Login | Register

“It was just a prank, Han!”: Wendibros, Girlfriend Woes, and Gender Politics in Until Dawn


“It was just a prank, Han!”: Wendibros, Girlfriend Woes, and Gender Politics in Until Dawn

Waldie, Rebecca (2018) “It was just a prank, Han!”: Wendibros, Girlfriend Woes, and Gender Politics in Until Dawn. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Waldie_MA_S2018.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Waldie_MA_S2018.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


Horror video games utilize conventional stereotypes to replicate the hegemonic power structures of the cultures from which they are produced. Using the 2015 award-winning horror video game Until Dawn as a case study, the author unpacks the construction of hegemonic masculinity and interrogates the impact of traditionally marginalized traits such as race and mental illness against the idealized role of the white, male saviour stereotype using an intersectional content analysis.

The thesis begins with an exploration of the game studies literature around gender and marginalization before transitioning into a consideration of hegemony in horror media, including video games. From there, the author contextualizes R. W. Connell’s conceptualization of hegemonic masculinity and combines it with Kimberlé Crenshaw’s intersectional lens. The literature is encapsulated in a summarization of Until Dawn’s characterization of masculinity, as determined by the theoretical framework provided, as a white (male) saviour archetype.

The author dedicates the three subsequent chapters to analyzing, via content analysis, the game’s key forms of marginalization: gender, race, and mental illness In each chapter, the content of Until Dawn is dissected to determine to what degree each marginalized attribute impacts a character’s ability to meet the game’s metric for hegemonic masculinity. The game content considered includes visuals, dialogue, object access and usability, combat scenarios, and storyline.

Hegemonic masculinity, mental illness, and the appropriation of Indigenous culture must be critically analyzed; this research adds a necessary consideration of several problematic and harmful representations that are often overlooked in current game studies literature.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Communication Studies
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Waldie, Rebecca
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A.
Program:Media Studies
Date:March 2018
Thesis Supervisor(s):Consalvo, Mia
Keywords:Masculinity, Gender, Race, Mental Illness, Cultural Appropriation, Marginalization, Video Games, Content Analysis, Textual Analysis, Intersectionality
ID Code:983664
Deposited By: Rebecca Waldie
Deposited On:11 Jun 2018 01:41
Last Modified:11 Jun 2018 01:41


13 Reasons Why. March, 2017. Netflix Original Series.

Alexlayne. 2016. “Incoherent Worlds: Video Games, Madness, and Subversion,” not your mama’s gamer. December 26. Accessed here: http://www.nymgamer.com/?p=15643.

Anonymous. 2015. “Video games have a diversity problem that runs deeper than race or gender.” The Guardian: Tech. September 10. Accessed here: http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/sep/10/video-games-diversity-problem-runs-deeper-than-race-gender.

Aoki, Guy and Jeffery Scott Mio. 2012. “Stereotypes and Media Images,” in Asian American Psychology: Current Perspectives. Eds. Nita Tewari and Alvin N. Alvarez. New York: Psychology Press, 421-440.

Artz, Lee. 2015. “Monarchs, Monsters, and Multiculturalism: Disney’s Menu for Global Hierarchy,” in GENDER, RACE, and CLASS in MEDIA: A Critical Reader edited by Gail Dines and Jean M. Humez. Los Angeles: SAGE, 449-454.

Barone, Matt. 2013. “Fact Check: Do Black Characters Always Die First in Horror Movies?” Complex: Pop Culture. Last modified October 31. Accessed here: http://ca.complex.com/pop-culture/2013/10/black-characters-horror-movies/.

Barry, Ashley. 2015. “Mentally Ill Characters: Another Kind of Damsel in Distress?” not your mama’s gamer. March 21. Accessed here: http://www.nymgamer.com/?p=6925.

Beidel, Deborah C., Frueh, B. Crhistopher, Neer, Sandra M., Bowers, Clint A., Trachik, Benjamin, Uhde, Thomas W., and Anouk Grubaugh. 2016. “Trauma management therapy with virtual-reality augmented exposure therapy for combat-related PTSD: A randomized controlled trial,” Journal of Anxiety Disorders. August 23.

Benshoff, Harry. 1997. Monsters in the Closet: Homosexuality and the Horror Film. New York: Manchester University Press.

Bogdan, Robert. 1996. “The Social Construction of Freaks,” in Freakery. Ed. Rosemarie Garland Thomson. New York: New York University Press, 23-37.

