Login | Register

the hydraulics of near-boundary flow and sediment transport in river channels


the hydraulics of near-boundary flow and sediment transport in river channels

attar, shaghayegh (2013) the hydraulics of near-boundary flow and sediment transport in river channels. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Attar_PhD_S2013.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Attar_PhD_S2013.pdf - Accepted Version


This research has contributed to an improved understanding of near-bed flow in rivers and the advancement of modelling flow and sediment transport in multiple dimensions. The understanding and prediction of the hydraulic behaviour of river channels are essential to water resources development and river-engineering activity planning. River flow features turbulence and complicated velocity distribution, especially near the bed. An ice cover typically presents in northern rivers during the winter and influences the flow underneath; this further complicates the velocity distribution. The problem of flow near the boundaries (the bed and ice) is notoriously difficult to tackle because of strong velocity shear, multiple length and associated time-scale motions and bed sediment movement. In spite of previous research efforts focusing on the problem, many issues are still unresolved.
This study has resolved the issue with respect to the link between near-bed flow and flow-induced bed shear stress in a computationally efficient manner. The research work consists of (a) derivation of hydraulic parameters necessary for describing and modelling the velocity field and (b) prediction of the bed shear stress τb and resultant sediment transport along the riverbed (bedload). In part (a), a large volume of winter observations of water velocity from ice-covered Canadian rivers have been obtained. Assume that the velocity distribution between the bed and ice can be described as a two-layer system. Multi-parameter regression analyses are performed on the observations, yielding a function with two exponents and one coefficient as hydraulic parameters. These parameters reveal the relative importance of the bed and ice’s influence on velocity distribution. The function describes the vertical distribution of velocity. Its practical significance includes convenient estimates of winter discharge, which is expensive and extremely difficult to measure in the field. The observations have also been analysed to produce energy and momentum coefficients. These coefficients are rarely available but are necessary input to one-dimensional flow predictions. Additionally, part (a) includes the development of a mathematical model based on the boundary layer theory and application of it to the bed-influenced layer of ice-covered river flow for determining the drag coefficient. The concept of drag coefficient is widely used to give dynamic condition at the riverbed for predicting flow in three dimensions. Part (b) deals with the key issue of τb for bedload computations. An existent multi-layer hydrodynamics model has been extended to explore methods useful to link τb to near-bed flow. Such a link will improve computational efficiency. The model is applied to flow over gravel river dunes – a case of complicated velocity distributions. The model results of velocity and τb are shown to agree well with acoustic Doppler velocimeter measurements from flume experiments. The predicted τb values are used to compute fractional transport rates of non-uniform sediments over the dunes. For bedload modelling, the logarithmic law is shown to provide an appropriate link between near-bed flow and τb; this law should be applied to velocities at a wall distance of approximately 300. When using the multi-layer modelling approach, one should allow a minimum of five layers to resolve the velocity structure from the bed to the wall distance.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:attar, shaghayegh
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Program:civil engineering
Date:29 April 2013
Thesis Supervisor(s):Li, Samuel
Keywords:Gravel dunes; Near-bed flow; Shear stress; Numerical models; Bedload; River ice; Velocity distribution.
ID Code:977196
Deposited On:23 Jun 2021 16:12
Last Modified:23 Jun 2021 16:12


Allen JRL. 1968. The nature and origin of bed-form hierarchies. Sedimentology 10(3): 161–182.
Ashton GD. 1979. River Ice. American Scientist 67(1): 38-45.
Ashton GD. 1986. River and Lake Ice Engineering. Water Resources Publications: Littleton, Colorado, pp. 485.
Ashworth PJ, Ferguson RI. 1989. Size-selective entrainment of bed load in gravel bed streams. Water Resources Research 25(4): 627-634.
Attar S. 2008. Investigation of gravel bed form influence on shear stress and velocity distribution. Master’s thesis, Department of Water Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran (in Persian, Abstract in English).
Attar S, Li SS. 2012. Data-fitted velocity profiles for ice-covered rivers. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 39(3): 334-338. DOI: 10.1139/L2012-001.
