Login | Register

Prospective examination of the effect of injunctive drinking norms on the association between social anxiety and coping motivated and problematic drinking


Prospective examination of the effect of injunctive drinking norms on the association between social anxiety and coping motivated and problematic drinking

Hines, Sarah A (2015) Prospective examination of the effect of injunctive drinking norms on the association between social anxiety and coping motivated and problematic drinking. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of HINES_MA_F2015.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
HINES_MA_F2015.pdf - Accepted Version


While most students “mature out” of normative undergraduate problematic drinking, many do not. Research demonstrates that drinking for coping motives impedes that maturing out process (Littlefield, Sher, & Wood, 2010). Social anxiety (SA) may be a particularly relevant risk factor for problematic drinking during these formative years. Drinking in university often occurs in (anxiety provoking for some) social situations and heavy drinking is often promoted and normalized by peers in these contexts. The goal of this study was to investigate SA as a risk factor for continued problematic drinking during the transition out of university. It was hypothesized that SA would be a positive predictor of drinking for coping motives and problematic drinking during the 9-months post-graduation, but only for those who believed that peers approved of heavy/risky drinking (i.e., high injunctive norms). Graduating students (N = 120 at baseline) completed online surveys pre- and post-graduation (3-, 6-, 9-month follow-ups). SA, injunctive norms, drinking motives, and problematic drinking were assessed. Latent growth curve modeling was used to test injunctive norms (between subject) as a moderator of the effect of SA (between subject) on within person change in coping drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Only the interactive effect on alcohol-related problems was supported. Counter to hypotheses, elevated SA was associated with a more rapid decline in alcohol-related problems, if injunctive norms were high. These results suggest that the transition out of university may be somewhat protective in terms of reducing risk for problematic drinking for some high SA individuals.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Psychology
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Hines, Sarah A
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A.
Date:1 July 2015
Thesis Supervisor(s):O'Connor, Roisin
Keywords:Alcohol misuse Young adults Problematic drinking Maturing out Transitioning out Social anxiety Drinking norms
ID Code:980416
Deposited By: Sarah Hines
Deposited On:09 Nov 2015 19:48
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:51


