Login | Register

Evaluation of “The Seafarers”: A Serious Game on Seaborne Trade in the Mediterranean Sea during the Classical period


Evaluation of “The Seafarers”: A Serious Game on Seaborne Trade in the Mediterranean Sea during the Classical period

Poullis, Charalambos, Kersten-Oertel, Marta, Benjamin, J.Praveen, Philbin-Briscoe, Oliver, Simon, Bart, Perissiou, Dimitra, Demesticha, Stella, Markou, Evangeline, Frentzos, Elias, Kyriakides, Phaedon, Skarlatos, Dimitrios and Rizvic, Selma (2019) Evaluation of “The Seafarers”: A Serious Game on Seaborne Trade in the Mediterranean Sea during the Classical period. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage . ISSN 22120548 (In Press)

[thumbnail of Charalambos-2019.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.

Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.daach.2019.e00090


Throughout the history of the Mediterranean region, seafaring and trading played a significant role in the interaction between the cultures and people in the area. In order to engage the general public in learning about maritime cultural heritage we have designed and developed a serious game incorporating geospatially analyzed data from open GIS archaeological maritime sources, and archaeological data resulting from shipwreck excavations. We present a second prototype of the seafaring serious game, and discuss the results of an evaluation which involved a large multi-site user study with participants from three continents.

More specifically, we present the evaluation of “The Seafarers” a strategy-based game which integrates knowledge from multiple disciplines in order to educate the user through playing. A first prototype was reported in Philbin-Briscoe et al. (2017) where an expert-user evaluation of the usability and the effectiveness of the game in terms of the learning objectives was performed.

In this paper, we present how the outcomes of the evaluation of the first prototype “The Seafarers - 1” by expert-users were used in the redesign and development of the game mechanics for the second prototype “The Seafarers-2”. We then present our methodology for evaluating the game with respect to the game objective of engagement in learning about maritime cultural heritage, seafaring and trading in particular. Specifically, the evaluation was to test the hypothesis that game playing allows for more engaged learning thus improving longer-term knowledge retention. The evaluation was conducted in two phases and includes a pilot study, followed by a multi-site, multi-continent user-study involving a large number of participants. We analyze the results of the user evaluation and discuss the outcomes.

This work is part of the EU-funded project iMareCulture and involves truly multi-continental, multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary cooperation - civil engineers and archaeologists from Cyprus, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) experts and Educationists from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, and cultural sociologists and computer scientists from Canada.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Computer Science and Software Engineering
Item Type:Article
Authors:Poullis, Charalambos and Kersten-Oertel, Marta and Benjamin, J.Praveen and Philbin-Briscoe, Oliver and Simon, Bart and Perissiou, Dimitra and Demesticha, Stella and Markou, Evangeline and Frentzos, Elias and Kyriakides, Phaedon and Skarlatos, Dimitrios and Rizvic, Selma
Journal or Publication:Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage
Date:11 January 2019
  • iMareCulture
Digital Object Identifier (DOI):10.1016/j.daach.2019.e00090
Keywords:Maritime cultural heritage; serious games; evaluation; multi-site user study
ID Code:984916
Deposited By: Michael Biron
Deposited On:21 Jan 2019 23:19
Last Modified:11 Jan 2021 02:00


Eike F. Anderson, Leigh McLoughlin, Fotis Liarokapis, Christopher Peters, Panagiotis Petridis, Sara De Freitas Developing serious games for cultural heritage: a state-of-the-art review Virtual reality, 14 (4) (2010), pp. 255-275

Arnaud, Pascal, (2011). Ancient sailing-routes and trade patterns: the impact of human factors. In: Maritime archaeology and ancient trade in the Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxbow Books, S. 61–80

Pascal Arnaud Ancient mariners between experience and common sense geography Features of Common Sense Geography: Implicit Knowledge Structures in Ancient Geographical Texts, 16(2014), p. 39

Aylett, Ruth, 1999. Narrative in virtual environments-towards emergent narrative. In: Proceedings of the AAAI fall symposium on narrative intelligence, S. 83-86

Paul Christesen, Dominic Machado. Video games and classical antiquity Classical World, 104 (1) (2010), pp. 107-110

Jerremie Clyde, Howard Hopkins, Glenn Wilkinson. Beyond the Historical Simulation: Using Theories of History to Inform Scholarly Game Design Loading…, 6 (9) (2012)

Davis, Dan, (2002). Maritime space and night-time sailing in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean.