Beltaos S. 2001. Hydraulic roughness of breakup ice jams. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering – ASCE 127(8): 650-656.
Bennett SJ, Best JL. 1996. Mean flow and turbulence structure over fixed ripples and the ripple-dune transition. In Coherent flow structure in open channel, Ashworth PJ, Bennett SJ, Best JL, Mclelland SJ (eds): Chichester, NY; 281–304.
Best JL. 1993. On the interactions between turbulent flow structure, sediment transport and bedform development: some considerations from recent experimental research. In Turbulence: Perspectives on Flow and Sediment Transport, Clifford NJ, French JR, Hardisty J (Eds), Wiley and Sons, Kingston Hull, England, 61-92.
Best J. 2005. The fluid dynamics of river dunes: A review and some future research directions. Journal of Geophysical Research 110(F4): 21–24.
Biron PM, Robson C, Lapointe MF, Gaskin SJ. 2004. Comparing different methods of bed shear stress estimates in simple and complex flow fields. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 29(11): 1403–1415.
Brayall MG. 2011. 2-D Hydraulic and Ice Process Modeling at Hay River, NWT. Master’s thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Bui MD, Rutschmann P. 2010. Numerical modelling of non-equilibrium graded sediment transport in a curved open channel. Computers and Geoscience 36(6): 792-800.
Calkins DJ. 1986. Hydrologic aspects of ice jams. Cold Regions Hydrology Symposium, American Water Resources Association, Fairbanks, Alaska, 603–609.
Carling PA. 1996. Morphology, sedimentology and palaeohydraulic significance of large gravel dunes, Altai Mountains, Siberia. Sedimentology 43(4): 647–664.
Carling PA. 1999. Subaqueous gravel dunes. Journal of Sediment Research 69(3): 534–545.
Carling PA, Golz E, Orr HG, Radecki-Pawlik A. 2000. The morphodynamics of fluvial sand dunes in the River Rhine, near Mainz, Germany. I. sedimentology and morphology. Sedimentology 47: 227-252.
Carling PA, Richardson K, Ikeda H. 2005. A flume experiment on the development of subaqueous fine-gravel dunes from a lower-stage plane bed. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface 110(F4): F04S05, DOI: 10.1029/2004JF000205.
Carling PA, Shvidchenko AB. 2002. A consideration of the dune : antidune transition in fine gravel. Sedimentology 49(6): 1269–1282.
Catella M, Paris E, Solari L. 2005. 1D Morphodynamic model for natural rivers. Proceedings 4th Conference on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics, Urbana, Illinois, 4-7 October, 2005.
Chow VT. 1959. Open Channel Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill: New York, pp. 700.
Coleman SE, Nikora VI, McLean SR, Clunie TM, Schlicke T, Melville BW. 2006. Equilibrium hydrodynamics concept for developing dunes. Physics of Fluids 18(10). DOI: 10.1063/1.2358332.
Dargahi B. 2004. Three-dimensional flow modelling and sediment transport in the river Klarälven. Earth Surface Process and Landforms 29(7): 821-852.
Demuren AO. 1993. A numerical model for flow in meandering channels with natural bed topography. Water Resources Research 29(4): 1269-1277.
Egiazaroff IV. 1965. Calculation of nonuniform sediment concentrations. Journal of the Hydraulic Division – ASCE 91(4): 225-247.
Einstein HA. 1942. Formulas for the transportation of bed load. Transactions of the ASCE 107: 561-577.
Einstein HA. 1950. The bed-load function for sediment transportation in open channel flows. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C. Technical Bulletin No. 1026.
Elhakeem M, Imran J. 2012. Density function for entrainment and deposition rates of nonuniform sediment. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering – ASCE 138(7): 591-609.
El Kadi Abderrezzak K, Paquier A, Gay B. 2008. One-dimensional numerical modelling of dam-break waves over movable beds: application to experimental and field cases. Environmental Fluid Mechanics 8(2): 169-198.
El Kadi Abderrezzak K, Paquier A. 2009. One-dimensional numerical modeling of sediment transport and bed deformation in open channels. Water Resources Research 45(5): W05404.
