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Design of LP01 to LPlm Mode Converters for Mode Division Multiplexing

Title:

Design of LP01 to LPlm Mode Converters for Mode Division Multiplexing

mellah, hakim (2018) Design of LP01 to LPlm Mode Converters for Mode Division Multiplexing. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

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Abstract

Mode division multiplexing (MDM) over few mode fiber (FMF) has been proposed as an alternative solution to tackle the capacity limitations of optical networks based on standard single mode fiber (SMF). These limitations are caused by the fiber nonlinear effects. MDM is realized through excitation of different fiber spatial modes, each mode being an independent transmission channel. Therefore, MDM over FMF requires mode conversion (basically from fundamental mode to higher order modes and vice versa) as well as mode multiplexing and demultiplexing.
Mode conversion, multiplexing and demultiplexing can be realized through different techniques. It can be achieved using free-space optics based on matching the profile of an input mode to the profile of an output mode using phase mask or spatial light modulator. Mode conversion and (de)multiplexing can also be achieved using waveguide structures. These mode converters and (de)multiplexers are mainly based on optical fiber and planar waveguide, which include fiber grating, tapering, lanterns, planar lightwave circuit (PLC), photonic crystal fiber (PCF), mode selective coupler (MSC) and Y-junction. It is worth mentioning that more than one technique may be applied to realize a specific converter/ (de)multiplexer for a specific mode.
In general, Mode converters and (de)multiplexers based on free space optics are polarization insensitive and wavelength independent, but they result in high insertion loss and are bulky. On the other hand, all-waveguide mode converters and (de)multiplexers have high mode conversion efficiency (less insertion loss and high extinction ratio) and are compact, but they are wavelength dependent.
Recently, many research works demonstrate the design, analysis and fabrication of several types of mode converters and (de)multiplexers. However, almost all the proposed devices are specific to a certain number of modes, therefore, they result in mode-specific designs.

The explosive growth of traffic over telecommunication networks, especially in the access networks mandates that more and more modes would be (de)multiplexed to respond to the high traffic demands. As a result, proposing a universal mode converter and (de)multiplexer, that can convert and (de)multiplex any required number of modes is needed.
In this thesis, mode converters and (de)multiplexers are thoroughly investigated. A universal LP01 to LPlm mode converter and (de)multiplexer is proposed. The mode converter is based on tapered circular waveguides and the (de)multiplexer is based on symmetric directional couplers.
An LP01 to LP02 is first introduced. It consists of a tapered circular waveguide followed by a non-tapered circular waveguide. Inside the second waveguide, a circular tapered element is inserted. The initial tapered waveguide allows excitation of LP02 mode as well as other LP0m modes (m > 2). The second waveguide (comprising the circular section and the inner tapered element) is used to make conversion to be mainly from LP01 to LP02. Simulation shows that conversion efficiency of almost 100% at the central wavelength of O- S- and C-band, and above 98% over the S- and C-band is achieved. Moreover, suppression of non-desired higher order modes is more than 10 dB over the whole O-, S- and C-band. In particular, suppression is more than 19 dB over the entire C-band. The analysis also shows that the performance of the mode converter is not sensitive to slight variations of the converter’s parameters. In addition, the same converter can be used for converting LP02 back to LP01. Further, a (de)multiplexer for an LP02 and an LP01 mode is designed using the mode converter combined with a symmetric directional coupler. The multiplexer is broadband and has insertion loss less than 0.5 dB over the C-band.
The proposed design is fabricated by inscribing it in the bulk of a borosilicate glass using a femtosecond laser. The converter has an insertion loss of less than 1 dB for the entire C-band and a total length of 2.22mm. this fabricated prototype validates the proposed mode converter design.
The LP01 to LP02 mode converter structure can also be used to convert to other LP0m mode by proper tuning its parameters. After extensive simulations and optimizations, an LP01 to LP0m mode converter is proposed. The proposed converter structures are designed not only to provide high performances (low insertion losses and high extinction ratios), but also to be able to be fabricated by respecting the fabrication requirements (in terms of lengths and refractive indices). As a case study, six mode converters, converting LP01 to LP0m, with m = 2 to 7 are reported. The structures have insertion losses ranging from 0.1 dB to 2.5 dB. These performance results outperform all reported similar mode converters.
To (de)multiplex the resulting LP0m modes, a (de)multiplexer based on symmetric directional couplers is proposed. This kind of devices are easy to design and fabricate and provide low insertion loss and cross talk. As an example, the first five modes (LP01 to LP05) are (de)multiplexed with an insertion loss less than 2.5 dB and cross talk less than -15 dB at the design wavelength. These results outperform the reported results for similar devices.
The LP01 to LP0m mode converter structure is modified by inserting more inner elements to be able to convert to any LPlm mode. Therefore, a universal LP mode converter structure is proposed. The number and parameters of these inner elements depend on the desired LPlm mode. For instance, structures to convert LP01 to LP11, LP21 and LP31 are provided. These modes require between 5 to 6 inner elements with different radii and lengths. The simulation results for these three structures shows that an insertion loss less than 1.9 dB and an extinction ratio higher than 10 dB are achieved for the three modes at the design wavelength of 1550nm.
Furthermore, the three modes (LP11, LP21 and LP31) are (d)multiplexed using a symmetric directional coupler with an insertion loss less than 0.9 dB and a cross talk below -17 dB for the three modes at the design wavelength.
All the parameters of the presented mode converters and (de)multiplexers are designed to allow them to be fabricated using 3D femtosecond laser inscription technique.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Electrical and Computer Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:mellah, hakim
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Program:Electrical and Computer Engineering
Date:June 2018
Thesis Supervisor(s):Zhang, John Xiupu
Keywords:Mode Division Multiplexing, Mode Converter, Mode Multiplexer, Optical Communications
ID Code:984343
Deposited By: HAKIM MELLAH
Deposited On:31 Oct 2018 17:41
Last Modified:31 Oct 2018 17:41

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