Goal setting, planning, and organizational performance: An experimental simulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 46(1),118-134.

Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2011). Do transformational leaders enhance their followers' daily work engagement? The Leadership Quarterly, 22121-131. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.12.011
Tosi, H. (1991). The organization as a context for leadership theory: a multilevel approach. Leadership Quarterly, 2, 205-22

Turner, J. R. (2015). Hierarchical linear modeling: Testing multilevel theories. Advances In Developing Human Resources, 17(1), 88-101.
Uhl-Bien, M., Marion, R., & McKelvey, B. (2007). Complexity leadership theory: Shifting leadership from the industrial age to the knowledge era. The leadership quarterly, 18(4), 298-318.
Van Dierendonck, D., Haynes, C., Borrill, C., & Stride, C. (2004). Leadership behavior and subordinate well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9, 165-175.
Van Knippenberg, D. & Sitkin, S. B. (2013). A critical assessment of charismatic-transformational leadership research: Back to the drawing board? The Academy of Management Annals, 7(1), 1-60. Doi: 10.1080/19416520.2013.759433.
Vecchio, R. P., Justin, J. E., & Pearce, C. L. (2008). The utility of transactional and transformational leadership for predicting performance and satisfaction within a path-goal theory framework. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81(1), 71–82.
Waldman, D. A., Bass, B. M., & Yammarino, F. J. (1990). Adding to contingent-reward behavior: The augmenting effect of charismatic leadership. Group & Organization Studies, 15(4), 381-394.
Wang, G., Oh, l.-S., Gourtright, S. H., & Golbert, A. E. (2011). Transformational leadership and performance across criteria and levels: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of research. Group and Organization Management, 36, 223-270.

Wanous, J. P., Reichers, A. E., & Hudy, M. J. (1997). Overall job satisfaction: how good are single-item measures? Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), 247-252.
Wolfram, H., & Mohr, G. (2009). Transformational leadership, team goal fulfillment, and follower work satisfaction: The moderating effects of deep-level similarity in leadership dyads. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(3), 260–274.
Yammarino, F. J., & Dubinsky, A. J. (1994). Transformational leadership theory: using levels of analysis to determine boundary conditions. Personnel Psychology, 47(4), 787-811.
Yukl, G. (1999). An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 285.
Zacher, H., & Wilden, R. G. (2014). A daily diary study on ambidextrous leadership and self-reported employee innovation. Journal Of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 87(4), 813-820.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top