Login | Register

Fatigue behavior of carbon/epoxy AFP laminates containing gaps


Fatigue behavior of carbon/epoxy AFP laminates containing gaps

Elsherbini, Yasser Mahmoud Sami Abdelsamea (2017) Fatigue behavior of carbon/epoxy AFP laminates containing gaps. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Elsherbini_PhD_F2017.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Elsherbini_PhD_F2017.pdf - Accepted Version


Composite materials are widely used in many applications owing to their advantages over conventional ones. Among the different available manufacturing techniques of composites, automated fiber placement (AFP) attracted the attention of many industries due to its speed of material deposition and repeatability in manufacturing. Unfortunately, the occurrence of gaps between material strips during AFP manufacturing process is unavoidable. Even though there have been many studies that focused on the effect of these gaps on the static properties of the AFP laminates, to our knowledge, no work has been performed to test their effect on fatigue behavior.
In this dissertation, the effect of the induced gaps on fatigue performance of carbon/epoxy AFP laminates was investigated both experimentally and numerically. In the experimental part, fatigue tests were conducted on both reference, free from defects laminates, and defective laminates. Then, the fatigue performance of both types was compared and analyzed to obtain the effect of gaps. For better understanding the fatigue behavior of laminates containing gaps, many parameters were taken into consideration such as laminate stacking sequence, gap shape, gap orientation and number of gaps. Based on analyzing the results of fatigue testing of different stacking sequences, a few design recommendations are provided that can enhance the performance of the defective laminates and alleviate the effect of gaps.
In addition, infrared thermography was used as a non-destructive technique for in-situ detection of damage during fatigue loading. In order to examine the nature of the inherent damage within the laminate due to gaps, sectioning and inspection of specimens using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed. The extensive fatigue experiments revealed the existence of a threshold stress value below which the effect of gaps on fatigue performance diminishes. The main drawbacks in obtaining this threshold values using the traditional long fatigue testing method were the large number of specimens and long-time for the fatigue tests.
Consequently, infrared thermography and Risitano method were applied on AFP laminates containing gaps to provide a quick method for obtaining the threshold values. This method has a great potential in saving time and material required for performing traditional fatigue tests to develop stress/life curves. The obtained results of threshold values were in good agreement with the results obtained from the conventional method.
In the numerical part, a fatigue progressive damage model (FPDM) was developed using Ansys Parametric Design Language (APDL) and applied to the case of laminates containing gaps. The progressive damage model presented in this work is an integration of fatigue life model, failure criterion, sudden and gradual degradation of strength/stiffness. The predicted results from the model were compared to the experimental results for different stacking sequences. The model showed a good agreement with the experimental results for the case of unidirectional laminates. For the case of cross-ply laminates more work should be done for better prediction of results due to the complex nature of damage for off-axis laminates. Nevertheless, the model can be helpful in saving time and material in the preliminary design steps to have an idea about the damage behavior and the performance of the designed part.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Mechanical, Industrial and Aerospace Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:Elsherbini, Yasser Mahmoud Sami Abdelsamea
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Program:Mechanical Engineering
Date:28 June 2017
Thesis Supervisor(s):Hoa, Suong Van
Keywords:Automated fiber placement, Carbon/epoxy composites, gaps
ID Code:982683
Deposited By: Yasser Mahmoud Sami Abdelsamea Elsherbini
Deposited On:08 Nov 2017 21:52
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:55


[1] www.Boeing.com/commercial/787.
[2] A. K. Kaw, Mechanics of composite materials. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC press, 2010.
[3] M. N. Grimshaw, C. G. Grant, and J. M. L. Diaz, "Advanced technology tape laying for affordable manufacturing of large composite structures," in International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition, 2001, pp. 2484-2494.
[4] http://www.mmsonline.com/.
[5] R. B. Deo, J. H. Starnes, and R. C. Holzwarth, "Low-cost composite materials and structures for aircraft applications," in NATO RTO AVT Panel spring symposium and specialists' meeting Loen, NORWAY, 2001.
[6] Z. Gürdal, B. F. Tatting, and C. Wu, "Variable stiffness composite panels: effects of stiffness variation on the in-plane and buckling response," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 39, pp. 911-922, 2008.
[7] C. S. Lopes, P. P. Camanho, Z. Gürdal, and B. F. Tatting, "Progressive failure analysis of tow-placed, variable-stiffness composite panels," International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 44, pp. 8493-8516, 2007.
