Login | Register

Movement Skills Assessment tool: A validation study using a modified Delphi method


Movement Skills Assessment tool: A validation study using a modified Delphi method

Jimenez Garcia, John ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1152-9888 (2019) Movement Skills Assessment tool: A validation study using a modified Delphi method. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Jimenez_Garcia_MSc_S2020.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Jimenez_Garcia_MSc_S2020.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


Physical activity is integrated in preventive health programs due to its health-related benefits. Increasing physical activity levels in children and adolescents is a global objective that focuses in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors. Physical literacy and models of motor development suggest a positive association between movement competence and physical activity. Poor movement competence is associated with a sedentary lifestyle and is a risk factor for musculoskeletal injury.
Promoting physical activity and sports participation is crucial; however, participating in physical activity and sports has been related to increased risk of musculoskeletal injury. Assessments of physical literacy and movement competence are mainly focused on motor development factors, but injury prevention techniques are not considered in these assessments. Our objective was to establish the face and content validity of four movement skills, each with four evaluation criteria, to create a movement skills assessment tool for 8-12-year-old children to fill the gap between movement competence and injury prevention assessments.
We used a modified Delphi method to survey an international expert panel of clinicians, researchers, and practitioners (n=22). Three rounds of surveys were used to achieve consensus on the validity of four movement skills and evaluation criteria. Consensus was achieved when 75% or more of the experts scored “Agree” or “Strongly Agree” using a 5-point Likert scale. In the first and second Delphi-rounds, the expert panel achieved consensus on the validity of eight movement skills and 53 evaluation criteria. In the third round, the experts ranked the movement skills and evaluation criteria to identify the top four movement skills and top four evaluation criteria per movement skill to create the movement skills assessment tool.
This study provided preliminary validity evidence for the movement skills assessment tool. Future research should evaluate other psychometric properties and assess injury outcomes of a movement-oriented intervention. The movement skills assessment tool will be used to screen movement competence and identify movement patterns that present risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in different settings with minimal equipment.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Health, Kinesiology and Applied Physiology
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Jimenez Garcia, John
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M. Sc.
Program:Exercise Science
Date:4 November 2019
Thesis Supervisor(s):DeMont, Richard
Keywords:Physical literacy, injury prevention, motor competence, movement skills, biomechanics, Delphi, screening tool
ID Code:986327
Deposited By: John Alexander Jimenez Garcia
Deposited On:26 Jun 2020 13:16
Last Modified:26 Jun 2020 13:16


