Login | Register

The Artist Gaze: A Research-from-Creation Based Thesis on the Selfie and the Female Image


The Artist Gaze: A Research-from-Creation Based Thesis on the Selfie and the Female Image

Graves, Joan (2017) The Artist Gaze: A Research-from-Creation Based Thesis on the Selfie and the Female Image. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

Text (application/pdf)
THE ARTIST GAZE- Joan Graves Thesis-1.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


A qualitative research-from-creation based thesis studying what possible generalizations may be found of the female gaze when the artist collaborates with the model in order to produce one single image. Using participants Esme, Kayley, Jess, Catherine, Steph, Deborah, Noelle, Marie- Josée and Caroline, the research was to answer the following question: through the study of the painted selfie, what new information may be revealed in order to understand and define the female gaze. The research consists of each participant providing the study with a selfie and the researcher/artist then using the selfies as each portrait’s reference of study. General themes retrieved from the analyzed data regard: the rendering of the female image, comparing the concepts of a male gaze with a female gaze, the practice of selfies, and how the self compares to the media’s fabricated standards for society. Conclusions drawn from the study suggest the reform of the male gaze concept, a reflection placed upon how the self relates to society, and how art and education may facilitate critical thinking using the concept of the gaze. Rather than the gaze being defined by gender, the research suggests the gaze be defined by how the gaze functions: consumer gaze versus an observer gaze.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Fine Arts > Art Education
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Graves, Joan
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A.
Program:Art Education
Date:14 March 2017
Thesis Supervisor(s):Blair, Lorrie
Keywords:Gaze, artist gaze, male gaze, female gaze, consumer gaze, observer gaze, self, selfie, the female image, research-from-creation, critical thinking.
ID Code:982396
Deposited On:29 May 2017 19:25
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:55
Related URLs:


Allwood, E. H. (2017). Why we still need John Berger’s ways of seeing. Dazed. Retrieved from: http://www.dazeddigital.com/artsandculture/article/34166/1/why-we-still-need-ways-of-seeing-john-berger
Apraxine, P., & Demange, X. (2000). “La divine comtesse,” photographs of the countess de Castiglione. The Met Museum. Retrieved from: http://www.metmuseum.org/press/exhibitions/2000/la-divine-comtesse-photographs-of-the-countess-de-castiglione
Arbuckle, A. Q. (2016). C. 1865-1894 countess di Castiglione: The selfie queen of Paris society. Mashable. Retrieved from: http://mashable.com/2016/05/03/virginia-oldoini/#IWJaG4qQgkqY
Armstrong, J. (2013). Revisiting ‘the beauty myth’. The Huffington Post: Voices. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jennifer-armstrong/revisiting-the-beauty-myth_3063414.html
ArtSask (2010) Tall girl/ dog face. ArtSask Themes: The Gaze. Retrieved from: http://www.artsask.ca/en/collections/themes/thegaze/janet_werner/tall_girl
Balzer, D. (2012). Janet Werner on what makes a good painting, artist statements, professionalization pressures & more. Canadian Art: News + Opinions. Retrieved from:https://canadianart.ca/features/janet-werner-interview/
Barrett, T. (1990). Criticizing photographs: An introduction to understanding images. Toronto, ON: McGraw-Hill Higher Education: A Division of the McGraw-Hill Companies.
Benjamin Franklin. (n.d.). BrainyQuote.com. Retrieved from: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/b/benjaminfr141119.html.
Booker, M. (2014). Jen Davis’s self-portraits offer eleven years of self-scrutiny: A weight of beauty. New Republic. Retrieved from: https://newrepublic.com/article/118222/jen-davis-photos-eleven-years-self-portraits-exploring-body-image
Boxer, S. (2000). Photography review; a goddess of self-love who did not sit quietly. New York Times: Arts. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2000/10/13/arts/photography-review-a-goddess-of-self-love-who-did-not-sit-quietly.html
Canadian Art (n.d.) Artguides: Melanie Authier (Archive File). Retrieved from: http://canadianart.ca/artists/melanie-authier/
Chandler, D. (1998). Notes on ‘The Gaze’. Retrieved from: http://visual-memory.co.uk/daniel/Documents/gaze/gaze.html
Chapman, O., & Sawchuck, K. (2012). Research-creation: Intervention, analysis and “family resemblances”. Canadian Journal of Communication, 37, 5-26. Retrieved from: http://www.cjc-online.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/2489/2766
Chicago, J., & Schapiro, M. (2014). Representation, sexuality, visuality: Female Imagery. In A. Jones (Ed.), Sexuality: Documents of contemporary art (pp. 73-75). London, UK: Whitechapel Gallery.
Creswell, J. W. (2009). Preliminary considerations: The selection of a research design. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (pp. 3-22). London, UK: Sage Productions Inc.
Daniel, M. (2007). The countess da Castiglione. The Met Museum: Heilbrunn timeline of art history. Retrieved from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/coca/hd_coca.htm
Davies, B. (2012). Painter Jenny Morgan talks about the process behind her nude self-portraits. Westword. Retrieved from: http://www.westword.com/arts/painter-jenny-morgan-talks-about-the-process-behind-her-nude-self-portraits-5806284
Davis, B. (2009). Inventions of teaching: A genealogy. London, NY: Rutledge: Taylor & Francis Group.
Donnelly, M. S. (2016). This artist pulls back curtain on celeb privacy with paintings of Olsen twins pap shots. Popcrush. Retrieved from: http://popcrush.com/laura-collins-olsen-twins-paintings-review/
Duggan, B. (2013). How photography changed painting (and vice versa). Big Think. Retrieved from: http://bigthink.com/Picture-This/how-photography-changed-painting-and-vice-versa
Dunham, L. (2014). Sex scenes, nude scenes, and publicly sharing your body. Not that kind of girl: A young woman tells you what she’s “learned” (pp. 99-106). USA: Penguin Random House: Anchor Canada.
Ellis-Petersen, H. (2016). Flowers or vaginas? Georgia O’Keeffe Tate show to challenge sexual cliches. The Guardian: Art. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2016/mar/01/georgia-okeeffe-show-at-tate-modern-to-challenge-outdated-views-of-artist
Farr, K. (2014, September). Jenny Morgan. Juxtapose: Art+Culture, 164, 48-59.
Fine, C. (2011). We think, therefore you are. Delusions of gender: How our minds, society, and neurosexism create difference (pp. 3-13). New York, NW: W.W. Norton Company, Inc.
Franco, J. (2013). The meanings of the selfie. The New York Times: Art. Retrieved from: http://http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/29/arts/the-meanings-of-the-selfie.html?_r=0
Frank, P. (2015). How artists are using the selfie as a radical weapon for change. The Huffington Post: Arts & Culture. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/10-artists-who-use-selfies-as-their-radical-weapons_us_55e7393ae4b0c818f61a303b
Frieser, H. (2012). Self-portraits. Flakphoto: Galleries. Retrieved from: http://flakphoto.com/content/self-portraits-jen-davis-hannah-frieser
Grant, D. (2015). Are painters’ ‘reference photographs’ a form of cheating? The Huffington Post: Entertainment. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/daniel-grant/are-painters-reference-ph_b_6620502.html
Goodden, S. (2015). Janet Werner’s truer subject, the women unseen. Momus: Reviews. Retrieved from: http://momus.ca/janet-werners-truer-subject-the-women-unseen/
Hairston, T. (2016). What I learned about the dark side of fame at the Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen museum. Fusion. Retrieved from: http://fusion.net/story/295906/mary-kate-ashley-olsen-twins-museum/
Hall, S. (2016). Laura Collins finds artistic inspiration in celebrity culture. The Columbia Chronicle. Retrieved from: http://www.columbiachronicle.com/arts_and_culture/article_3227817a-037e-11e6-a568-e3aa0df5cc54.html
Henry, J. (2013). Review: Janet Werner refashions the female form. Blou in Art Info: Galleries. Retrieved from: http://ca.blouinartinfo.com/news/story/986125/review-janet-werner-refashions-the-female-form
Holthouser, K. (2016). The art history of the selfie. Heather Day Art. Retrieved from: http://www.heatherdayart.com/journal/2016/8/15/the-art-history-of-the-selfie
hooks, b. (2010). Critical thinking. Teaching critical thinking: Practical wisdom (pp. 7- 12). New York, NY: Rootledge.
Hoonaard, D. K. V. D. (2012). Qualitative Research in Action: A Canadian Primer. Oxford University Press.