[8] M. Rouhi, H. Ghayoor, S. V. Hoa, and M. Hojjati, "The effect of the percentage of steered plies on the bending-induced buckling performance of a variable stiffness composite cylinder," Science and Engineering of Composite Materials, vol. 22, pp. 149-156, 2015.
[9] Z. Gürdal, B. F. Tatting, and K. C. Wu, "Tow-placement technology and fabrication issues for laminated composite structures," in Proceedings of the AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC structures, 46th structural dynamics & materials conference, 2005.
[10] www.pasini.ca.
[11] A. W. Blom, "Structural performance of fiber-placed, variable-stiffness composite conical and cylindrical shells," PhD, department of aerospace engineering, TU Delft, Delft University of Technology, 2010.
[13] W. A. T. Walker, L. Ilcewicz, C. Poe, "Tension fracture of tow-placed laminates for transport fuselage," in Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, United States, 1991, pp. 747-78.
[14] D. S. Cairns, L. B. Ilcewicz, and T. Walker, "Far-field and near-field strain response of Automated Tow-Placed laminates to stress concentrations," Composites Engineering, vol. 3, pp. 1087-1097, 1993.
[15] H. Hsiao and I. Daniel, "Effect of fiber waviness on stiffness and strength reduction of unidirectional composites under compressive loading," Composites Science and Technology, vol. 56, pp. 581-593, 1996.
[16] D. O. H. Adams and M. W. Hyer, "Effects of layer waviness on the compression fatigue performance of thermoplastic composite laminates," International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 16, pp. 385-391, 8// 1994.
[17] A. Sawicki and P. Minguet, "The effect of intraply overlaps and gaps upon the compression strength of composite laminates," in 39th AIAA structural, dynamics, & materials conference. Long Beach, CA, 1998, pp. 744-54.
[18] K. Croft, L. Lessard, D. Pasini, M. Hojjati, J. Chen, and A. Yousefpour, "Experimental study of the effect of automated fiber placement induced defects on performance of composite laminates," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 42, pp. 484-491, 2011.
[19] N. C. Kimball, "Open hole compressive behavior of laminates with converging gap defects," Mechanical Engineering, The University of Utah, 2011.
[20] M. A. Nik, K. Fayazbakhsh, D. Pasini, and L. Lessard, "Optimization of variable stiffness composites with embedded defects induced by automated fiber placement," Composite Structures, vol. 107, pp. 160-166, 2014.
[21] A. W. Blom, C. S. Lopes, P. J. Kromwijk, Z. Gurdal, and P. P. Camanho, "A theoretical model to study the influence of tow-drop areas on the stiffness and strength of variable-stiffness laminates," Journal of composite materials, vol. 43, pp. 403-425, 2009.
[22] K. Fayazbakhsh, M. Arian Nik, D. Pasini, and L. Lessard, "The Effect of Gaps and Overlaps on the In-Plane Stiffness and Buckling Load of Variable Stiffness Laminates Made by Automated Fiber Placement," in Proceedings of 15th European Conference on Composite Materials, Venice, Italy, 2012.
[23] K. Fayazbakhsh, M. A. Nik, D. Pasini, and L. Lessard, "Defect layer method to capture effect of gaps and overlaps in variable stiffness laminates made by automated fiber placement," Composite Structures, vol. 97, pp. 245-251, 2013.
[24] O. Falcó, J. Mayugo, C. Lopes, N. Gascons, and J. Costa, "Variable-stiffness composite panels: Defect tolerance under in-plane tensile loading," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 63, pp. 21-31, 2014.
[25] O. Falcó, C. Lopes, J. Mayugo, N. Gascons, and J. Renart, "Effect of tow-drop gaps on the damage resistance and tolerance of Variable-Stiffness Panels," Composite Structures, vol. 116, pp. 94-103, 2014.
[26] X. Li, S. R. Hallett, and M. R. Wisnom, "Modelling the effect of gaps and overlaps in automated fibre placement (AFP)-manufactured laminates," Science and Engineering of Composite Materials, vol. 22, pp. 115-129, 2015.
[27] M. Lan, D. Cartié, P. Davies, and C. Baley, "Microstructure and tensile properties of carbon–epoxy laminates produced by automated fibre placement: Influence of a caul plate on the effects of gap and overlap embedded defects," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 78, pp. 124-134, 2015.
[28] M. Lan, D. Cartié, P. Davies, and C. Baley, "Influence of embedded gap and overlap fiber placement defects on the microstructure and shear and compression properties of carbon–epoxy laminates," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 82, pp. 198-207, 2016.
[29] A. Brot, "Development of Fatigue Life Regulations based on Lessons Learned from Several Aircraft Accidents," in 46 th Israel Annual Conference on Aerospace Sciences, Haifa, Israel, 2006.
