Login | Register

STEM education in Botswana: understanding the gender disparity in enrolment and graduation in post-secondary education


STEM education in Botswana: understanding the gender disparity in enrolment and graduation in post-secondary education

Koketso, Lesego (2015) STEM education in Botswana: understanding the gender disparity in enrolment and graduation in post-secondary education. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Koketso_MA_F2015.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Koketso_MA_F2015.pdf - Accepted Version


Widespread education for all children was approved as part of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1989. In 1990, the World Summit for Children acknowledged girls’ education as a development tool, and gender parity in education is integral to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), as it is the third of the eight goals.
This qualitative study sought to gain a better understanding of the factors driving gender disparities in enrolment in and graduation from Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) post secondary education programmes in Botswana, in the context of closing the gender gap in education at all levels. The methodology included analysing official documents, published reports, and research findings of studies conducted elsewhere in the field of STEM education.
Research findings suggest that low graduation of girls in post secondary institutions arises from a wide range of issues such as the rigid patriarchal systems of social groups and other socio-cultural practices found within Botswana society. My study has also found out that the school curriculum is one of the institutionalized forms of creating disparity in the education of boys and girls. I have argued that the some of academic subjects in Botswana’s secondary schools are gender-biased and this ultimately lead to the gender disparities in enrolment and graduation in STEM disciplines. I provide plausible recommendations that Botswana can adopt to drive toward gender parity in STEM education.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Education
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Koketso, Lesego
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A.
Program:Educational Studies
Date:21 July 2015
Thesis Supervisor(s):Naseem, Ayaz
Keywords:Gender Gender Equity Gender Equality Gender and Development Gender Mainstreaming Women in Development Women and Development STEM
ID Code:980593
Deposited On:27 Oct 2015 15:15
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:51


Adams, C. (1996). Gifted girls in science: Revisiting the issues. Journal of Secondary Gifted education, 4, 447-458.
Allen, J. (2000). “Bad Future Things” and Liberatory Moments: Capitalism and the State in Botswana. Radical History Review 76:136-168.
Anderson, J. (2002). Toward a post-colonial feminist methodology in nursing research: Exploring the convergence of post-colonial and black feminist scholarship. Nurse Researcher 9, no. 3: 7–27.
Annells, M. (1996). Hermeneutic phenomenology: Philosophical perspectives and current use in nursing research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 23, 705– 713.
Arshad-Ayaz, A. (2007). Globalisation and marginalisation in higher education. Education and Society, 25(1), 77-93.
Baryeh, E., Squire, P. & Mogotsi, M. (2001). Engineering Education for Women in Botswana. International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, 38(4), 173-182.
Belenky, M., Clinchy, B., Goldberger, N., & Tarule, J. (1986). Women’s Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind. New York: Basic Books Publishers.
Bellew, R. & King, E. (1993). “Educating Women: Lessons from Experience”. In King, E. and Hill, M (eds.). Women’s Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits and Policies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Bernstein, B. (1977) Class, Codes and Control, Vol.3. London: Routledge.
Bogdan, R. & Biklen, S. (2003). Qualitative research methods for education: an
introduction to theories and methods (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Booth, C. and Bennett, C. (2002) ‘Gender Mainstreaming in the European Union’, European Journal of Women’s Studies 9 (4): 430–46.
Boserup, E. (1990). Economic Change and the Role of Women. In I. Tinkler (ed.), Persistent Inequalities: women and world development. New York Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. 15-24.
Botswana Government. (2005a). Botswana maps. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from
Botswana Government. (2005b). Ministry of Education. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from http://www.moe.gov.bw/dse/index.html

Botswana Guardian Online (2014, December 3). Women Under represented in ICT. Accessible http://www.botswanaguardian.co.bw/news/30-news/news/1172-women-underrepresented-in-ict.html Retrieved [14/12/14]
Botswana Institute for Development Policy Analysis (BIDPA) & World Health Organisation (WHO). (2013). Social Protection in Botswana. Gaborone: BIDPA.
Bradley, K. (2000). The incorporation of women into higher education: paradoxical outcomes?’ Sociology of Education, 73(1), 1–18.
Bulbeck, C. (1998). Re-orienting western feminisms: Women’s diversity in a postcolonial world. Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press.
