Login | Register

Examining co-patterns of depression and alcohol misuse in emerging adults following university graduation


Examining co-patterns of depression and alcohol misuse in emerging adults following university graduation

Frohlich, Jona R., Rapinda, Karli K., O'Connor, Roisin M. and Keough, Matthew T. (2018) Examining co-patterns of depression and alcohol misuse in emerging adults following university graduation. Addictive Behaviors Reports . ISSN 23528532 (In Press)

Text (In press, accepted manuscript) (application/pdf)
oconnor 2018.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2018.06.002


Depression and alcohol use disorders are highly comorbid. Typically, alcohol use peaks in emerging adulthood (e.g., during university), and many people also develop depression at this time. Self-medication theory predicts that depressed emerging adults drink to reduce negative emotions. While research shows that depression predicts alcohol use and related problems in undergraduates, far less is known about the continuity of this association after university. Most emerging adults “mature out” of heavy drinking; however, some do not and go on to develop an alcohol use disorder. Depressed emerging adults may continue to drink heavily to cope with the stressful (e.g., remaining unemployed) transition out of university. Accordingly, using parallel process latent class growth modelling, we aimed to distinguish high- from low-risk groups of individuals based on joint patterns of depression and alcohol misuse following university graduation. Participants (N = 123) completed self-reports at three-month intervals for the year post-graduation. Results supported four classes: class 1: low stable depression and low decreasing alcohol misuse (n = 52), class 2: moderate stable depression and moderate stable alcohol misuse (n = 35), class 3: high stable depression and low stable alcohol misuse (n = 29), and class 4: high stable depression and high stable alcohol misuse (n = 8). Our findings show that the co-development of depression and alcohol misuse after university is not uniform. Most emerging adults in our sample continued to struggle with significant depressive symptoms after university, though only two classes continued to drink at moderate (class 2) and high (class 4) risk levels.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Psychology
Item Type:Article
Authors:Frohlich, Jona R. and Rapinda, Karli K. and O'Connor, Roisin M. and Keough, Matthew T.
Journal or Publication:Addictive Behaviors Reports
Date:19 June 2018
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):10.1016/j.abrep.2018.06.002
Keywords:Alcohol misuse; Depression; Emerging adults; High-risk individuals
ID Code:983961
Deposited By: MONIQUE LANE
Deposited On:19 Jun 2018 02:35
Last Modified:20 Jun 2018 00:00


E.M. Adlaf, A. Demers, L. Gliksman Canadian campus survey Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON (2005)

J. Arnett The developmental context of substance use in emerging adulthood Journal of Drug Issues, 35 (2) (2005), pp. 235–254

K. Baker, D. Lubman, E. Cosgrave, E. Killackey, H. Pan Yuen, L. Hides, ... A. Yung Impact of co-occurring substance use on 6 month outcomes for young people seeking mental health treatment Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41 (11) (2007), pp. 896–902

N. Bayram, N. Bilgel The prevalence and sociodemographic correlations of depression, anxiety and stress among a group of university students Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43 (2008), pp. 667–672

K.P. Conway, W. Compton, F.S. Stinson, B.F. Grant Lifetime comorbidity of DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders and specific drug use disorders: Results from The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67 (2) (2006), pp. 247–258

L.M. Davis, A. Uezato, J. Newell, E. Frazier Major depression and comorbid substance use disorders Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 21 (1) (2008), pp. 14–18

J.J. DeVido, R.D. Weiss Treatment of the depressed alcoholic patient Current Psychiatry Reports, 14 (6) (2012), pp. 610–618

C. Enders Applied missing data analysis (Methodology in the social sciences) Guilford Press, New York (2010)

B.F. Grant, F.S. Stinson, D.A. Dawson, S.P. Chou, M.C. Dufour, W. Compton, ... K. Kaplan
Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Archives of General Psychiatry, 61 (8) (2004), pp. 807–816
V.V. Grant, S.H. Stewart, C.D. Mohr Coping-anxiety and coping-depression motives predict different daily mood-drinking relationships Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23 (2) (2009), pp. 226–237