[30] B. Harris, Fatigue in composites: science and technology of the fatigue response of fibre-reinforced plastics: Woodhead Publishing, 2003.
[31] A. Baker, "The fatigue of fibre-reinforced aluminium," Journal of Materials Science, vol. 3, pp. 412-423, 1968.
[32] M. Owen and R. Howe, "The accumulation of damage in a glass-reinforced plastic under tensile and fatigue loading," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 5, p. 1637, 1972.
[33] P. Curtis, "The fatigue behaviour of fibrous composite materials," The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, vol. 24, pp. 235-244, 1989.
[34] R. Talreja, "Fatigue of composite materials: damage mechanisms and fatigue-life diagrams," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences, vol. 378, pp. 461-475, 1981.
[35] T. Myers, H. Kytömaa, and T. Smith, "Environmental stress-corrosion cracking of fiberglass: Lessons learned from failures in the chemical industry," Journal of hazardous materials, vol. 142, pp. 695-704, 2007.
[36] B. Harris, N. Gathercole, J. Lee, H. Reiter, and T. Adam, "Life–prediction for constant–stress fatigue in carbon–fibre composites," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol. 355, pp. 1259-1294, 1997.
[37] P. Soden, M. Hinton, and A. Kaddour, "Lamina properties, lay-up configurations and loading conditions for a range of fibre-reinforced composite laminates," Composites Science and Technology, vol. 58, pp. 1011-1022, 1998.
[38] P. Curtis and B. Moore, "A comparison of the fatigue performance of woven and non-woven CFRP laminates in reversed axial loading," International journal of fatigue, vol. 9, pp. 67-78, 1987.
[39] M. Bureau and J. Denault, "Fatigue behavior of continuous glass fiber composites: effect of the matrix nature," Polymer composites, vol. 21, pp. 636-644, 2000.
[40] C. Bathias, "Fracture and fatigue of high performance composite materials: mechanisms and prediction," Engineering fracture mechanics, vol. 40, pp. 757-783, 1991.
[41] R. Nagalingam, S. Sundaram, B. Stanly, and J. Retnam, "Effect of nanoparticles on tensile, impact and fatigue properties of fibre reinforced plastics," Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 33, pp. 525-528, 2010.
[42] O. Konur and F. Matthews, "Effect of the properties of the constituents on the fatigue performance of composites: a review," Composites, vol. 20, pp. 317-328, 1989.
[43] S. V. Hoa, Principles of the manufacturing of composite materials: DEStech Publications, Inc, 2009.
[44] G. Shih and L. Ebert, "The effect of the fiber/matrix interface on the flexural fatigue performance of unidirectional fiberglass composites," Composites science and technology, vol. 28, pp. 137-161, 1987.
[45] J. F. Mandell and U. Meier, "Effects of stress ratio, frequency and loading time on the tensile fatigue of glass-reinforced epoxy," Long-term behavior of composites, ASTM STP, vol. 813, pp. 55-77, 1983.
[46] M. Kawai, S. Yajima, A. Hachinohe, and Y. Kawase, "High-temperature off-axis fatigue behaviour of unidirectional carbon-fibre-reinforced composites with different resin matrices," Composites science and technology, vol. 61, pp. 1285-1302, 2001.
[47] M.-H. R. Jen, Y.-C. Tseng, H.-K. Kung, and J. Huang, "Fatigue response of APC-2 composite laminates at elevated temperatures," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 39, pp. 1142-1146, 2008.
[48] J. Ferreira, J. Pires, J. Costa, O. Errajhi, and M. Richardson, "Fatigue damage and environment interaction of polyester aluminized glass fiber composites," Composite structures, vol. 78, pp. 397-401, 2007.
[49] Y.-M. Jen and C.-Y. Huang, "Combined Temperature and Moisture Effect on the Strength of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Epoxy Materials," Trans. of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, 2013.
[50] R. L. Carlson, Introduction to Fatigue in Metals and Composites: Springer Science & Business Media, 1995.
[51] J. Tong, "Characteristics of fatigue crack growth in GFRP laminates," International journal of fatigue, vol. 24, pp. 291-297, 2002.
[52] A. G. Evans, M. Y. He, and J. W. Hutchinson, "Interface debonding and fiber cracking in brittle matrix composites," Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 72, pp. 2300-2303, 1989.
[53] H. Thom, "A review of the biaxial strength of fibre-reinforced plastics," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 29, pp. 869-886, 1998.