Central Statistics Office (2011). 2011 Population and Housing Census. Gaborone: central Statistics Office.
Charmin, K. (2003). Grounded theory: Objectivist and constructivist methods. In Strategies for qualitative inquiry, ed. N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln, 249–91. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Chilisa, B. (2000). Towards Equity in Assessment: Crafting Gender-fair Assessment. Assessment in Education 7(1), 61-81.
Chilisa, B. (2002). National Policies on Pregnancy in Education Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Botswana. Gender and Education, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 21–35.
Connel, R. (1987). Gender and Power: Society, the Person and Sexual Politics. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Creswell, J. (2004). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Approaches. 2nd ed. London: SAGE Publishers.
Creswell, J. (2003). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches and mixed methods approaches. London: Sage.

Charmin, K. (2003). Grounded theory: Objectivist and constructivist methods. In Strategies for qualitative inquiry, ed. N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln, 249–91. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dale, R. (1974). Mixed or Single-sex School. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).
DeBacker, T. & Nelson, R. (2000, March/April). Motivation to learn science: Differences related to gender, class type, and ability. The Journal of Educational Research, 93,245-254.
De Souza, R. (2000). Women Build Africa: Women’s Education, Women’s Quality of Life. Quebec, Canada: Muse ́e de la Civilization.
Dorsey, B., Gaidzanwa, R. & Mupawaenda, A. (1990). Factors Affecting the Careers of Women at the University of Zimbabwe. Harare: Human Resources Research Centre, University f Zimbabwe.
Dube, C. (2015, February 13). Is Khama for real? Mmegi Online. Accessible at http://www.mmegi.bw/index.php?aid=49206 Retrieved [13/02/15]
Dube, C. (2013, October 28). Female Mechanic makes her mark. Mmegi Monitor. Accessible http://www.mmegi.bw/index.php?aid=2675 Retrieved [22/08/14]
Duncan, L. (1989). Engendering School Learning: Science, Attitudes and Achievement Among Girls and Boys in Botswana. Stockholm: University of Stockholm.
Eberle, F. (2010) Workforce Development: Why STEM education is important. InTech Magazine. ISA Publications Available at: https://www.isa.org/standards-and-publications/isa-publications/intech-magazine/2010/september/why-stem-education-is-important/#sthash.Iv75Zjff.dpuf [Retrieved 25/05/14]
Economic Commission for Africa. (2012). MDG Report: Assessing Progress in Africa toward the Millennium Development Goals.
ECOSOC (1997) Report of the Economic and Social Council for the Year 1997, UN 52nd Session, Supp. No. 3
Egbo, B. (2000). Gender, Literacy and Life Changes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cleveland, Buffalo, Sydney: Multilingual Matters.
Emereole, H. (2008). Correlates of conceptual
knowledge of science processes with some demographic variables of undergraduate students: the case of university of Botswana. Journal of Baltic Science Education, Vol. 7, No. 1,1033-1056.
Francis, B. (2002). Is the future really female? The impact and implications of gender for 14–16 year olds’ career choices, Journal of Education and Work, 15(1), 75–88.
Fuller, B., Hua, H. & Snyder, C. (1994). When Girls Learn More Than Boys: The Influence of Time in School and Pedagogy in Botswana. Comparative Education Review 38(3): 347-376.
Gachukia, E, & Kabira, W. (1991). The identification of elements in African culture hampering the integration of women in development process. OAU/UNESCO.
Gay, L. & Airasian, P. (2003). Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications. Upper Saddle River: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Gender Affairs Department & Gender Links Botswana (2011). The Gender Based Violence Indicators Study Botswana. Gaborone: Gender Affairs Department.
Gender Affairs Department. (2013). Gender Baseline Survey 2013. Gaborone: Gender Affairs Department.
Gender Links Botswana (2012). SADC Gender Protocol 2012 Barometer Botswana. Gaborone: Gender Links Botswana.
Ghauri, P. and Gronhaugh, K. (2002) Research Methods in Business Studies: A Practical Guide (2nd edn).Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Global Employment Trends 2012. (2012). International Labor Office: Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/global/research/global- reports/global-employment-trends/lang--en/index.htm
Government of Botswana. (1997). Vision 2016: A long-term vision for Botswana: Towards prosperity for all, Gaborone, http://www.gov.bw/gem/vision_2016.html, retrieved December 2014.