Bogdan, Robert, Elks, Martin, and James A. Knoll. 2012. Picturing Disability: Beggar, Freak, Citizen, and Other Photographic Rhetoric. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Brock, André. 2011. “’When Keeping it Real Goes Wrong’: Resident Evil 5, Racial Representation, and Gamers,” Games and Culture 6 (5): 429-452.

The Butterfly Effect. Dir. Eric Bress and J. Mackye Gruber, 2004. Film.

“The Butterfly Effect.” Heroes, S3.2, September 22, 2008. Television Episode.

Byrd, Jodi. 2016. "‘Do they not have Rational Souls?’: Consolidation and Sovereignty in Digital New Worlds," Settler Colonial Studies 6 (4): 423-437.

Byrne, Peter. 2000. “Stigma of mental illness and ways of diminishing it,” Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 6: 65-72.

Cammarota, Julio. 2011. “Blindsided by the Avatar: White Saviors and Allies Out of Hollywood and in Education,” Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies 33(3): 242-259.

Chess, Shira and Shaw, Adrienne. 2015. “A Conspiracy of Fishes, or, How We Learned to Stop Worrying about GamerGate and Embrace Hegemonic Masculinity.” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 59(1): 208-220.

Clover, Carol J.. 1989. “Her Body, Himself: Gender in the Slasher Film.” Misogyny, Misandry, and Misanthropy. Eds. R. Howard Bloch and Frances Ferguson. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Clover, Carol J.. 1992. Men, Women, and Chainsaws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film. London: BFI.

Cockerham, William C., Imrey, Peter B., and Sidney J. Kronus. 1978. “The ‘Token’ Minority: An Attitudinal Comparison of Black, Oriental and Anglo Rural Youth Utilizing a Matched-Set Analysis,” Sociological Methods & Research 6(4): 493-515.

Connell, R. W.. 2005. “Change among the Gatekeepers: Men, Masculinities, and Gender Equality in the Global Arena,” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 30(3): 1801-1825.

Connell, R. W.. 2002. “On hegemonic masculinity and violence: Response to Jefferson and Hall,” Theoretical Criminology 6(1): 89-99.

Connell, R. W. and James W. Messerschmidt. 2005. “Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept,” Gender & Society 19(6): 829-859.

Consalvo, Mia. 2003. “It’s a Queer World After All: Studying The Sims and Sexuality.” GLAAD Center for the Study of Media and Society. New York: GLAAD.

Consalvo, Mia. 2003. “The Monsters Next Door: Media Constructions of Boys and Masculinity,” Feminist Media Studies 3 (1): 27-45.

Consalvo, Mia and Nathan Dutton.2006. “Game analysis: Developing a methodological toolkit for the qualitative study of games.” Game Studies, 6.1. December 2006.

Coulthard, Lisa, and Chelsea Birks. 2015. “Desublimating monstrous desire: the horror of gender in new extremist cinema,” Journal of Gender Studies 25(4): 461-476.

Crenshaw, Kimberlé. 1991. “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color,” Stanford Law Review 43 (6): 1241-1299.

Dalton, Brett. 2016. Interview.

Delgado, Daniel J. 2016. “‘And You Need Me to Be the Token Mexican?’: Examining Racial Hierarchies and the Complexities of Racial Identities for Middle Class Mexican Americans,” Critical Sociology 42(4-5): 679-698.

Dill, Karen E., Gentile, Douglas A., Richter, William A., and Jody C. Dill. 2005. “Violence, Sex, Race, and Age in Popular Video Games: A Content Analysis,” in Featuring females: Feminist analyses of the media. Eds. Ellen Cole and Jessica Henderson Daniel. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, 115-130.

Dill, Karen E., and Kathryn P. Thill. 2007. “Video Game Characters and the Socialization of Gender Roles: Young People’s Perceptions Mirror Sexist Media Depictions,” Sex Roles 57 (11): 851-864.

DiMarco, Danette. 2011. “Going Wendigo: The Emergence of the Iconic Monster in Margaret Atwood's Oryx and Crake and Antonia Bird's Ravenous,” College Literature 38 (4): 134-155.

Dines, Gail. 2015. “The White Man’s Burden: Gonzo Pornography and the Construction of Black Masculinity,” in GENDER, RACE, and CLASS in MEDIA: A Critical Reader edited by Gail Dines and Jean M. Humez. Los Angeles: SAGE, 366-372.