[54] Y. Dzenis, "Cycle-based analysis of damage and failure in advanced composites under fatigue: 1. Experimental observation of damage development within loading cycles," International journal of fatigue, vol. 25, pp. 499-510, 2003.
[55] E. Gamstedt and R. Talreja, "Fatigue damage mechanisms in unidirectional carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics," Journal of materials science, vol. 34, pp. 2535-2546, 1999.
[56] S. Kobayashi and N. Takeda, "Experimental and analytical characterization of transverse cracking behavior in carbon/bismaleimide cross-ply laminates under mechanical fatigue loading," Composites part B: Engineering, vol. 33, pp. 471-478, 2002.
[57] A. Hosoi, H. Kawada, and H. Yoshino, "Fatigue characteristics of quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates subjected to variable amplitude cyclic two-stage loading," International journal of fatigue, vol. 28, pp. 1284-1289, 2006.
[58] A. Hosoi, K. Takamura, N. Sato, and H. Kawada, "Quantitative evaluation of fatigue damage growth in CFRP laminates that changes due to applied stress level," International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 33, pp. 781-787, 2011.
[59] A. Hosoi, Y. Arao, and H. Kawada, "Transverse crack growth behavior considering free-edge effect in quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates under high-cycle fatigue loading," Composites Science and Technology, vol. 69, pp. 1388-1393, 2009.
[60] C. Colombo and L. Vergani, "Influence of delamination on fatigue properties of a fibreglass composite," Composite Structures, vol. 107, pp. 325-333, 2014.
[61] M. Ibrahim, "Nondestructive evaluation of thick-section composites and sandwich structures: A review," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 64, pp. 36-48, 2014.
[62] A. Hosoi, N. Sato, Y. Kusumoto, K. Fujiwara, and H. Kawada, "High-cycle fatigue characteristics of quasi-isotropic CFRP laminates over 10 8 cycles (Initiation and propagation of delamination considering interaction with transverse cracks)," International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 32, pp. 29-36, 2010.
[63] T. Yokozeki, T. Aoki, and T. Ishikawa, "Fatigue growth of matrix cracks in the transverse direction of CFRP laminates," Composites science and technology, vol. 62, pp. 1223-1229, 2002.
[64] J. Montesano, Z. Fawaz, and H. Bougherara, "Use of infrared thermography to investigate the fatigue behavior of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite," Composite structures, vol. 97, pp. 76-83, 2013.
[65] L. Toubal, M. Karama, and B. Lorrain, "Damage evolution and infrared thermography in woven composite laminates under fatigue loading," International journal of Fatigue, vol. 28, pp. 1867-1872, 2006.
[66] L. Maio, V. Memmolo, S. Boccardi, C. Meola, F. Ricci, N. Boffa, et al., "Ultrasonic and IR Thermographic Detection of a Defect in a Multilayered Composite Plate," Procedia Engineering, vol. 167, pp. 71-79, 2016.
[67] J. N. Zalameda, E. R. Burke, F. R. Parker, J. P. Seebo, C. W. Wright, and J. B. Bly, "Thermography inspection for early detection of composite damage in structures during fatigue loading," in SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing, 2012, pp. 835403-835403-9.
[68] Y. P. Pan, R. A. Miller, T. P. Chu, and P. Filip, "Detection of defects in commercial C/C composites using infrared thermography," in SEM Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, 2009.
[69] R. Montanini and F. Freni, "Non-destructive evaluation of thick glass fiber-reinforced composites by means of optically excited lock-in thermography," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 43, pp. 2075-2082, 2012.
[70] W. Bai and B. Wong, "Evaluation of defects in composite plates under convective environments using lock-in thermography," Measurement science and technology, vol. 12, p. 142, 2001.
[71] C. Meola, G. M. Carlomagno, and L. Giorleo, "Geometrical limitations to detection of defects in composites by means of infrared thermography," Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, vol. 23, pp. 125-132, 2004.
[72] http://www.cytec.com/products/cycom-977-2.
[73] ASTM, "D3039, Standard test method for tensile properties of polymer matrix composite materials," in American Society for Testing Materials, ed, 2003.
[74] ASTM, "D3410,Standard tests method for compressive properties of polymer matrix composite materials," ed, 2003.
[75] ASTM, "D3518, Standard test method for in-plane shear response of polymer matrix composite materials by tensile test of a±45◦ laminate.," in American Society of Testing Materials., ed, 2001.
[76] Z. Hashin, "Failure criteria for unidirectional fiber composites," Journal of applied mechanics, vol. 47, pp. 329-334, 1980.