Government of Botswana. (1999). Short Term Plan of Action National Gender Programme 1999-2003. Gaborone: Government Printer.
Government of Botswana. (2000) Botswana’s Policy on Women in Development Gaborone: Government Printers.
Government of Botswana and United Nations Development Programme (1998) National Gender Programme Framework. Gaborone: Government Printers.
Graham, M. (2001). Increasing participation of female students in physical science class. Unpublished masters' thesis, Saint Xavier University.
Greenfield, T. (1996). Gender-and grade-level differences in science interest and
participation. Science Education, 81 (3), 259-275. Retrieved January 10, 2015 from
Groenewald, T. (2004). A phenomenological research design illustrated. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3(1), 2–26.
Halpern, J. (1965). South African's hostages: Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland. Harmondswork, UK: Penguin Books.
http://www.cde.ca.gov/pd/ca/sc/stemintrod.asp Retrieved [22/04/14]
IFAD Glossary: http://www.ifad.org/gender/glossary.htm Retrieved [20/04/ 2014].
Jacobus, M. (Ed). (1979). Women writing about women. New York: Harper & Row.
Jegede, O. (1987) Socio-cultural Correlates of Anxiety in Science Classroom: A Preliminary Report. Paper presented as a contribution to the International Roundtable Exchange at the National Convention of the Science Teachers’ Association. Washington, DC, March 26–29.
Jegede, O. & Okebukola, P. (1988). An educology of socio-cultural factors in science classrooms. International Journal of Educology, 2, 93–107.
Jegede, O. & Okebukola, P. (1991). The relationship between African traditional cosmology and students’ acquisition of science process skills. International Journal of Science Education, 13, 37–47.
Johns, G. (2001a). In praise of context. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 22(1), 31- 42.
Johns, G. (2001b). The psychology of lateness, absenteeism and turnover. In N. Anderson, D. D. Ones, H. K. Sinangil & C. Viswesvaran (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial, work and organisational psychology. 2, 232-252. London: Sage.
Johns, G. (2006). The essential impact of context on organisational behaviour. Academy of Management Review, 31(2), 386-408.
Jones, M. Howe, A., & Rua, M. (2000). Gender differences in students' experiences interests and attitudes towards science and scientists. Science Education, 84, 180-192.
Kabeer, N. (2005). Gender equality and women's empowerment: A critical analysis of the third millennium development goal 1. Gender & Development, 13(1) 13-24.
Kesamang, M. & Taiwo, A. (2002). The correlates of the socio-cultural background of Botswana junior secondary school students with their attitudes towards and achievements in science. International Journal of Science Education, 24(9), 919–940.
Kelly, A. (1981) The Missing Half: girls and science education. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Kitetu, C. (2004). Gender in education: An overview of developing trends in Africa. CRILE Working Papers. Department of Linguistics and Modern English Language, Lancaster University.
Klasen, S. (2002) Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development, The World Bank Economic Review, 16(3), 345-373).
Kolawole, M. (1998) The feminisation of culture: towards an African gender theory. Cape Town: African Gender Institute.
Koosimile, A. (2004). Out of school experiences in science classes: problems, issues and challenges in Botswana. International Journal of Science Education, 26:4, 483-496.
Lantz, A. (1985). Strategies to increase mathematics enrollments. In Chipman, S., Brush,
L. & Wilson, D. (eds.) Women and mathematics: balancing the equation. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Lee, J. (2008). Gender Equity Issues in Technology Education: A Qualitative Approach to Uncovering the Barriers. Doctoral Thesis. North Carolina State University.
Lemrini, A. (2000). Women Build Africa: Educating Girls: Findings, Issues and Perspectives. Quebec, Canada: Muse ́e de la Civilisation.
Lengermann, P. & Brantley-Niebrugge, J. (1992). Contemporary Feminist Theory. In: G. Ritzer, ed. Sociological Theory (462-463). Singapore: McGraw-Hill.
