Login | Register

Comparative study on cellular entry of incinerated ancient gold particles (Swarna Bhasma) and chemically synthesized gold particles


Comparative study on cellular entry of incinerated ancient gold particles (Swarna Bhasma) and chemically synthesized gold particles

Beaudet, Daniel, Badilescu, Simona, Kuruvinashetti, Kiran, Sohrabi Kashani, Ahmad, Jaunky, Dilan, Ouellette, Sylvie, Piekny, Alisa J and Packirisamy, Muthukumaran ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1769-6986 (2017) Comparative study on cellular entry of incinerated ancient gold particles (Swarna Bhasma) and chemically synthesized gold particles. Scientific Reports, 7 (10678). pp. 1-12. ISSN 2045-2322

[thumbnail of packirisamy-scientific-reports-2017.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
packirisamy-scientific-reports-2017.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.

Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-10872-3


Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are used for a number of imaging and therapeutic applications in east and western part of the world. For thousands of years, the traditional Indian Ayurvedic approach to healing involves the use of incinerated gold ash, prepared with a variety of plant extracts and minerals depending on the region. Here, we describe the characterization of incinerated gold particles (IAuPs) in HeLa (human cells derived from cervical cancer) and HFF-1 (human foreskin fibroblast cells) in comparison to synthesized citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We found that while individual IAuP crystallites are around 60 nm in size, they form large aggregates with a mean diameter of 4711.7 nm, some of which can enter cells. Fewer cells appeared to have IAuPs compared to AuNPs, although neither type of particle was toxic to cells. Imaging studies revealed that IAuPs were in vesicles, cytosol, or in the nucleus. We found that their nuclear accumulation likely occurred after nuclear envelope breakdown during cell division. We also found that larger IAuPs entered cells via macropinocytosis, while smaller particles entered via clathrin-dependent receptor-mediated endocytosis.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Mechanical, Industrial and Aerospace Engineering
Item Type:Article
Authors:Beaudet, Daniel and Badilescu, Simona and Kuruvinashetti, Kiran and Sohrabi Kashani, Ahmad and Jaunky, Dilan and Ouellette, Sylvie and Piekny, Alisa J and Packirisamy, Muthukumaran
Journal or Publication:Scientific Reports
Date:6 September 2017
  • NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada)
  • FQRNT (Fonds Québécois de la Recherche sur la Nature et les Technologies)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):10.1038/s41598-017-10872-3
Keywords:Biomedical engineering; Microbiology techniques; Nanoparticles
ID Code:983231
Deposited By: Danielle Dennie
Deposited On:24 Nov 2017 21:25
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:56


Kodiha, M., Wang, Y. M., Hutter, E., Maysinger, D. & Stochaj, U. Off to the organelles—killing cancer cells with targeted gold nano-particles. Theranostics 5, 357–370 (2015).

Petros, R. A. & DeSimone, J. M. Strategies in the design of nanoparticles for therapeutic applications. Nature reviews Drug discovery 9, 615–627 (2010).

Yeh, Y.-C., Creran, B. & Rotello, V. M. Gold nanoparticles: preparation, properties, and applications in bionanotechnology. Nanoscale 4, 1871–1880 (2012).

Dance, A. Medical histories. Nature 537, S52–S53 (2016).

Mukherjee, P. K. et al. Development of ayurveda–tradition to trend. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2016).

Chaudhary, A. Ayurvedic bhasma: nanomedicine of ancient india—its global contemporary perspective. Journal of biomedical nanotechnology 7, 68–69 (2011).

Barve, M. et al. Therapeutic potentials of metals in ancient india: A review through charaka samhita. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine 2, 55–63 (2011).

Pandey, M., Rastogi, S. & Rawat, A. Indian traditional ayurvedic system of medicine and nutritional supplementation. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 (2013).
Jaiswal, Y. S. & Williams, L. L. A glimpse of ayurveda–the forgotten history and principles of indian traditional medicine. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine (2016).

Sarkar, P. K. & Chaudhary, A. K. Ayurvedic bhasma: the most ancient application of nanomedicine. J Sci Ind Res 69, 901 (2010).

Kulkarni, S. S. Bhasma and nanomedicine. Int Res J Pharm 4, 10–16 (2013).

Paul, W. & Sharma, C. Blood compatibility studies of swarna bhasma (gold bhasma), an ayurvedic drug. International journal of Ayurveda research 2, 14 (2011).

Alex, S. & Tiwari, A. Functionalized gold nanoparticles: synthesis, properties and applications—a review. Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology 15, 1869–1894 (2015).