[77] G. S. Patience, D. C. Boffito, and P. Patience, Communicate Science Papers, Presentations, and Posters Effectively: Academic Press, 2015.
[78] U. Makkar, M. Rana, and A. Singh, "ANALYSIS OF FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF GLASS/CARBON FIBER EPOXY COMPOSITE," International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, vol. 4, pp. 211-216, 2015.
[79] A. M. Neville and J. B. Kennedy, "Basic statistical methods for engineers and scientists," in Basic statistical methods for engineers and scientists, ed: International Textbook, 1964.
[80] J. M. Ketterer, "Fatigue crack initiation in cross-ply carbon fiber laminates," MSC, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009.
[81] R. Talreja and C. V. Singh, Damage and failure of composite materials: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
[82] I. DANIEL and A. CHAREWICZ, "Damage mechanisms and accumulation in graphite/epoxy laminates," Composite materials: Fatigue and fracture, 1986.
[83] G. La Rosa and A. Risitano, "Thermographic methodology for rapid determination of the fatigue limit of materials and mechanical components," International journal of fatigue, vol. 22, pp. 65-73, 2000.
[84] G. Curti, G. La Rosa, M. Orlando, and A. Risitano, "Analisi tramite infrarosso termico della temperatura limite in prove di fatica," in 14th AIAS Italian National Conference, Catania, Italy, 1986, pp. 211–220.
[85] M. P. Luong, "Fatigue limit evaluation of metals using an infrared thermographic technique," Mechanics of materials, vol. 28, pp. 155-163, 1998.
[86] C. Colombo, L. Vergani, and M. Burman, "Static and fatigue characterisation of new basalt fibre reinforced composites," Composite structures, vol. 94, pp. 1165-1174, 2012.
[87] E. Kordatos, K. Dassios, D. Aggelis, and T. Matikas, "Rapid evaluation of the fatigue limit in composites using infrared lock-in thermography and acoustic emission," Mechanics Research Communications, vol. 54, pp. 14-20, 2013.
[88] F. Curà, G. Curti, and R. Sesana, "A new iteration method for the thermographic determination of fatigue limit in steels," International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 27, pp. 453-459, 2005.
[89] V. Crupi, E. Guglielmino, M. Maestro, and A. Marinò, "Fatigue analysis of butt welded AH36 steel joints: thermographic method and design S–N curve," Marine Structures, vol. 22, pp. 373-386, 2009.
[90] C. Colombo, F. Libonati, F. Pezzani, A. Salerno, and L. Vergani, "Fatigue behaviour of a GFRP laminate by thermographic measurements," Procedia Engineering, vol. 10, pp. 3518-3527, 2011.
[91] M. Guagliano, C. Colombo, F. Libonati, and L. Vergani, "Fatigue damage in GFRP," International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 3, pp. 424-440, 2012.
[92] X. Li, H. Zhang, D. Wu, X. Liu, and J. Liu, "Adopting lock-in infrared thermography technique for rapid determination of fatigue limit of aluminum alloy riveted component and affection to determined result caused by initial stress," International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 36, pp. 18-23, 2012.
[93] Ansys, "v15," ANSYS Corporation Software, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 2014.
[94] M. M. Shokrieh, "Progressive fatigue damage modeling of composite materials," PhD, Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Canada, 1996.
[95] N. Gathercole, H. Reiter, T. Adam, and B. Harris, "Life prediction for fatigue of T800/5245 carbon-fibre composites: I. Constant-amplitude loading," international Journal of Fatigue, vol. 16, pp. 523-532, 1994.
[96] T. Adam, R. Dickson, C. Jones, H. Reiter, and B. Harris, "A power law fatigue damage model for fibre-reinforced plastic laminates," Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, vol. 200, pp. 155-166, 1986.
[97] P. Papanikos, K. I. Tserpes, and S. P. Pantelakis, "Modelling of fatigue damage progression and life of CFRP laminates," Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, vol. 26, pp. 37-47, 2003.
[98] K. I. Tserpes, G. Labeas, P. Papanikos, and T. Kermanidis, "Strength prediction of bolted joints in graphite/epoxy composite laminates," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 33, pp. 521-529, 10// 2002.
[99] T. Kermanidis, G. Labeas, K. Tserpes, and S. Pantelakis, "Finite element modeling of damage accumulation in bolted composite joints under incremental tensile loading," in Proceedings of the Third ECCOMAS Congress, Barcelona, Spain, 2000, pp. 11-14.
[100] W. Lian and W. Yao, "Fatigue life prediction of composite laminates by FEA simulation method," International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 32, pp. 123-133, 2010.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top