Downs, E. and S. Smith. 2009. “Keeping Abreast of Hypersexuality: A Video Game Character Content Analysis.” Presented at the International Communication Association annual conference.

Dubrofsky, Rachel E. and Emily D. Ryalls. 2014. “The Hunger Games: Performing Not-performing to Authenticate Femininity and Whiteness,” Critical Studies in Media Communication 31(5): 395-409.

Ferrara, Nadia and Guy Lanoue. 2004. “The Self in Northern Canadian Hunting Societies: 'Cannibals' and Other 'Monsters' as Agents of Healing,” Anthropologica 46 (1): 69-83.

Ferree, Myra Marx. 2009. “Inequality, intersectionality and the politics of discourse: Framing feminist alliances.” Chapter 6 in The Discursive Politics of Gender Equality: Stretching, Bending and Policy-Making. Eds: Emanuela Lombardo, Petra Meier, and Mieke Verloo. New York: Routledge, p. 86-104.

Fernández-Vara, Clara. 2015. Introduction to Game Analysis. New York: Routledge.

Frasca, Gonzalo. 2003. "Simulation versus Narrative: Introduction to Ludology." In The Video Game Theory Reader. Eds. Mark J. P. Wolf and Bernard Perron. New York: Routledge.

Friedrich, Kathrin. 2016. “Therapeutic Media: Treating PTSD with Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy,” MediaTropes 6(1): 86-113.

Fürsich, Elfriede. 2009. “In Defense of Textual Analysis,” Journalism Studies 10(2): 238-252.

Gallegos-Cázares, Leticia; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Calderón-Canales, Elena; Perrusquía-Máximo, Elvia, and Beatriz García-Rivera. 2014. “Children’s Models about colours in Nahuatl-Speaking Communities,” Research in Science Education 44 (5): 699-725.

Garland Thomson, Rosemarie. 1996. “Introduction: From Wonder to Error --- A Genealogy of Freak Discourse,” in Freakery. Ed. Rosemarie Garland Thomson. New York: New York University Press, 1-19.

Gaughwin, Peter C.. 2005. “On Being Insane in Medico-Legal Places: The Importance of Taking a Complete History in Forensic Mental Health Assessment,” Psychiatry, Psychology and Law 12(2): 298-310.

Ghoshal, Nishan and Paul O. Wilkinson. 2017. “The Hunger Games: a portrayal of PTSD in teenage fiction,” The British Journal of Psychiatry 211: 191.

Godwin, Victoria. 2013. “Twilight Anti-Fans: ‘Real’ Fans and ‘Real’ Vampires,” in The Twilight Saga: Exploring the Global Phenomenon edited by Claudia Bucciferro, 93-106. New York: Scarecrow Press, Inc..

Goodwin, John. 2013. “The Horror of Stigma: Psychosis and Mental Health Care Environments in Twenty-First-Century Horror Film (Part II),” Perspectives in Psychiatric Care 50(4): 224-234.

Goto, Lindsay. 2015. “Vilifying Mental Illness: Horror Games & The Insanity Trope,” FemHype. March 16. Accessed here: https://femhype.com/2015/03/16/vilifying-mental-illness-horror-games-the-insanity-trope/.

Grimes, Sara M.. 2003. “‘You Shoot Like A Girl!’: The Female Protagonist in Action-Adventure Video Games.” Presented at 2003 DiGRA International Conference: Level Up, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 4-6 November.

Grosz, Elizabeth. 1996. “Intolerable Ambiguity: Freaks as/at the Limit,” in Freakery. Ed. Rosemarie Garland Thomson. New York: New York University Press, 55-67.

Hankir, Ahmed and Mark Agius. 2012. “An Exploration of How Film Portrays Psychopathology: The Animated Documentary Film Waltz with Bashir, The Depiction of PTSD and Cultural Perceptions,” Psychiatria Danubina 24(1): 70-76.

Harpin, Anna. 2013. “Revisiting the Puzzle Factory: Cultural Representations of Psychiatric Asylums,” Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 38(4): 335-350.

Harvey, Alison. 2015. “Girls, Boys, Gender and Games,” Gender, Age, and Digital Games in the Domestic Context. New York: Routeledge, 27-59.

Ilyin, Natalia. 2000. Blonde like me: the roots of the blonde myth in our culture. New York: Touchstone.