Mitra, A. et al. Evaluation of chemical constituents and free-radical scavenging activity of swarnabhasma (gold ash), an ayurvedic drug. Journal of ethnopharmacology 80, 147–153 (2002).

Brown, C. L. et al. Nanogold-pharmaceutics. Gold Bull 40, 245–250 (2007).

Sanjay Khedekar, G. R. P. B., Anupriya & P. K, P. Chemical characterization of incinerated gold (swarna bhasma). Jama 6, 89–95 (2015).

Saper, R. B. et al. Heavy metal content of ayurvedic herbal medicine products. Jama 292, 2868–2873 (2004).

Yadav, V. et al. Different au-content in swarna bhasma preparations: Evidence oflot–to-lot variations from different manufacturers (2012).

Rathore, M., K., S., Joshi, D. S. & Bapat, R. D. Swarna bhasmas do contain nanoparticles? International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences 4, 243–249 (2013).

Panyala, N. R., Peña-Méndez, E. M. & Havel, J. Gold and nano-gold in medicine: overview, toxicology and perspectives. J Appl Biomed 7, 75–91 (2009).

Alkilany, A. M. & Murphy, C. J. Toxicity and cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles: what we have learned so far? Journal of nanoparticle research 12, 2313–2333 (2010).

Doherty, G. J. & McMahon, H. T. Mechanisms of endocytosis. Annual review of biochemistry 78, 857–902 (2009).

Swanson, J. A. & Watts, C. Macropinocytosis. Trends in cell biology 5, 424–428 (1995).

Mayor, S. & Pagano, R. E. Pathways of clathrin-independent endocytosis. Nature reviews Molecular cell biology 8, 603–612 (2007).

Lim, J. P. & Gleeson, P. A. Macropinocytosis: an endocytic pathway for internalising large gulps. Immunology and cell biology 89, 836–843 (2011).

Yang, C., Uertz, J., Yohan, D. & Chithrani, B. Peptide modified gold nanoparticles for improved cellular uptake, nuclear transport, and intracellular retention. Nanoscale 6, 12026–12033 (2014).

Cheng, X. et al. Protein corona influences cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles by phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells in a size-dependent manner. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 7, 20568–20575 (2015).

Cho, E. C., Zhang, Q. & Xia, Y. The effect of sedimentation and diffusion on cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles. Nature nanotechnology 6, 385–391 (2011).

Albanese, A. & Chan, W. C. Effect of gold nanoparticle aggregation on cell uptake and toxicity. ACS nano 5, 5478–5489 (2011).

Gilleron, J. et al. Image-based analysis of lipid nanoparticle-mediated sirna delivery, intracellular trafficking and endosomal escape. Nature biotechnology 31, 638–646 (2013).

Bayles, A. R. et al. Rapid cytosolic delivery of luminescent nanocrystals in live cells with endosome-disrupting polymer colloids. Nano letters 10, 4086–4092 (2010).

Yang, J. C. & B Chithrani, D. Nuclear targeting of gold nanoparticles for improved therapeutics. Current topics in medicinal chemistry 16, 271–280 (2016).

Wongrakpanich, A., Geary, S. M., Mei-ling, A. J., Anderson, M. E. & Salem, A. K. Mitochondria-targeting particles. Nanomedicine 9, 2531–2543 (2014).

Jhaveri, A. & Torchilin, V. Intracellular delivery of nanocarriers and targeting to subcellular organelles. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 13, 49–70 (2016).

Kimling, J. et al. Turkevich method for gold nanoparticle synthesis revisited. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 110, 15700–15707 (2006).

Turkevich, J., Stevenson, P. C. & Hillier, J. A study of the nucleation and growth processes in the synthesis of colloidal gold. Discussions of the Faraday Society 11, 55–75 (1951).

Yüce, Ö., Piekny, A. & Glotzer, M. Anect2–centralspindlin complex regulates the localization and function of rhoa. The Journal of cell biology 170, 571–582 (2005).

Haiss, W., Thanh, N. T., Aveyard, J. & Fernig, D. G. Determination of size and concentration of gold nanoparticles from uv- vis spectra. Analytical chemistry 79, 4215–4221 (2007).

Gewirtz, D. A critical evaluation of the mechanisms of action proposed for the antitumor effects of the anthracycline antibiotics adriamycin and daunorubicin. Biochemical pharmacology 57, 727–741 (1999).

Patel, A. G. & Kaufmann, S. H. How does doxorubicin work? Elife 1, e00387 (2012).
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top