Engelund F, Fredsoe J. 1982. Sediment ripples and dunes. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 14: 13–37.
Ettema R, 2002. Review of alluvial-channel responses to river ice. Journal of Cold Regions Engineering – ASCE 16(4): 191-217. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0887-381X(2002)16:4(191).
Ferguson RI, Parsons DR, Lane SN, Hardy RJ. 2003. Flow in meander bends with recirculation at the inner bank. Water Resources Research 39(11): 1322. DOI: 10.1029/2003WR001965.
Fox RW, McDonald AT. 1992. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 4th ed. Willey: New York, pp. 615.
Fredsoe J, 1982. Shape and dimensions of stationary dunes in rivers. Journal of the Hydraulics Division – ASCE 108(HY8): 932–947.
Gill MS, 1971. Height of sand dunes in open channel flows. Journal of the Hydraulics Division – ASCE 97(HY12): 2067–2074.
Giri S, Shimizu Y. 2006. Numerical computation of sand dune migration with free surface flow. Water Resources Research 42(10). DOI: 10.1029/2005WR004588.
Graf WH. 1984. Hydraulics of sediment transport. Water Resources Pubs: Colorado, pp. 513.
Graf WH, Istiarto I. 2002. Flow pattern in the scour hole around a cylinder. Journal of Hydraulic Research 40(1): 13–20.
Healy D, Hicks FE. 2004. Index velocity methods for winter discharge measurement. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 31(3): 407-419. DOI: 10.1139/L04-001.
Hinz JO. 1975. Turbulence, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill: New York, pp. 790.
Hoque MA. 2009. Hydraulic Analysis of Ice-covered River Flow. Master’s thesis, Department of Building, Civil & Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
HydroQual. 2002. A Primer for ECOMSED. Mahwah, NJ.
Jackson RG. 1976. Sedimentological and fluid-dynamic implications of the turbulent bursting phenomenon in geophysical flows. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 77(3): 531-560.
Jerolmack DJ, Mohrig DC. 2005. A unified model for subaqueous bed form dynamics. Water Resources Research 41(W12421). DOI: 10.1029/2005WR004329.
Kadota A, Nezu I. 1999. Three-dimensional structure of space-time correlation on coherent vortices generated behind dune crest. Journal of Hydraulic Research 37(1): 59–80.
Kalinske AA. 1947. Movement of sediment as bed load in rivers. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 28(4): 310-317.
Kennedy JF. 1969. The formation of sediment ripples, dunes and antidunes. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 1(1): 147–168.
Klaassen G. 1992. Experiments on the effect of gradation and vertical sorting on sediment transport phenomena in the dune phase. Mitteilungen Der Versuchsanstalt Fur Wasserbau, Hydrologie Und Glaziologie an Der Eidgenossischen Technischen Hochschule Zurich 117: 127-145.
Kleinhans MG. 2001. The key role of fluvial dunes in transport and deposition of sand-gravel mixtures, a preliminary note. Sedimentary Geology 143(1–2): 7–13.
Kroy K, Sauermann G, Hermann HJ. 2002. Minimal model for aeolian sand dunes. Physical Review E 66(031302): 1-17.
Lacey RWJ, Roy AG. 2008. The spatial characterization of turbulence around large roughness elements in a gravel-bed river. Geomorphology 102(3–4): 542–553.
Lai CJ, Yen CW. 1993. Turbulent free surface flow simulation using a multilayer model. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 16(11): 1007-1025.
Lane SN, Hardy RJ, Elliott L, Ingham DB. 2004. Numerical modeling of flow processes over gravelly surfaces using structured grids and a numerical porosity treatment. Water Resources Research 40(1): W01302.
Langendoen EJ, Simon A, Thomas RE. 2001. CONCEPTS-a process-based modeling tool to evaluate stream-corridor restoration designs. In Wetlands Engineering & River Restoration Conference Proceedings, ASCE. Donald FH (ed.), 27-31 August, 2001.
