Login | Register

Determinants of multiple central-place territory use in wild young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)


Determinants of multiple central-place territory use in wild young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Steingrímsson, Stefán Ó. and Grant, James W.A. (2011) Determinants of multiple central-place territory use in wild young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 65 (2). pp. 275-286. ISSN 0340-5443

[thumbnail of Grant_BehavioralEcology_2011.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Grant_BehavioralEcology_2011.pdf - Accepted Version

Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-010-1042-9


Patterns of space use provide key insights into how animals exploit local resources and are linked to both the fitness and distribution of individuals. We studied territory size, mobility, and foraging behavior of young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in relation to several key environmental factors in Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick, Canada. The 50 study fish were all multiple central-place foragers (i.e., alternated among several sit-and-wait foraging stations) and showed great variability in territory size and the total distance traveled within the territories. Territory size increased with the mean distance traveled between consecutive foraging stations, the number of stations visited, and the mean foraging radius. Fish also varied greatly in how much of the total travel distance was associated with foraging at a station (14.8–91.8%) versus switching among stations (4.6–84.3%). As predicted, fish in slow-flowing waters, where drifting prey were scarce, used larger multiple central-place territories than individuals in faster, more productive waters. Interestingly, however, the most mobile fish did not inhabit slow-running waters as predicted but were found at intermediate (optimal) water current velocities. Hence, our study suggests that among some multiple central-place foragers, increased mobility may not only serve to increase prey encounter rate but may reflect an attempt to patrol territories in favorable habitats. Further studies are needed to determine the generality and the ultimate benefits of multiple central-place space use among stream-dwelling fish and other animals.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Biology
Item Type:Article
Authors:Steingrímsson, Stefán Ó. and Grant, James W.A.
Journal or Publication:Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Date:February 2011
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):10.1007/s00265-010-1042-9
Keywords:Foraging mode – Home range – Invertebrate drift – Mobility – Stream ecology – Water current velocity
ID Code:7137
Deposited By: Danielle Dennie
Deposited On:15 Mar 2011 14:52
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:30


1.Adams ES (2001) Approaches to the study of territory size and shape. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 2001:277–303

2.Armstrong JD, Huntingford FA, Herbert NA (1999) Individual space use strategies of wild juvenile Atlantic salmon. J Fish Biol 55:1201–1212

3.Bachman RA (1984) Foraging behavior of free-ranging wild and hatchery brown trout in a stream. Trans Am Fish Soc 113:1–32

4.Biro PA, Ridgeway MS (1995) Individual variation in foraging movements in a lake population of young-of-the-year brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). Behaviour 132:57–74

5.Biro PA, Ridgeway MS, Noakes DLG (1997) The central-place territorial model does not apply to space-use by juvenile brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis in lakes. J Anim Ecol 66:837–845

6.Chapman CA, Chapman LJ, McLaughlin RL (1989) Multiple central place foraging by spider monkeys: travel consequences of using many sleeping sites. Oecologia 79:506–511

7.Covich AP (1976) Analysing shapes of foraging areas: some ecological and economic theories. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 7:235–257

8.Cunjak RA, Caissie D, El-Jabi N, Hardie P, Conlon JH, Pollock TH, Giberson DJ, Komadina-Douthwright S (1993) The Catamaran Brook (New Brunswick) habitat research project: biological, physical and chemical conditions (1990–1992). Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci 1914

9.Davies NB, Houston AI (1984) Territory economics. In: Krebs JR, Davis NB (eds) Behavioural ecology: an evolutionary approach, 2nd edn. Sinauer Associates Inc, Massachusetts, pp 148–169

10.De Kerckhove D, McLaughlin RL, Noakes DLG (2006) Ecological mechanisms favouring behavioural diversification in the absence of morphological diversification: a theoretical examination using brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). J Anim Ecol 75:506–517

11.Dill LM, Ydenberg RC, Fraser AHG (1981) Food abundance and territory size in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Can J Zool 59:1801–1809

12.Dunbrack RL, Dill LM (1983) A model of size dependent surface feeding in a stream dwelling salmonid. Environ Biol Fish 8:203–216

13.Elliott JM (1990) Mechanisms responsible for population regulation in young migratory trout, Salmo trutta. III. The role of territorial behaviour. J Anim Ecol 59:803–818

14.Elliott JM (2002) Time spent in the drift by downstream-dispersing invertebrates in a Lake District stream. Freshw Biol 47:97–106

15.Enders EC, Boisclair D, Roy AG (2003) The effect of turbulence on the cost of swimming for juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 60:1149–1160

16.Fausch KD, Nakano S, Kitano S (1997) Experimentally induced foraging mode shift by sympatric charrs in a Japanese mountain stream. Behav Ecol 8:414–420

17.Ferguson MM, Noakes DLG (1983) Movers and stayers—genetic-analysis of mobility and positioning in hybrids of lake charr, Salvelinus-namaycush, and brook charr, S. fontinalis (Pisces: Salmonidae). Behav Genet 13:213–222

18.Ford RG (1983) Home range in a patchy environment: optimal foraging predictions. Amer Zool 23:315–326

19.Girard I, Grant JWA, Steingrímsson SÓ (2004) Foraging, growth and loss rate of young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in relation to habitat use in Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 61:2339–2349

20.Grant JWA (1997) Territoriality. In: Godin J-GJ (ed) Behavioural ecology of teleost fishes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 81–103

21.Grant JWA, Noakes DLG (1987) Movers and stayers: foraging tactics of young-of-the-year brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis (Pisces, Salmonidae). J Anim Ecol 56:1001–1013