Leo-Rhynie, E., and Institute of Development and Labour Law, University of Cape Town, South Africa. (1999). Gender Mainstreaming in Education: A Reference Manual for Governments and Other Stakeholders. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.
Leo-Rhynie, E (1996). “Gender Issues in Education and the Implications for Labour Force Participation”. In Hart K (ed.). Women and the Sexual Division of Labour in the Caribbean. 2nd edition. Jamaica: Canoe Press.
Lester, S. (1999). An introduction to phenomenological research. Stan Lester Developments, Taunton, 1–4.
Li-Ching, W. (2014). Mainstreaming Gender into Schools in the Taiwan Context. Chinese Education and Society, vol. 47(4), 23–31.
Lloyd, J., Walsh, J., & Yailagh, M.S. (2005). Sex Differences in Performance Attributions, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement in Mathematics: If I’m so smart, Why Don’t I know It? Canadian Journal of Education, 28, 384-408.
Lopi, B. (2004). Gender & Poverty
In the context of Human Development, Health, Education and the MDG’s. Southern African Research and Documentation Centre, Lusaka, Zambia.
Mafela, L. (2014). Education and perceptions of “other”: Colonial education of Batswana and formal education of indigenous San in Botswana. An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples, Vol 10 no 1, 45-57.
Mahony, P. (1985). Schools for the Boys. London: Hutchinson.
Mannathoko, C. (1992). Feminist Theories and the Study of Gender Issues in Southern Africa. In: R. Meena, ed., Gender in Southern Africa: Conceptual and Theoretical Issues. Harare: SAPES Books.
Mannathoko, C. (1997). Politics of Gender in Teacher Education Curriculum and Pedagogy. In: P. Marope and D.Chapman, ed. A Handbook of Research on Education: Teaching and Teacher Education in Botswana (130-155). Gaborone: Lentswe La Lesedi.
Mannathoko, C. (1999). Theoretical Perspectives on gender in Education: The Case of Eastern and Southern Africa. International Review of Education 45 (5/6): 445-460.
Marks, G. (2008). Accounting for the gender gaps in student performance in reading and mathematics: evidence from
31 countries. Oxford Review of Education, 
 34(1), 89–109.
Martin, M., Mullis, I., Gonzalez, E., Gregory, K., Smith, T., Chrostowski, S., Garden, R., & O’Connor, K. (2000). TIMSS 1999 international mathematics report. Findings from the IEA’s repeat of the third international mathematics study at the eight grade. International Study Center Lynch School of Education, Boston College.
Martorella, P., Beal, C., & Bolick, C. (2005). Teaching social studies in middle and secondary schools (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall
Mbilinyi, M., Mbughuni, P., Meena, R. & Olekambaine, P. (1991). Contributions of the Schooling Process and Issues for Gender Transformation. In: Mbilinyi, ed., Education in Tanzania with a Gender Perspective. Dar es Salaam: SIDA.
Measor, L. and Sykes, P. (1992). Gender and Schools. London: Cassell.
Mewborn, D. (1999). Creating a gender equitable school environment. International Journal of Education, 2, 103-115.
Ministry of Education. (1995). Botswana Three-Year Junior Secondary Syllabus: Science (Gaborone: Government Printers).
Ministry of Finance and Development Planning (1998). Science and Technology Policy for Botswana. Gaborone: Ministry of Finance and Development Planning.
Ministry of Education. (1994). Revised National Policy in Education. Gaborone: Ministry of Education.
Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs (1995). The National Policy on Women in Development. Gaborone: Women’s Affairs Department.
Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs (2013a). The National Strategy for Gender and Development: Bridging the Gender Gap (2013). Gaborone: Gender Affairs Department.
Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs (2013b). The National Policy on Gender and Development. Gaborone: Gender Affairs Department.
Motlotle, K. (1989). Hidden Language in Educational Textbooks: Life Chances of Male and Female Students in Science in Senior Schools. Paper Presented at the BOLESWA Educational Research Symposium on Educational Research in the SADCC Region: Present And Future, Gaborone, Botswana.
Mugisha, R., Mhozya, X. & Mwamwenda, T. (1991). Higher education and employment in Botswana: a tracer study. South African Journal of Higher Education, 5, pp. 15-24.