Langendoen EJ, Thomas RE, Bingner RL. 2002. Numerical simulation of the morphology of the Upper Yalobusha River, Mississippi between 1968 and 1997. In River Flow 2002, Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluivial Hydraulics, Louvain la Neuve, Bousmar D, Zech Y. (eds); 931-939, 4-6 September, 2002.
Larsen PA. 1969. Head losses caused by an ice-covered open channel. Journal of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers 56(1): 56-57.
Lau YL. 1982. Velocity distributions under floating covers. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 9(1): 76-83.
Lau YL, Krishnappan BG. 1981. Ice cover effects on stream flows and mixing. Journal of the Hydraulic Division – ASCE 107(10): 1225-1242.
Lau YL, Krishnappan BG. 1985. Sediment transport under ice cover. Journal of Hydraulic Research 111(6): 19791-19808.
Li SS. 2012. Estimates of the Manning’s coefficient for ice-covered rivers. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Water Management 165(9): 495-505.
Lopez JL, Falcon MA. 1999. Calculation of bed changes in mountain streams. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering – ASCE 125(3): 263-270.
Lyn DA. 1993. Turbulence measurements in open-channel flows over bedforms. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering – ASCE 119(3): 306–326.
Madala RV, Piacsek SA. 1977. A semi-implicit numerical model for baroclinic oceans. Journal of Computational Physics 23(2): 167–178.
Matthes GH. 1947. Macroturbulence in natural stream flow. Transactions, American Geophysical Union 28(2): 255-265.
McLean SR, Nelson JM, Wolfe SR. 1994. Turbulence structure over two-dimensional bed forms: Implications for sediment transport. Journal of Geophysical Research 99(C6): 12729–12747.
Mclean SR, Wolf SR, Nelson JM. 1999a. Prediction boundary shear stress and sediment transport over bed forms. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 125(7): 725-736.
Mclean SR, Wolf SR, Nelson JM. 1999b. Spatially averaged flow over a wavy boundary revisited. Journal of Geophysical Research 104(C7): 15743-15753.
McLean DG, Church M, Tassone B. 1999c. Sediment transport along lower Fraser River – Measurements and hydraulic computations. Water Resources Research 35(8): 2533–2548.
Mekonnen M, Dargahi B. 2007. Three dimensional numerical modelling of flow and sediment transport in rivers. International Journal of Sediment Research 22(3): 188-198.
Mellor GL, Yamada T. 1982. Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics 20(4): 851–875.
Meyer-Peter E, Müller R. 1948. Formulas for bed-load transport. Proceedings of the 2nd Meeting of the International Association for Hydraulic Structures Research, Stockholm, 39-64, 7-9 June, 1948.
Mierlo MCLM van, Ruiter JCC de. 1988. Turbulence measurements above artificial dunes. Delft Hydraulics, Delft, The Netherlands, Report No. TOW A55 Q789.
Morse B, Hamai K, Choquette, Y. 2005. River discharge measurement using the velocity index method. In 13th Workshop on the Hydraulics of Ice Covered Rivers, Hanover, NH, 15-16 September 2005.
Morvan H, Pender G, Wright NG, Ervine DA. 2002. Three-dimensional hydrodynamics of meandering compound channels. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering – ASCE 128(7): 674-682.
Muller A, Gyr A. 1986. On the vortex formation in the mixing layer behind dunes. Journal of Hydraulic Research 24(5): 359-375.
Myers RH. 1990. Classical and modern regression with applications. 2nd edition, PWS-KENT: Boston, MA.
Nelson JM, McLean SR, Wolfe SR. 1993. Mean flow and turbulence fields over two-dimensional bed forms. Water Resources Research 29(12): 3935–3953.
Nelson JM, Smith JD. 1989. Mechanics of flow over ripples and dunes. Journal of Geophysical Research 94(C6): 8146–8162.
Nicholas AP, Smith GHS. 1999. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional flow hydraulics in a braided channel. Hydrological Processes 13(6): 913-929.
Niemann S, Fredsoe J, Jacobsen N. 2011. Sand dunes in steady flow at low Froude numbers: Dune height evolution and flow resistance. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering – ASCE 137(1): 5–14.