Issac, Christopher. 2016. “The Evolution of Mental Illness Definitions and Its Effect on Media Representations: A Literature Review,” The Compass 1(3): 1-10.

Jordan, Eric A.. 2016. Reel racism, real consequences: a multiple case analysis of savior films as racial projects. Masters Thesis. University of Louisville.

Justice, Jennifer. 2014. “Of Monsters and Men,” not your mama’s gamer. July 26. Accessed here: - http://www.nymgamer.com/?p=5472.

Karras, Irene. 2002. “The Third Wave's Final Girl: Buffy the Vampire Slayer.” Thirdspace, 1(2).

Keene, Adrienne. 2016 “Magic in North America Part 1: Ugh.,” Native Appropriations. March 8. Accessed here: http://nativeappropriations.com/2016/03/magic-in-north-america-part-1-ugh.html.

Kendall, Lori. 2000. “‘Oh Ho! I’m a Nerd!’: Hegemonic Masculinity on an Online Forum,” Gender & Society 14(2): 256-274.

Kendall, Lori. 2011. “’White and Nerdy’: Computers, Race, and the Nerd Stereotype,” The Journal of Popular Culture 44 (2): 505-524.

King, Claire Sisco. 2009. “It Cuts Both Ways: Fight Club, Masculinity, and Abject Hegemony,” Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies 6 (4): 366-385.

King, Claire Sisco. 2013. “A Gendered Shell Game: Masculinity and Race in District 9,” in Communicating Marginalized Masculinities: Identity Politics in TV, Film, and New Media edited by Ronald L. Jackson II and Jamie E. Moshin, 80-98. New York: Routledge.

Kirkland, Ewan. 2009. “Masculinity in Video Games: The Gendered Gameplay of Silent Hill,” Camera Obscura 71(24.2): 161-183.

Kirkland, Ewan. 2009. “Storytelling in Survival Horror Video Games,” in Horror Video Games: Essays on the Fusion of Fear and Play. Ed. Bernard Perron. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc..

Klepek, Patrick. 2015. “How Until Dawn Messes With Two Of Horror’s Most Overused Tropes,” Kotaku. Last modified September 10. http://kotaku.com/how-until-dawn-messes-with-two-of-horror-s-most-overuse-1729817525.

Lenhardt, Corinna. 2016. “Wendigos, Eye Killers, Skinwalkers: The Myth of the American Indian Vampire and American Indian “Vampire” Myths,” Text Matters 6 (1): 195-212.

Linton, Simi. 2006. “Reassigning Meaning,” in The Disability Studies Readers. Ed. Lennard J. Davis. New York: Routledge, 161-172.

Liu, Helena and Christopher Baker. 2016. “White Knights: Leadership as the heroicisation of whiteness,” Leadership 12(4): 420-448.

Lopez, Lori Kido. 2015. “Fan Activists and the Politics of Race in The Last Airbender,” in GENDER, RACE, and CLASS in MEDIA: A Critical Reader edited by Gail Dines and Jean M. Humez. Los Angeles: SAGE, 637-647.

Lorber, Judith. 1998. “Men’s Gender Politics,” Gender & Society 12 (4): 469-472. http://www.jstor.org/stable/190179.

Lupack, Barbara Tepa. 1995. “Chapter 2. Seeking a Sane Asylum: Catch-22,” in Insanity as Redemption in Contemporary American Fiction. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 19-62.

Luyt, Russell, Christina Welch, and Rosemary Lobban. 2015. “Diversity in gender and visual representation: An introduction,” Journal of Gender Studies 24 (4): 383-385.

Massie, Keith. 2011. “Representations of race and gender within the gamespace of the MMO Everquest,” Online Gaming in Context: The social and cultural significance of online games. Eds. Garry Crawford, Victoria K. Gosling, and Ben Light. New York: Routledge, 249-265.

Maurantonio, Nicole. 2017. “‘Reason to Hope?’: The White Savior Myth and Progress in ‘Post-Racial’ America,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 94(4): 1130-1145.

McCann, Ben. 2008. “Pierced Borders, Punctured Bodies: the Contemporary French Horror Film,” Australian Journal of French Studies 45 (3): 225-237.

McIntosh, Dawn Marie D.. 2017. “Victims, Protectors, and Possibilities for Change: White Womanhood and the Violence of Heteronormativity,” QED: A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking 4(2): 162-169.

McIntosh, Peggy. White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack, (n.d.). Website: http://ted.coe.wayne.edu/ele3600/mcintosh.html.