Davis, Danny L., Commercial navigation in the Greek and Roman world. The University of Texas at Austin, 2009.

Demiryurek, Ugur, Banaei-Kashani, Farnoush, Shahabi, Cyrus, 2010. A case for time-dependent shortest path computation in spatial networks. In: Proceedings of the 18th SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems ACM (Veranst.), S. 474–477.

Michele D. Dickey Game Design Narrative for Learning: Appropriating Adventure Game Design Narrative Devices and Techniques for the Design of Interactive Learning Environments
Educational Technology Research and Development, 54 (June (3)) (2006), pp. 245-263

Djaouti, Damien, Alvarez, Julian, Jessel, Jean-Pierre, Rampnoux, Olivier, 2011. Origins of serious games. In: Serious games and edutainment applications. Springer, 2011, S. 25–43.

Martin Ebner, Andreas Holzinger Successful implementation of user-centered game based learning in higher education: An example from civil engineering Computers & education, 49 (3) (2007), pp. 873-890

P., Elliot. Mercator: Trading Adventures in the Ancient World, Traveller Role Playing Game, Zozer Games. - URL 〈https://www.freelancetraveller.com/magazine/2010-04/mercator.pdf〉- Zugriffsdatum: Accessed: 2017-11-30.

Freitas, Sara de, Liarokapis, Fotis, 2001. Serious Games: A New Paradigm for Education? S. 9–23. In: Ma, Minhua (Hrsg.), Oikonomou, Andreas (Hrsg.), Jain, Lakhmi C. (Hrsg.): Serious Games and Edutainment Applications. London: Springer London.

James P. Gee What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 1 (1) (2003), p. 20

Begoña Gros Digital games in education: The design of games-based learning environments Journal of research on technology in education, 40 (1) (2007), pp. 23-38

J.-C. Hong, C.-L. Cheng, M.-Y. Hwang, C.-K. Lee, H.-Y. Chang Assessing the educational values of digital games Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25 (5) (2009), pp. 423-437

Henry Jenkins Game design as narrative Computer, 44 (2004), p. 53

Jesper JuulGames telling stories? A brief note on games and narratives Game studies, 1 (1) (2001), pp. 1-12

Rani Kanthan, Jenna-Lynn Senger The impact of specially designed digital games-based learning in undergraduate pathology and medical education Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine, 135 (1) (2011), pp. 135-142

Kevin Kee, Shawn Graham, Pat Dunae, John Lutz, Andrew Large, Michel Blondeau, Mike ClareTowards a theory of good history through gaming Canadian Historical Review, 90 (2) (2009), pp. 303-326

Sunha Kim, Mido Chang Computer games for the math achievement of diverse students Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 13 (3) (2010), p. 224

Justin Leidwanger Modeling distance with time in ancient Mediterranean seafaring: a GIS application for the interpretation of maritime connectivity Journal of archaeological science, 40 (8) (2013), pp. 3302-3308

Lim, Theodore, Louchart, Sandy, Suttie, Neil, Hauge, Jannicke B., Stanescu, Ioana A., Ortiz, Ivan M., Moreno-Ger, Pablo, Bellotti, Francesco, Carvalho, Maira B., Earp, Jeffrey, Ott, Michela, Arnab, Sylvester, Berta, Riccardo, 2014. Narrative Serious Game Mechanics (NSGM) – Insights into the Narrative-Pedagogical Mechanism. S. 23–34. In: Göbel, Stefan (Hrsg.), Wiemeyer, Josef (Hrsg.): Games for Training, Education, Health and Sports: 4th International Conference on Serious Games, GameDays 2014, Darmstadt, Germany, April 1-5, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Lindley, Craig A., 2005. Story and narrative structures in computer games. In: Bushoff, Brunhild. ed.