Nortek 2004. Nortek Vectrino Velocimeter user guide. No-1351 Rud, Norway.
O’Brien MP. 1933. Review of the theory of turbulent flow and its relation to sediment transport. Transactions, American Geophysical Union 14(1): 487-491.
Olsen NRB. 2003. Three-dimensional CFD-modeling of self-forming meandering channel. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering – ASCE 129(5): 366-372.
Onda S, Hosoda T. 2004. Numerical simulation on development process of dunes and flow resistance. In River flow 2004: 1. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics, Greco M, Carravetta A, Della Morte R. (eds); Balkema AA, Leiden, Netherland, 245-252, 23-25 June, 2004.
Packman AI, Salehin M, Zaramella M. 2004. Hyporheic exchange with gravel beds: basic hydrodynamic interactions and bedform-induced advective flows. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering – ASCE 130(7): 647-656.
Paarlberg AJ, Dohmen-Janssen CM, Hulscher SJMH, Termes P. 2007. A parameterization of flow separation over subaqueous dunes. Water Resources Research 43(W12417), DOI: 10.1029/2006WR005425.
Parker G. 1990. Surface-based bedload transport relation for gravel rivers. Journal of Hydraulic Research 28(4): 417-436.
Parker G, Klingeman PC. 1982. On why gravel bed streams are paved. Water Resources Research 18(5): 1409-1423.
Parker G, Klingeman PC, McLean DG. 1982. Bedload and size distribution in paved gravel-bed streams. Journal of the Hydraulics Division – ASCE 108(4): 544-571.
Prowse TD. 1990. Heat and mass balance of an ablating ice jam. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 17(4): 629-635.
Precht E, Janssen F, Huettel M. 2006. Near-bottom performance of the Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) – a comparative study. Aquatic Ecology 40: 481–492. DOI: 10.1007/s10452-004-8059-y.
Radecki-Pawlik A, Carling PA, Slowik-Opoka E, Ksiazek, L. 2006. Field investigations of sand-gravel bed forms within the Raba River, Poland. In River Flow 2006: 1-2. Proceedings and Monographs in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences, Ferreira RML, Alves CTL, Leal GAB et al. (eds); 979–984, 6-8 September, 2006.
Rameshwaran P, Naden PS. 2004. Three-dimensional modelling of free surface variation in a meandering channel. Journal of Hydraulic Research 42(6): 603-615.
Rameshwaran P, Naden PS, Lawless M. 2011. Flow modelling in gravel-bed rivers: rethinking the bottom boundary condition. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 36(10): 1350–1366.
Rantz SE. 1982. Measurement and computation of channel flow. Water Supply Paper No. 2175. Vol. 1 and Vol. 5 of U.S. Geological Survey, Washington D.C.
Raudkivi AJ. 1998. Loose Boundary Hydraulics. A.A. Balkema Publisher: Rotterdam, pp. 496.
Ribberink JS. 1987. Mathematical modelling of one-dimensional morphological changes in rivers with non-uniform sediment. Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, pp. 200.
Richardson EV, Davis SR. 2001. Evaluating scour at bridges. 4th ed., Federal Highway Administration, Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18, Virginia, USA, FHWA NHI 01-001.
Robert A. 2003. River Processes: An Introduction to Fluvial Dynamics. Arnold Publishing: London, pp. 214.
Samaga BR, Raju KGR, Garde RJ. 1986. Bed load transport of sediment mixtures. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering – ASCE 112(11): 1003-1018.
Sayre WW, Song GB. 1979. Effects of ice covers on alluvial channel flow and sediment transport processes. University of Iowa, Iowa, pp. 96.
Schoklitsch A.1930. Der Wasserbau: Ein Handbuch für Studium und Praxis. Springer, Vienna, 2nd ed. English translation (1937) by S. Shulits.
Schlichting H, Gersten K. 2000. Boundary-Layer Theory. 8th revised and enlarged ed. Springer: Berlin, pp. 795.
Shen HT. 2003. Research on River Ice Processes: Progress and missing links. Journal of Cold Regions Engineering – ASCE 17(4): 135-142.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top