Mulemwa, J. (1999). Scientific, technical and vocational education of girls in Africa, guidelines for programme planning. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved February 12, 2014, from UNESCO's website: http://unescodoc.unesco.org/images/0011/00118122eo.pdf
Munger, E. (1965). Bechuanaland: Pan African outpost or Bantu homeland. London: London Institute of Race Relations.
National Research Council. (2007). Rising above the gathering storm: Energizing and employing America for a brighter economic future, Washington D.C. National Academies Press.
National Science Board. (2006). America‘s pressing challenge: Building a stronger foundation. Retrieved June 23, 2014 from www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsb0602
Nyathi-Ramahobo, L. (1992). The Girl-Child in Botswana: Educational Constraints and Prospects. Gaborone, Botswana: UNICEF.
Ntwaagae, C. (2014). Challenges and Achievements in the Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals for Women and Girls: Botswana Country Statement at The 58th Session of the Status of Women. New York, 10-21 March.
OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) (1997) Education and Equity in OECD Countries. Paris: OECD. 

OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2000) School Factors Related to Quality and Equity. Paris: OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).
Ormerod, M. (1975) Subject preference and choice in coeducational and single sex secondary schools, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 45, pp. 256-267.
Oxfam (2000) Education: The Global Gender Gap. Parliamentary Briefing Oxfam Policy Papers. Number 9-4/4/00 (Oxford, Oxfam).

Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs and mathematical problem solving of gifted students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 325-344.
Palmieri, P. (1979). Paths and pitfalls: Illuminating women’s educational history. [Review of Collegiate women: domesticity and career in turn of the century America]. Harvard Educational Review, 534-541.
Patton, M. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). London, England: Sage.
Pender, S. (2007). Challenges and Opportunities for Educational Technology in Botswana. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Pepperdine University.
Plonski, G. & Saidel, R. (2001). Gender, science and technology in Brazil. Minerva, 39, 217-238.
Punch, K. (2005). Introduction to social research: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. London: Sage.
Racine, L. (2003). Implementing a postcolonial feminist perspective in nursing research related to non-Western populations. Nursing Inquiry 10: 452–57.

Robson, C. (2002) Real World Research (2nd ed.), Oxford, Blackenwell.
Republic of Botswana (1994). Revised National Policy on Education (RNPE). Gaborone: Government Printers.
Roger, A. & Duffield, J. (2000). Factors underlying persistent gendered option choices in school science and technology in Scotland. Gender and Education, 12 (3), 367- 383.
Rousseau, D., & Fried, Y. (2001). Location, location, location: Contextualizing organisational research. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 22(1), 1-13.
Saitoti, G. (2005) "Bias keeps girls away from sciences" Available on line at: www.allafrica.com/stories.htm [Retrieved 31 July 2014].
Southern African Development Community (2013). SADC Gender Monitor 2013: Tracking Progression on Implementation of the SADC Protocol on Gender and Development with special Focus on Part three Governance Articles 12 and 13, Women in Politics and Decision Making Positions. Gaborone: SADC.
Schapera, I. (1934). Western civilization and the natives of South Africa. London:
Schibeci, R. & Riley, H. (1986). Influence of students’ background and perceptions on science attitudes and achievement. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 23, 177-187.
Sebusang, S. & Masupe, S. (2003). ICT Development in Botswana: Connectivity for Rural Communities. African Journal of Information and Communication, No 4,41-51.
Shabaya, J. & Konadu-Agyemang, K. (2004). Unequal access, unequal participation: Some spatial and socio-economic dimensions of the gender in education in Africa with special reference to Ghana, Zimbabwe and Kenya. Journal Comparative Education. 34(4), 395-424.
Smith, T. (1992). Gender differences in the scientific achievements: Effects of age-and parental separation. Social Forces. 71, 469-484.
Spiegelberg, H. (1975). Doing phenomenology: Essays on and in phenomenology. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Spivak, G. (1990). The postcolonial critic: Interviews, strategies, dialogue. London: Routledge.
Stables, A. (1990) Differences between Pupils from Mixed and Single-sex Schools in Their Enjoyment of School Subjects and in Their Attitudes to Science and to School, Educational Review, 42:3, 221-230
Statistics Botswana (2013). Stats Brief: Demographics. Gaborone: Statistics Botswana.