Installation Magazine. (n.d.). Installation Magazine: Jen Davis (Archive file). Retrieved from: http://installationmag.com/jen-davis/
Jana, R. (2017). The scandalous, narcissistic 19th-century countess who became her own muse. Broadly: Photography. Retrieved from: https://broadly.vice.com/en_us/article/the-scandalous-narcissistic-19th-century-countess-castiglione?utm_source=broadlyfbcaads
Jansen, C. (2016). Girl on girl. Elephant: The art culture magazine, (25), 90-107.
Lawrence-Lightfoot, S., & Davis, J. H. (1997). Perspective taking: Discovery and development. The art and science of portraiture (pp. 19-38). San-Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Levinas, E. (1986). The trace of the other. (Lingis, A. Trans.). In Taylor, M. (Ed.), Deconstruction in context (pp. 345-359). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1963).
Levy, A. (2005). Female chauvinist pigs: Women and the rise of raunch culture. New York, NY: Free Press.
Lippard, L. R. (1976). Introduction: Changing since changing. From the center: Feminist essays on women’s art (pp. 1-12). New York, NY: E. P. Dutton New York.
Livingstone, J. (2017). Beyond John Berger’s ways of seeing. New Republic Magazine. Retrieved from: https://newrepublic.com/article/139615/beyond-john-bergers-ways-seeing
Loreck, J. (2016). Explainer: What does the ‘male gaze’ mean, and what about a female gaze? The conversation: Arts + culture. Retrieved from: http://theconversation.com/explainer- what-does-the-male-gaze-mean-and-what- about-a-female-gaze-52486
Maliszewski, L. (2010). Procedural musings: Jenny Morgan. BOMB: Artists in Conversation. Retrieved from: http://bombmagazine.org/article/4306/procedural-musings-jenny-morgan
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50 (4), 370-396.
McAllister, M. P., & DeCarvalho, L. J. (2014). Sexualized Branded Entertainment and the Male Consumer Gaze. Retrieved from: http://www.triple-c.at/index.php/tripleC/article/viewFile/506/544
McIntosh, S. (2017). Can selfies really be art? London’s Saatchi gallery thinks so. BBC News: Entertainment & Arts. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-38716722
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Self concept. Simply psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.simplypsychology.org/self-concept.html
Mellamphy, J. (1996). Youlogy: self/portraiture, Canada, and Taras Polataiko’s YOU series. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Concordia University, Montreal, QC. Retrieved from Digital Dissertation. (MQ47730)
Moore, L. J. (2015). Kim Kardashian West is the outsider artist America deserves. Vice: Stuff. Retrieved from: https://www.vice.com/en_ca/article/kim-kardashian-west-is-the-outsider-artist-america-deserves-848
Mulvey, L. (1999). Visual pleasure and narrative cinema. In Braudy, L., & Cohen, M. (Eds.), Film theory and criticism: Introductory readings (pp. 833-844). New York: Oxford UP. (Original work published 1975).
On Brand. (2016). Urban Dictionary. Retrieved from: http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=on%20brand
Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2001). The miniature guide to critical thinking: Concepts and tools. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.
Piowaty. D. E. (2013). Russian-born Maria Kreyn, figurative painter, New York City. Combustus: Artists and Free Thinkers Ignite! Retrieved from: http://combustus.com/maria-kreyn/
Primitivism. (n.d.) In Oxford Living Dictionaries: English online. Retrieved from: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/primitivism
Rogers, C., & In Carmichael, L. (1942). Counseling and psychotherapy: Newer concepts in practice. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin.
Rosenberg. D. (2013). In revealing self-portraits, body image is front and centre. Slate: Behold The Photo Blog. Retrieved from: http://www.slate.com/blogs/behold/2013/04/22/jen_davis_using_self_portraiture_to_explore_body_image_photos.html
Saville, C. (2017). Interview with painter Maria Kreyn: Inside the Brooklyn studio of painter Maria Kreyn. Beautiful Savage: Design. Retrieved from: http://beautifulsavage.com/design/interview-painter-maria-kreyn/
Scriven, M., & Paul, R. (n.d.). Defining critical thinking. The critical thinking community. Retrieved from: http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766 (Original statement presented at the 8th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform 1987).
Searle, A. (2007). Snap decisions. The Guardian: Art & Design. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2007/oct/02/photography.art
Selfie. (n.d.). In Oxford Living Dictionaries: English online. Retrieved from: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/selfie
Selfie. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster Dictionary online. Retrieved from: http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/selfie
Smith, S. (2017). How John Berger helped us to be feminists. Babe. Retrieved from: http://thetab.com/uk/leeds/2017/01/03/ways-john-berger-taught-us-feminists-28384
Solanas, V. (2004). Scum Manifesto. New York, NY: Verso. (Original work published 1968).
Sooke, A. (2014). Did Rembrandt invent the selfie? BBC: Culture. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20141009-did-rembrandt-invent-the-selfie
Taylor, J. (2012). Is our survival instinct failing us?: Does the “fight or flight” response work in today’s complex world? Psychology Today. Retrieved from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-power-prime/201206/is-our-survival-instinct-failing-us
The Blind Architect. (2014). EK interview: Karen Ann Meyers. Empty Kingdom. Retrieved from:http://www.emptykingdom.com/featured/ek-interview-karen-ann-myers-2/
Walter, N. (2010). Living dolls: The return of sexism. London, UK: Virago Press.
Weisenstein, K. (2017). Feminist artist Alexandra Marzella doesn’t give a f*ck about her haters. Vice: Creators. Retrieved from: https://creators.vice.com/en_us/article/feminist-artist-alexandra-marzella-doesnt-give-a-fuck?utm_source=tcpfbus
Wellen, B. (2016). Laura Collins turns voyeurism into art with ‘Olsen Twins hiding form the paparazzi’. Chicago Reader: Arts. Retrieved from: http://www.chicagoreader.com/Bleader/archives/2016/04/08/laura-collins-turns-voyeurism-into-art-with-olsen-twins-hiding-from-the-paparazzi
West, S. (2004). What is portraiture? Portraiture (pp. 21-41). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Wolf, N. (1990). The beauty myth. Toronto, ON: Vintage Canada.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top