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Rhythm and Melody Tasks for School-Aged Children With and Without Musical Training: Age-Equivalent Scores and Reliability

Title:

Rhythm and Melody Tasks for School-Aged Children With and Without Musical Training: Age-Equivalent Scores and Reliability

Ireland, Kierla, Parker, Averil, Foster, Nicholas and Penhune, Virginia (2018) Rhythm and Melody Tasks for School-Aged Children With and Without Musical Training: Age-Equivalent Scores and Reliability. Frontiers in Psychology, 9 (426). pp. 1-14. ISSN 1664-1078

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00426

Abstract

Measuring musical abilities in childhood can be challenging. When music training and maturation occur simultaneously, it is difficult to separate the effects of specific experience from age-based changes in cognitive and motor abilities. The goal of this study was to develop age-equivalent scores for two measures of musical ability that could be reliably used with school-aged children (7–13) with and without musical training. The children's Rhythm Synchronization Task (c-RST) and the children's Melody Discrimination Task (c-MDT) were adapted from adult tasks developed and used in our laboratories. The c-RST is a motor task in which children listen and then try to synchronize their taps with the notes of a woodblock rhythm while it plays twice in a row. The c-MDT is a perceptual task in which the child listens to two melodies and decides if the second was the same or different. We administered these tasks to 213 children in music camps (musicians, n = 130) and science camps (non-musicians, n = 83). We also measured children's paced tapping, non-paced tapping, and phonemic discrimination as baseline motor and auditory abilities We estimated internal-consistency reliability for both tasks, and compared children's performance to results from studies with adults. As expected, musically trained children outperformed those without music lessons, scores decreased as difficulty increased, and older children performed the best. Using non-musicians as a reference group, we generated a set of age-based z-scores, and used them to predict task performance with additional years of training. Years of lessons significantly predicted performance on both tasks, over and above the effect of age. We also assessed the relation between musician's scores on music tasks, baseline tasks, auditory working memory, and non-verbal reasoning. Unexpectedly, musician children outperformed non-musicians in two of three baseline tasks. The c-RST and c-MDT fill an important need for researchers interested in evaluating the impact of musical training in longitudinal studies, those interested in comparing the efficacy of different training methods, and for those assessing the impact of training on non-musical cognitive abilities such as language processing.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Psychology
Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Authors:Ireland, Kierla and Parker, Averil and Foster, Nicholas and Penhune, Virginia
Journal or Publication:Frontiers in Psychology
Date:April 2018
Funders:
  • Fonds de Recherche du Québec–Société et Culture
  • Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (grant 2015-04225)
  • Concordia Open Access Author Fund
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00426
Keywords:musical tasks, school-aged children, age-equivalent scores, discrimination, synchronization
ID Code:983691
Deposited By: DANIELLE DENNIE
Deposited On:09 Apr 2018 14:05
Last Modified:09 Apr 2018 14:05

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