McKay, James and Helen Johnson. 2015. “Pornographic Eroticism and Sexual Grotesquerie in Representations of African American Sportswomen,” in GENDER, RACE, and CLASS in MEDIA: A Critical Reader edited by Gail Dines and Jean M. Humez. Los Angeles: SAGE, 118-127.

McKee, Alan. 2003. “What is Textual Analysis?” Textual analysis: A beginner’s guide. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Mulvey, Laura. 1975. “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema,” Screen 16(3): 6-18.

Nakamura, Lisa. 2009. “Don’t Hate the Player, Hate the Game: The Racialization of Labor in World of Warcraft.” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 26(2): 128-144.

Nakamura, Lisa. 2008. “Neoliberal Space and Race in Virtual Worlds.” The Velvet Light Trap.

Najarian, Anie. 2007. Transmission of trauma, ritual and art therapy. Masters Thesis. Concordia University.

Nixon, Sarah. 2013. “They’re Mad, I Tell You: Portrayal of Mental Illness in Video Games,” not your mama’s gamer. September 12. Accessed here: http://www.nymgamer.com/?p=3557.

Ocampo, Anthony. 2014. “Stereotypes: Sexuality,” in Asian American Society: An Encyclopedia. Ed. Mary Yu Danico. SAGE Publications.

Och, Dana. 2015. “Beyond Surveillance: Questions of the Real in the Neopostmodern Horror Film,” in Style and Form in the Hollywood Slasher Film edited by Wickham Clayton, 195-212. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ohl, Jessy and Aaron Duncan. 2012. “Taking Aim at Sexual Harassment: Feminized Performances of Hegemonic Masculinity in the First-Person Shooter Hey Baby,” in Guns, Grenades, and Grunts. Eds. Gerald A. Voorhees, Josh Call, and Katie Whitlock. New York: Continuum, 319-340.

Perron, Bernard. 2012. “Chapter 1: Survival Terror.” Silent Hill: The Terror Engine. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Perron, Bernard. 2012. “Chapter 2: Characters’ Nightmarish Delusions in a Resort Town,” Silent Hill: The Terror Engine. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Perron, Bernard. .2012. “Chapter 3: Designers’ Cinematic Depiction of a Game World.” Silent Hill: The Terror Engine. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Perron, Bernard. 2009. “The Survival Horror: The Extended Body Genre.” Horror Video games: Essays on the Fusion of Fear and Play. Ed. Bernard Perron. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc..

Perron, Bernard and Mark J. P. Wolf. 2008. The Video Game Theory Reader 2. New York: Taylor and Francis.

Pluto. 2015. “Be Kind, You Can’t Rewind: Trauma & Mental Illness in ‘Life Is Strange’,” FemHype. August 19. Accessed here: https://femhype.com/2015/08/19/be-kind-you-cant-rewind-trauma-mental-illness-in-life-is-strange/.

Poseck, Beatriz Vera. 2008. “Asylums for the insane in the cinema: the representation of mental institutions and their procedures on the wide screen,” Revista de Medicina y Cine/Journal of Medicine and Movies 3(2): 57-67.

Quintero Johnson, Jessie M. and Bonnie Miller. 2016. “When Women ‘Snap’: the Use of Mental Illness to Contextualize Women’s Acts of Violence in Contemporary Popular Media,” Women’s Studies in Communication 39(2): 211-227.

“Reel Injun.” Dir. Neil Diamond et al. National Film Board of Canada. 2010. Film.

Reyes, Angela. 2004. “Asian American Stereotypes as Circulating Resource,” Pragmatics 14(2): 173-192.

Robertson, Rachel. 2014. “‘Misfitting’ Mothers: Feminism, Disability and Mothering,” Hecate 40(1): 7-19.

Rouse III, Richard. 2009. “Match Made In Hell: The Inevitable Success Of The Horror Genre In Video Games,” Horror Video games: Essays on the Fusion of Fear and Play. Ed. Bernard Perron. Jefferson: McFarland & Co..

Rouvas-Nicolis, Catherine and Gregoire Nicolis. 2009. “Butterfly effect.” Scholarpedia, 4(5):1720.

Rubin, Lawrence C.. 2006. “Psychotropia: Medicine, Media, and the Virtual Asylum,” The Journal of Popular Culture 39(2): 260-271.

Shaw, Adrienne. 2015. Gaming at the Edge. University of Minnesota Press: 2015.