J.M. Grothues, G. Bischof, S. Reinhardt, C. Meyer, U. John, H.J. Rumpf Effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions for general practice patients with problematic drinking behavior and comorbid anxiety or depressive disorders Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 94 (2008), pp. 214–220

A.K. Ibrahim, S.J. Kelly, C.E. Adams, C. Glazebrook A systematic review of studies of depression prevalence in university students Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47 (3) (2013), pp. 391–400

L.D. Johnston, P.M. O'Malley, J.G. Bachman, J.E. Schulenberg Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2006. Volume II: College students and adults ages 19–45 (NIH publication no. 07-6206) National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD (2007)

T. Jung, K. Wickrama An introduction to latent class growth analysis and growth mixture modeling Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2 (1) (2008), pp. 302–317

M.T. Keough, R.M. O'Connor Interactive effects of the BIS and the BAS on trajectories of alcohol misuse after university graduation
Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment, 9 (1) (2016), pp. 33–40

E.J. Khantzian The self-medication hypothesis of substance use disorders: A reconsideration and recent applications Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 4 (5) (1997), pp. 231–244

E. Kuntsche, R. Knibbe, G. Gmel, R. Engels Why do young people drink? A review of drinking motives Clinical Psychology Review, 25 (2005), pp. 841–861

A. Littlefield, K. Sher, P. Wood, D. Watson Is “maturing out” of problematic alcohol involvement related to personality change? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118 (2) (2009), pp. 360–374

D.I. Lubman, N.B. Allen, N. Rogers, E. Cementon, Y. Bonomo The impact of co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders among substance-abusing youth Journal of Affective Disorders, 103 (2007), pp. 105–112

A.R. Mushquash, S.H. Stewart, S.B. Sherry, D.L. Sherry, C.J. Mushquash, A.J. MacKinnon Depressive symptoms are a vulnerability risk factor for heavy episodic binge drinking: A short-term, four-wave longitudinal study of undergraduate women Addictive Behaviours, 38 (5) (2013), pp. 2180–2186

B. Muthen, L.K. Muthen
Integrating person-centered and variable-centered analyses: Growth mixture modeling with latent trajectory classes Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 24 (6) (2000), pp. 882–891
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism College drinking Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/CollegeFactSheet/Collegefactsheet.pdf (2015)

K.L. Nylund, T. Asparouhov, B.O. Muthen Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 14 (4) (2007), pp. 535–569

M.W. Otto, M.H. Pollack, M. Fava, R. Uccello, J.F. Rosenbaum Elevated Anxiety Sensitivity Index scores in patients with major depression: Correlates and changes with antidepressant treatment Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 9 (2) (1995), pp. 117–123

H.W. Perkins Stress-motivated drinking in collegiate and post-collegiate young adulthood: Life course and gender patterns Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 60 (2) (1999), pp. 219–227

L.S. Radloff The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population Applied Psychological Measurement, 1 (3) (1977), pp. 385–401

A. Raftery Bayesian model selection in social research Sociological Methodology, 25 (1995), pp. 111–163

N. Ram, K. Grimm Growth mixture modeling: A method for identifying differences in longitudinal change among unobserved groups International Journal of Behavioral Development, 33 (6) (2009), pp. 565–576

J.B. Saunders, O.G. Aasland, T.F. Barbor, J.R. de la Fuente, M. Grant Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption-II Addiction, 88 (6) (1993), pp. 791–804

D. Shaienks, T. Gluszynski, J. Bayard Postsecondary education – Participation and dropping out: Differences across university, college and other types of postsecondary institutions Statistics Canada, Ottawa, ON (2008)

M. Wang, T. Bodner Growth mixture modeling: Identifying and predicting unobserved subpopulations with longitudinal data Organizational Research Methods, 10 (4) (2007), pp. 635–656

N.M. Wendlandt, A.B. Rochlen Addressing the college-to-work transition: Implications for university career counselors Journal of Career Development, 35 (2) (2008), pp. 151–165

A. White, R. Hingson The burden of alcohol use: Excessive alcohol consumption and related consequences among college students Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 35 (2) (2013), pp. 201–218
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top