Aderka, I. M., Hofmann, S. G., Nickerson, A., Hermesh, H., Gilboa-Schechtman, E., & Marom, S. (2012). Functional impairment in social anxiety disorder. Journal of anxiety disorders, 26(3), 393-400.
Adlaf, E., Demers, A., & Gliksman, L. (2005). Canadian campus survey 2004. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM 5. Books4US.
Baer, J. S., Stacy, A., & Larimer, M. (1991). Biases in the perception of drinking norms among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 52(6), 580.
Baer J. (1994). Effects of college residence on perceived norms for alcohol consumption: An examination of the first year in college. Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 8, 43–50.
Balodis, I., Potenza, M., & Olmstead, M. (2009). Binge drinking in undergraduates: Relationships with sex, drinking behaviours, impulsivity and the perceived effects of alcohol. Behavioural Pharmacology, 20(5-6), 518-526.
Blanco, C., Okuda, M., Wright, C., Hasin, D. S., Grant, B. F., Liu, S. M., & Olfson, M. (2008). Mental health of college students and their non–college-attending peers: Results from the national epidemiologic study on alcohol and related Conditions. Archives of general psychiatry, 65(12), 1429-1437.
Borsari, B., & Carey, K. B. (2003). Descriptive and injunctive norms in college drinking: A meta-analytic integration. Journal of studies on alcohol, 64(3), 331.
Brown, E. J., Turovsky, J., Heimberg, R. G., Juster, H. R., Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1997). Validation of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale across the anxiety disorders. Psychological Assessment, 9(1), 21.
Bruce, S. E., Yonkers, K. A., Otto, M. W., Eisen, J. L., Weisberg, R. B., Pagano, M., ... & Keller, M. B. (2008). Influence of psychiatric comorbidity on recovery and recurrence in generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and panic disorder: a 12-year prospective study. Focus, 6(4), 539-548.
Buckner, J. D., Ecker, A. H., & Proctor, S. L. (2011). Social anxiety and alcohol problems: The roles of perceived descriptive and injunctive peer norms. Journal of anxiety disorders, 25(5), 631-638.
Buckner, J. D., Eggleston, A. M., & Schmidt, N. B. (2006). Social anxiety and problematic alcohol consumption: The mediating role of drinking motives and situations. Behavior Therapy, 37(4), 381-391.
Butt, P., Beirness, D., Cesa, F., Gliksman, L., Paradis, C., & Stockwell, T. (2011). Alcohol and health in Canada: A summary of evidence and guidelines for low-risk drinking. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.
Cahalan, D., Cisin, I.H, & Crossley, H.M. (1969). American drinking practices: A national study of drinking behavior and attitudes. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Conger, J. J. (1956). Reinforcement theory and the dynamics of alcoholism. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 17, 296-305.
Cooper, M. L. (1994). Motivations for alcohol use among adolescents: Development and validation of a four-factor model. Psychological Assessment, 6(2), 117-128.
Cooper, M. L., Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Mudar, P. (1995). Drinking to regulate positive and negative emotions: a motivational model of alcohol use. Journal of personality and social psychology, 69(5), 990.
Cooper, M. L., Agocha, V. B., & Sheldon, M. S. (2000). A motivational perspective on risky behaviors: The role of personality and affect regulatory processes. Journal of personality, 68(6), 1059-1088.
Cox, W. M., & Klinger, E. (1988). A motivational model of alcohol use. Journal of abnormal psychology, 97(2), 168.
Cox, W. M., & Klinger, E. (1990). Incentive motivation, affective change, and alcohol use: A model. Why people drink: Parameters of alcohol as a reinforcer, 291-314.
Crutzen, R., Kuntsche, E., & Schelleman-Offermans, K. (2013). Drinking motives and drinking behavior over time: A full cross-lagged panel study among adults. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27(1), 197.
Eggleston, A. M., Woolaway-Bickel, K., & Schmidt, N. B. (2004). Social anxiety and alcohol use: Evaluation of the moderating and mediating effects of alcohol expectancies. Anxiety Disorders, 18, 33-49.
Enders, C. K. (2001). The impact of nonnormality on full information maximum likelihood estimation for structural equation models with missing data. Psychological methods, 6(4), 352.
Enders, C. K., & Bandalos, D. L. (2001). The relative performance of full information maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models. Structural Equation Modeling, 8(3), 430-457.
Erdfelder, E., Faul, F., & Buchner, A. (1996). GPOWER: A general power analysis program. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 28(1), 1-11.
Grant, B. F., Hasin, D. S., Blanco, C., Stinson, F. S., Chou, S. P., Goldstein, R. B., ... & Huang, B. (2005). The epidemiology of social anxiety disorder in the United States: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66(11), 1341-1361.
Grant, V. V., Stewart, S. H., O’Connor, R. M., Blackwell, E., & Conrod, P. J. (2007). Psychometric evaluation of the five-factor Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire – Revised in undergraduates. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 2611-2632.
Grant, V. V., Stewart, S. H., & Mohr, C. D. (2009). Coping-anxiety and coping-depression motives predict different daily mood-drinking relationships. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23(2), 226.
Hooper, D., Goughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modeling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Articles, 2.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55.
Jackson, K. M., Sher, K. J., Gotham, H. J., & Wood, P. K. (2001). Transitioning into and out of large-effect drinking in young adulthood. Journal of abnormal psychology, 110(3), 378.
Jennison, K. (2004). The short-term effects and unintended long-term consequences of bingedrinking in college: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 30(3), 659-682.
Kassel, J. D., Jackson, S. I., & Unrod, M. (2000). Generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation and problem drinking among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 61(2), 332.
Keller, M. B. (2003). The lifelong course of social anxiety disorder: a clinical perspective. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 108(s417), 85-94.