Stratigaki, M., (2005) "Gender Mainstreaming vs Positive Action. An Ongoing Conflict in EU Gender Equality Policy". European Journal of Women’s Studies 12 (2): 165-186.
Tabulawa, R. (2009) Education reform in Botswana: reflections on policy contradictions and paradoxes. Comparative Education, 45:1, 87-107.
Taole, J. (1996). A Comparison of Performance in Mathematics between Boys and Girls in the 1990 Junior Certificate Examination in Botswana. In: Educational Research Network in Eastern and Southern Africa (ERNESA), Educational Research Information for Practitioners (30-33), Gaborone: ERNESA.
The Republic of Botswana (2004): Botswana's Response to the DAW Questionnaire to governments on implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action (1995) and the outcome of the twenty- third special session of the general assembly (2000), Women's Affairs Department, Ministry of Labour and Home Affairs, Gaborone.
Tinker, I. (1990) (ed.)
 Persistent Inequalities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tuwor, T. & and Sossou, A. (2008) Gender discrimination and education in West Africa: strategies for maintaining girls in school. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 12:4, 363-379.
UNDP. (2008). Empowered and Equal: UNDP Gender Equality Strategy 2008-2011
United Nations. (2001). Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action with the Beijing +5 Political Declaration and Outcome Document. New York: United Nations.
United Nations (1995). The 4th United Nations World Conference on Women: The Platform for Action. New York: United Nations.
UN. (2000a). United Nation's Millennium Declaration 55/2. Resolution adapted by the General Assembly, September 18, 2000. Retrieved April 15, 2014, from United Nation's web site: http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.pdf
UN. (2000b). United Nation's Millennium Goals. Retrieved April 15, 2014, from United Nation's Web site: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/
United Nations. (2006). The millennium development goals report 2006. New York: United Nations.
UNDP. (2003). Human Development Report 2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
UNESCO. (1999a). UNESCO statistical yearbook 1999. Paris: UNESCO
UNESCO. (1999b). Scientific, technical and vocational education of girls in Africa. Background and recommendations. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved March 10, 2014, from UNESCO's Web site: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/ 0011/001180/118079mo.pdf
UNESCO. (2000). The Dakar framework for action, UNESCO. Retrieved March 11, 2014, from UNESCO's web site: htpp://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/0012147e.pdf
UNESCO. (2001). Education for all assessment thematic paper: girls' education. Paris: UNESCO.
UNESCO. (2003). Gender and education for all. The leap to equality. Global monitoring report 2003/2004, UNESCO. Retrieved January 22, 2014, from UNESCO's Web site: http://www.unesdoc.unesco.org/education/efa_report/2003_pdf/chapter3.pdf
Van Langena, A., Boskerb, R., and Dekkers, H. (2006). Exploring cross-national differences in gender gaps in education. Educational Research and Evaluation 12 (2), 155-177.
Van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. New York: State University of New York Press.
Williams, V. (2002). Chapter 19: Blueprint for Gender Equity in Education. Part 2: Discriminatory Practices in Education. In D. Piché, W. Taylor, R. Reed (Eds.), Rights at risk: Equity in an age of terrorism, 285-291. Washington, DC: Citizens' Commission on Civil Rights.
Wilson, H., & Hutchinson, S. (1991). Triangulation of qualitative methods: Heiderggerian Hermeniuties Qualitative Health Research 1(2), 263–276.
Wiley, D & Harnschfenger, A. (1974). Explosion of a myth: Quality of schooling and exposure to instruction. Educational Researcher, 3 (4), 7–12.
Women in Science and Engineering in Canada. (2010). Corporate Planning and Policy Directorate. Natural Sciences and Engineering. Ottawa: Research Council of Canada.
Woolfolk, A. (1998). Educational psychology (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
www.oanda.com/currency/converter [Accessed 02/03/15]
You, M. (2006). Gender mainstreaming. Gender Equity Education Quarterly 34, 108–11.
Zebracki, M. (2014) 'Sex in the City: Gender Mainstreaming Urban Governance in Europe. The Case of Sweden and Italy', Fennia. International Journal of Geography 192 (1): 54–64.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top