Shaw, Adrienne. 2014. “Representation Matters (?): When, how and if representation matters to marginalized game audiences,” in Challenging Communication Research. Ed.Leah Lievrouw. New York: International Communication Association.

Schut, Kevin. 2015. “Strategic Simulations and Our Past: The Bias of Computer Games in the Presentation of History,” in GENDER, RACE, and CLASS in MEDIA: A Critical Reader edited by Gail Dines and Jean M. Humez. Los Angeles: SAGE, 484-490.

Shapiro, Samuel and Merrill Rotter. 2016. “Graphic Depictions: Portrayals of Mental Illness in Video Games,” Journal of Forensic Sciences 61(6): 1592-1595.

Shome, Raka. 2015. “‘Global Motherhood’: The Transnational Intimacies of White Femininity,” in GENDER, RACE, and CLASS in MEDIA: A Critical Reader edited by Gail Dines and Jean M. Humez. Los Angeles: SAGE, 108-117.

Smith, Claude J., Jr.. 1999. “Finding a warm place for someone we know: the cultural appeal of recent mental patient and asylum films,” Journal of Popular Film and Television 27(1) 40-47.

Solarski, Chris. 2017. Interactive Stories and Video Game Art. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Steele, Sarah L., and Tyler Shores. 2015. “Real and unreal masculinities: the celebrity image in anti-trafficking campaigns” Journal of Gender Studies 24(4): 383-385.

Stineman, Galadriel. 2017. Interview.

Stout, Patricia A., Villegas, Jorge, and Nancy A. Jennings. 2004. “Images of Mental Illness in the Media: Identifying Gaps in the Research,” Schizophrenia Bulletin 30(3): 543-561.

Sundén, Jenny and Malin Sveningsson. 2012. Gender and Sexuality in Online Game Cultures. New York: Routledge.

Supermassive Games (2015, October 22). “We are Will Byles and Tom Heaton of Supermassive Games, the studio that created Until Dawn for PS4. AMA!,” Accessed here: https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/3prqiq/we_are_will_byles_and_tom_heaton_of_supermassive/.

Sutton, Ian. 2004. “Beyond tokenism: Canadian television moves into the age of diversity,” Broadcaster 63(2): 8.

Szasz, T. 2005. “‘Idiots, infants, and the insane’: mental illness and legal incompetence,” Journal of Medical Ethics 31(2): 78-81.

Thibodeau, Ruth. 1989. “From Racism to Tokenism: The Changing Face of Blacks in New Yorker Cartoons,” Public Opinion Quarterly 53(4): 482-494.

Thompson, James. 2015. “Selfhood and bodily transformation in Algernon Blackwood's The Wendigo,” Explicator 73 (4): 283-285.

“Totem Pole Designs and Meanings,” The Canadian Encyclopedia. n.d.

Trinh, L.. 2013. Masculinity in the virtual world of video game: a question of agency. Masters Thesis. University of Richmond.

Trujillo, Nick. 1991. “Hegemonic Masculinity on the Mound: Media Representations of Nolan Ryan and American Sports Culture,” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 8: 290-308/

Until Dawn. Supermassive Games, 2015. Video game.

Wang, Hanying. 2013. “Portrayals of Chinese Women’s Images in Hollywood Mainstream Films - An Analysis of Four Representative Films of Different Periods,” China Media Research 9(1): 75-79.

Weise, Matthew. 2009. “The Rules Of Horror: Procedural Adaptation In Clock Tower, Resident Evil, And Dead Rising,” Horror Video games: Essays on the Fusion of Fear and Play. Ed. Bernard Perron. Jefferson: McFarland & Co..

Williams, Dmitri, Martins, Nicole, Consalvo, Mia, and James D. Ivory. 2009. “The virtual census: representations of gender, race and age in video games,” New Media & Society 11 (5): 815-834.

“The Wish”. Buffy the Vampire Slayer, S3.9, December 8, 1998. Television Episode.

Wu, Yue. 2008. Model Minority Stereotypes of Asian American Women in American Media: Perceptions and Influences Among Women of Diverse Racial-Ethnic Backgrounds. Masters Thesis. Kansas State University.

Zhou, Yanyan and Bryant Paul. 2016. “Lotus Blossom or Dragon Lady: A Content Analysis of ‘Asian Women’ Online Pornography,” Sexuality & Culture 20: 1083-1100.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top