Kushner, M. G., & Sher, K. J. (1993). Comorbidity of alcohol and anxiety disorders among college students: Effects of gender and family history of alcoholism. Addictive behaviors, 18(5), 543-552.
LaBrie, J. W., Hummer, J. F., & Neighbors, C. (2008). Self-consciousness moderates the relationship between perceived norms and drinking in college students. Addictive Behaviors, 33(12), 1529-1539.
LaBrie, J. W., Hummer, J. F., Neighbors, C., & Larimer, M. E. (2010). Whose opinion matters? The relationship between injunctive norms and alcohol consequences in college students. Addictive behaviors, 35(4), 343-349.
Larimer, M. E., Turner, A. P., Mallett, K. A., & Geisner, I. M. (2004). Predicting drinking behavior and alcohol-related problems among fraternity and sorority members: examining the role of descriptive and injunctive norms. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(3), 203.
Larimer, M.E., Neighbors, C., LaBrie, J.W., Atkins, D.C., Lewis. M.A., Lee, C.M., …& Kaysen D.L. (2011). Descriptive drinking norms: for whom does reference group matter? Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72(5), 833-843.
Lewis, M. A., & Neighbors, C. (2004). Gender-specific misperceptions of college student drinking norms. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(4), 334.
Lewis, M., Hove, C., Whiteside, U., Lee, C., Kirkeby, B., Oster-Aalan, L., Neighbors, C., & Larimer, M. (2008). Fitting in and feeling fine: Conformity and coping motives as mediators of the relationship between social anxiety and problematic drinking. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22(1), 58-67.
Littlefield, A. K., Sher, K. J., & Wood, P. K. (2010). Do changes in drinking motives mediate the relation between personality change and “maturing out” of problem drinking? Journal of abnormal psychology, 119(1), 93.
Martens, M. P., Cox, R. H., & Beck, N. C. (2003). Negative consequences of intercollegiate athlete drinking: The role of drinking motives. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 64(6), 825.
Mattick, R. & Clarke, C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 455-470.
Merrill, J. E., & Read, J. P. (2010). Motivational pathways to unique types of alcohol consequences. Psychology of addictive behaviors, 24(4), 705.
Mogg, K., Philippot, P., & Bradley, B.P. (2004). Selective attention to angry faces in clinical social phobia. Journal of abnormal psychology, 113(1), 160-165.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2012). Mplus User’s Guide. Seventh Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Neighbors, C., Larimer, M.E., & Lewis, M.A. (2004). Targeting misperceptions of descriptive drinking norms: efficacy of a computer-delivered personalized normative feedback intervention. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 72(3), 434-447.
Neighbors, C., Fossos, N., Woods, B. A., Fabiano, P., Sledge, M., & Frost, D. (2007a). Social anxiety as a moderator of the relationship between perceived norms and drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68(1), 91.
Neighbors, C., Lee, C. M., Lewis, M. A., Fossos, N., & Larimer, M. E. (2007b). Are social norms the best predictor of outcomes among heavy-drinking college students?. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 68(4), 556.
Preacher, K. J. (2008). Latent growth curve modeling (No. 157). Sage.
Prentice, D. A., & Miller, D. T. (1993). Pluralistic ignorance and alcohol use on campus: some consequences of misperceiving the social norm. Journal of personality and social psychology, 64(2), 243.
Rapee, R.M., & Heimberg, R.G. (1997). A cognitive-behavioural model of anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour research and therapy, 35(8), 741-756.
Read, J. P., & O'Connor, R. M. (2006a). High-and low-dose expectancies as mediators of personality dimensions and alcohol involvement. Journal of studies on alcohol, 67(2), 204-214.
Read, J. P., Kahler, C. W., Strong, D. R., & Colder, C. R. (2006b). Development and preliminary validation of the young adult alcohol consequences questionnaire. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67, 169-177.
Read, J. P., Merrill, J. E., Kahler, C. W., & Strong, D. R. (2007). Predicting functional outcomes among college drinkers: Reliability and predictive validity of the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire. Addictive behaviors, 32(11), 2597-2610.
Russell, G., & Shaw, S. (2009). A study to investigate the prevalence of social anxiety in a sample of higher education students in the United Kingdom. Journal of Mental Health, 18(3), 198-206.
Schneier, F. R., Johnson, J., Hornig, C. D., Liebowitz, M. R., & Weissman, M. M. (1992). Social phobia: comorbidity and morbidity in an epidemiologic sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49(4), 282-288.
Schulenberg, J., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Wadsworth, K. N., & Johnston, L. D. (1996). Getting drunk and growing up: Trajectories of frequent binge drinking during the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 57(3), 289.
Stein, M. B., & Kean, Y. M. (2000). Disability and quality of life in social phobia: epidemiologic findings. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(10), 1606-1613.
Stewart, S. H., Morris, E., Mellings, T., & Komar, J. (2006). Relations of social anxiety variables to drinking motives, drinking quantity and frequency, and alcohol-related problems in undergraduates. Journal of Mental Health, 15(6), 671-682.
Weingardt, K. R., Baer, J. S., Kivlahan, D. R., Roberts, L. J., Miller, E. T., & Marlatt, G. A. (1998). Episodic heavy drinking among college students: Methodological issues and longitudinal perspectives. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 12(3), 155.
Weir, J. P. (2005). Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 19(1), 231-240.
Wittchen, H. U., Stein, M. B., & Kessler, R. C. (1999). Social fears and social phobia in a community sample of adolescents and young adults: prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidity. Psychological medicine, 29(02), 309-323.
Zucker, R. A. (1987). The four alcoholisms: A developmental account of the etiologic process. In P. C. Rivers (Ed.) Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Vol. 34. Alcohol and addictive behavior (pp. 27 – 83). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top