Jeremiah McCallGaming the past: Using video games to teach secondary history Routledge (2013)

McDaniel, Rudy, Fiore, Stephen M., Nicholson, Denise, 2010. Serious storytelling: Narrative considerations for serious games researchers and developers. In: Serious game design and development: Technologies for training and learning. IGI Global, S. 13-30.

Sean Mcgrail Navigational techniques in Homer's Odyssey (1996)

David R. Michael, Sandra L. Chen Serious games: Games that educate, train, and inform Muska & Lipman/Premier-Trade (2005)

Morton, Jamie, 2001. The role of the physical environment in ancient Greek seafaring. Bd. 213. Brill.

OpenSkiron: OpenSkiron. - URL 〈http://openskiron.org/en〉. - Zugriffsdatum: Accessed: 2017-11-30.

John Pearson Investigating ICT using problem-based learning in face-to-face and online learning environments Computers & Education, 47 (1) (2006), pp. 56-73

Peirce, N., Conlan, O., Wade, V., 2008. Adaptive Educational Games: Providing Non-invasive Personalised Learning Experiences. In: 2008 Second IEEE International Conference on Digital Game and Intelligent Toy Enhanced Learning, S. 28–35.

Philbin-Briscoe, Oliver, Simon, Bart, Mudur, Sudhir, Poullis, Charalambos, Rizvic, Selma, Boskovic, Dusanka, Liarokapis, Fotis, Katsouri, Irene, Demesticha, Stella, Skarlatos, Dimitrios, 2017. A serious game for understanding ancient seafaring in the Mediterranean sea. In: Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games), 2017 9th International Conference on IEEE (Veranst.), S. 1–5.

Pomey, Patrice, 2011. Les conséquences de l'évolution des techniques de construction navale sur l'économie maritime antique: quelques exemples. In: Harris and Iara, S. 39–55.

Marc Prensky Digital game-based learning Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 1 (1) (2003), p. 21

Hua Qin, Pei-Luen P. Rau, Gavriel Salvendy Measuring Player Immersion in the Computer Game Narrative International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 25 (2) (2009), pp. 107-133

Reeve, Carlton, 2009. Narrative-Based Serious Games. S. 73–89. In: Petrovic, Otto (Hrsg.), Brand, Anthony (Hrsg.): Serious Games on the Move. Vienna: Springer Vienna.

Brian Rejack Toward a virtual reenactment of history: Video games and the recreation of the past Rethinking History, 11 (3) (2007), pp. 411-425

Silmara Rondon, Fernanda C. Sassi, Claudia Regina F. de Andrade Computer game-based and traditional learning method: a comparison regarding students' knowledge retention BMC medical education, 13 (1) (2013), p. 30

Nikol Rummel, Hans Spada Learning to collaborate: An instructional approach to promoting collaborative problem solving in computer-mediated settings The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14 (2) (2005), pp. 201-241

Salen, K., Zimmerman, E., 2004. Games as narrative play. S. 420–459. In: Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2004.

Schäfer, Christoph, 2016. Connecting the Ancient World: Mediterranean Shipping, Maritime Networks and Their Impact. VML Verlag Marie Leidorf.

Scheidel, Walter, 2015. ORBIS: the Stanford geospatial network model of the Roman world. In: Browser Download This Paper.

Shashi Shekhar, Hui Xiong Encyclopedia of GIS Springer Science & Business Media (2007)

Dawn Spring Gaming history: Computer and video games as historical scholarship Rethinking History, 19 (2) (2015), pp. 207-221

Kurt Squire From content to context: Videogames as designed experience Educational researcher, 35 (8) (2006), pp. 19-29

John Sweller Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning Cognitive science, 12 (2) (1988), pp. 257-285

Oded Tammuz Mare clausum? Sailing seasons in the Mediterranean in early Antiquity Mediterranean Historical Review, 20 (2) (2005), pp. 145-162

Cheryl Ward Les Routes de la Navigation Antique. Itinéraires en Mediterranée-by Pascal Arnaud International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 36 (1) (2007), pp. 201-202

Tobias Winnerling The eternal recurrence of all bits: How historicizing video game series transform factual history into affective historicity Eludamos. Journal for Computer Game Culture, 8 (1) (2014), pp. 151-170
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top