22.Grant JWA, Noakes DLG (1988) Aggressiveness and foraging mode of young-of-the-year brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis (Pisces, Salmonidae). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 22:435–445

23.Grant JWA, Noakes DLG, Jonas KM (1989) Spatial distribution of defence and foraging in young-of-the-year brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis. J Anim Ecol 58:773–784

24.Grant JWA, Chapman CA, Richardson KS (1992) Defended versus undefended home range size of carnivores, ungulates and primates. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 31:149–161

25.Helfman GS (1990) Mode selection and mode switching in foraging animals. Adv Study Behav 19:249–298

26.Hill J, Grossman GD (1993) An energetic model of microhabitat use for rainbow trout and rosyside dace. Ecology 74:685–698

27.Hooge PN, Eichenlaub B (2000) Animal movement extension to Arcview, ver 2.0. Alaska Science Center—Biological Science office, US Geological Survey, Anchorage, Alaska

28.Huey RB, Pianka ER (1981) Ecological consequences of foraging mode. Ecology 62:991–999

29.Hughes NF, Hayes JW, Shearer KA, Young RG (2003) Testing a model of drift-feeding using three-dimensional videography of wild brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a New Zealand river. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 60:1462–1476

30.Johnsson JI, Carlsson M, Sundström LF (2000) Habitat preference increases territorial defence in brown trout (Salmo trutta). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 48:373–377

31.Kalleberg H (1958) Observations in a stream tank of territoriality and competition in juvenile salmon and trout (Salmo salar L. and S. trutta L.). Rep Inst Freshw Res Drottningholm 39:55–98

32.Katano O (1996) Foraging tactics and home range of dark chub in a Japanese river. Oecologia 106:199–205

33.Keeley ER (2000) An experimental analysis of territory size in juvenile steelhead trout. Anim Behav 59:477–490

34.Keeley ER, Grant JWA (1995) Allometric and environmental correlates of territory size in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 52:186–196

35.Keeley ER, Grant JWA (1997) Allometry of diet selectivity in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 54:1894–1902

36.Martin-Smith KM, Armstrong JD (2002) Growth rates of wild stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon correlate with activity and sex but not dominance. J Anim Ecol 71:413–423

37.McIntosh AR, Townsend CR (1998) Do different predators affect distance, direction, and destination of movements by stream mayfly. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55:1954–1960

38.McLaughlin RL (1989) Search modes of birds and lizards: evidence for alternative movement patterns. Am Nat 133:654–670

39.McLaughlin RL, Montgomerie RD (1989) Brood dispersal and multiple central place foraging by Lapland longspur parents. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 25:207–215

40.McLaughlin RL, Grant JWA, Kramer DL (1992) Individual variation and alternative patterns of foraging movements in recently-emerged brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). Behaviour 120:286–301

41.McLaughlin RL, Ferguson MM, Noakes DLG (1999) Adaptive peaks and alternative foraging tactics in brook charr: evidence of short-term divergent selection for sitting-and-waiting and actively searching. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 45:386–395

42.McNicol RE, Noakes DLG (1984) Environmental influences on territoriality of juvenile brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, in stream environment. Environ Biol Fishes 10:29–42

43.Merritt RW, Cummins KW (1978) An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. Kendall/Hunt, Iowa

44.Minns CK (1995) Allometry of home range size in lake and river fishes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 52:1499–1508

45.Mitani JC, Rodman PS (1979) Territoriality: the relation of ranging pattern and home range size to defendability, with an analysis of territoriality among primate species. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 5:241–251

46.Morantz DL, Sweeney RK, Shirvell CS, Longard DA (1987) Selection of microhabitat in summer by juvenile Atlantic (Salmo salar). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 44:120–129

47.Motulsky H, Christopoulos A (2004) Fitting models to biological data using linear and nonlinear regression: a practical guide to curve fitting. Oxford University Press, Oxford

48.Nakano S (1995) Individual differences in resource use, growth and emigration under the influence of a dominance hierarchy in fluvial red-spotted masu salmon in a natural habitat. J Anim Ecol 64:75–84

49.Nakano S, Fausch KD, Kitano S (1999) Flexible niche partitioning via a foraging mode shift: a proposed mechanism for coexistence in stream-dwelling charrs. J Anim Ecol 68:1079–1092

50.Nislow KH, Folt C, Seandel M (1998) Food and foraging behavior in relation to microhabitat use and survival of age-0 Atlantic salmon. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55:116–127

51.Paton DC, Carpenter FL (1984) Peripheral foraging by territorial rufous hummingbirds: defense by exploitation. Ecology 65:1808–1819

52.Patterson IJ (1980) Territorial behaviour and the limitation of population density. Ardea 68:53–62

53.Pianka ER (1966) Convexity, desert lizards, and spatial heterogeneity. Ecology 47:1055–1059

54.Puckett KJ, Dill LM (1985) The energetics of feeding territoriality in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Behaviour 92:97–111

55.Schoener TW (1971) Theory of feeding strategies. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 2:369–404

56.Schoener TW (1981) An empirically based estimate of home range. Theor Popul Biol 20:281–325

57.Stamps JA (1984) Growth costs of territorial overlap: experiments with juvenile lizards (Anolis aeneus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 15:115–119

58.Stamps JA, Eason PK (1989) Relationship between spacing behavior and growth rates: a field study of lizard feeding territories. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 25:99–107

59.Steingrímsson SÓ, Grant JWA (2003) Patterns and correlates of movement and site fidelity in individually tagged young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 60:193–202

60.Steingrímsson SÓ, Grant JWA (2008) Multiple central-place territories in young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon. J Anim Ecol 77:448–457

61.Sutherland WJ (1996) From individual behaviour to population ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top