1. Loprinzi, P. D., Cardinal, B. J., Loprinzi, K. L., & Lee, H. (2012). Benefits and environmental determinants of physical activity in children and adolescents. Obesity Facts, 5(4), 597-610. doi:10.1159/000342684 [doi]
2. Reiner, M., Niermann, C., Jekauc, D., & Woll, A. (2013). Long-term health benefits of physical activity–a systematic review of longitudinal studies. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 813.
3. World Health Organization. (2017, February). World Health Organization. Retrieved from Physical Activity: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs385/en/
4. Warburton, D. E., Nicol, C. W., & Bredin, S. S. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity: The evidence. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal = Journal De L'Association Medicale Canadienne, 174(6), 801-809. doi:174/6/801 [pii]
5. Government of Canada. (2015, February 18). Statistics Canada. Retrieved from Canadian Health Measures Survey: Directly measured physical activity of Canadians, 2012 and 2013: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/150218/dq150218c-eng.htm
6. Comeau, M. E., Bouchard, D. R., Levesque, C., Jonhson, M. J., Rioux, B. V., Mayo, A., & Sénéchal, M. (2017). Association between Functional Movements Skills and Health Indicators in Children Aged between 9 and 12 Years Old. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(9), 1010.
7. World Heatlh Organization. (2017, October). World Heatlh Organization. Retrieved from Obesity and Overweight: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/
8. Sakuragi, S., Abhayaratna, K., Gravenmaker, K. J., O'reilly, C., Srikusalanukul, W., Budge, M. M., ... & Abhayaratna, W. P. (2009). Influence of adiposity and physical activity on arterial stiffness in healthy children: the lifestyle of our kids study. Hypertension, 53(4), 611-616.
9. Holfelder, B., & Schott, N. Relationship of fundamental movement skills and physical activity in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(4), 382-391. doi://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.03.005
10. Hallal, P. C., Andersen, L. B., Bull, F. C., Guthold, R., Haskell, W., Ekelund, U., & Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. (2012). Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. The lancet, 380(9838), 247-257.
11. Tremblay, M. S., Barnes, J. D., González, S. A., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Onywera, V. O., Reilly, J. J., ... & Global Matrix 2.0 Research Team. (2016). Global Matrix 2.0: report card grades on the physical activity of children and youth comparing 38 countries. Journal of physical activity and health, 13(11 Suppl 2), S343-S366.
12. Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology (2019, June). CSEP. Retrieved from Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines: https://csepguidelines.ca/
13. World Health Organization. Physical activity and young people. Geneva: Author; 2017. http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_young_people/en Accessed February 16 2017.
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How much physical activity do children need? Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2015. https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/children Accessed February 16 2017.
15. World Health Organization. Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva: Author; 2010.
16. Department of Health. (2014). Australia's physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines.
17. Lai, S. K., Costigan, S. A., Morgan, P. J., Lubans, D. R., Stodden, D. F., Salmon, J., & Barnett, L. M. (2014). Do school-based interventions focusing on physical activity, fitness, or fundamental movement skill competency produce a sustained impact in these outcomes in children and adolescents? A systematic review of follow-up studies. Sports Medicine, 44(1), 67-79.
18. Brodersen, N. H., Steptoe, A., Boniface, D. R., & Wardle, J. (2007). Trends in physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adolescence: ethnic and socioeconomic differences. British journal of sports medicine, 41(3), 140-144.
19. Stodden, D. F., Goodway, J. D., Langendorfer, S. J., Roberton, M. A., Rudisill, M. E., Garcia, C., & Garcia, L. E. (2008). A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest, 60(2), 290-306.
20. Robinson, L. E., Stodden, D. F., Barnett, L. M., Lopes, V. P., Logan, S. W., Rodrigues, L. P., & D’Hondt, E. (2015). Motor competence and its effect on positive developmental trajectories of health. Sports Medicine, 45(9), 1273-1284.
21. Whitehead 1, M. (2001). The concept of physical literacy. European Journal of Physical Education, 6(2), 127-138.
22. Whitehead, M. (2010). Physical literacy: Throughout the lifecourse Routledge
23. Gallahue, D. L., Ozmun, J. C., & Goodway, J. (2006). Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults (pp. 248-270). Boston: Mcgraw-hill.
24. Lubans, D. R., Morgan, P. J., Cliff, D. P., Barnett, L. M., & Okely, A. D. (2010). Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents. Sports medicine, 40(12), 1019-1035.
25. Haga, M., Gísladóttír, T., & Sigmundsson, H. (2015). The relationship between motor competence and physical fitness is weaker in the 15–16 Yr. adolescent age group than in younger age groups (4–5 Yr. and 11–12 Yr.). Perceptual and motor skills, 121(3), 900-912.
26. Foweather, L., Knowles, Z., Ridgers, N. D., O’Dwyer, M. V., Foulkes, J. D., & Stratton, G. (2015). Fundamental movement skills in relation to weekday and weekend physical activity in preschool children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(6), 691-696.
27. Duncan, M. J., Bryant, E., & Stodden, D. (2017). Low fundamental movement skill proficiency is associated with high BMI and body fatness in girls but not boys aged 6–11 years old. Journal of sports sciences, 35(21), 2135-2141.
28. Kjønniksen, L., Anderssen, N., & Wold, B. (2009). Organized youth sport as a predictor of physical activity in adulthood. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 19(5), 646-654.
29. Telama, R., Yang, X., Viikari, J., Välimäki, I., Wanne, O., & Raitakari, O. (2005). Physical activity from childhood to adulthood: A 21-year tracking study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(3), 267-273.
30. Myer, G. D., Kushner, A. M., Brent, J. L., Schoenfeld, B. J., Hugentobler, J., Lloyd, R. S., ... & McGill, S. M. (2014). The back squat: A proposed assessment of functional deficits and technical factors that limit performance. Strength and conditioning journal, 36(6), 4.
31. Myer, G. D., Brent, J. L., Ford, K. R., & Hewett, T. E. (2011). Real-time assessment and neuromuscular training feedback techniques to prevent ACL injury in female athletes. Strength and conditioning journal, 33(3), 21.
32. Faigenbaum, A. D., & Myer, G. D. (2010). Pediatric resistance training: benefits, concerns, and program design considerations. Current sports medicine reports, 9(3), 161-168.
33. Bardid, F., Vannozzi, G., Logan, S. W., Hardy, L. L., & Barnett, L. M. (2018). A hitchhiker’s guide to assessing young people’s motor competence: Deciding what method to use. Journal of science and medicine in sport.
34. Nauta, J., Martin-Diener, E., Martin, B. W., Van Mechelen, W., & Verhagen, E. (2015). Injury risk during different physical activity behaviours in children: A systematic review with bias assessment. Sports medicine, 45(3), 327-336.
35. Read, P. J., Oliver, J. L., Croix, M. B. D. S., Myer, G. D., & Lloyd, R. S. (2019). A review of field-based assessments of neuromuscular control and their utility in male youth soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 33(1), 283-299.
36. Rössler, R., Donath, L., Verhagen, E., Junge, A., Schweizer, T., & Faude, O. (2014). Exercise-based injury prevention in child and adolescent sport: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 44(12), 1733-1748.
37. Hulteen, R. M., Morgan, P. J., Barnett, L. M., Stodden, D. F., & Lubans, D. R. (2018). Development of Foundational Movement Skills: A Conceptual Model for Physical Activity Across the Lifespan. Sports Medicine, 1-8.
38. Cook, G. (2010). Movement: Functional movement systems: Screening, assessment, corrective strategies. On Target Publications.
39. Padua, D. A., DiStefano, L. J., Hewett, T. E., Garrett, W. E., Marshall, S. W., Golden, G. M., ... & Sighard, S. M. (2018). National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Prevention of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury. Journal of athletic training.
40. McCunn, R., aus der Fintan, K., Full agar, H. H., McKeown, I., & Meyer, T. (2016). Reliability and association with injury of movement screens: A critical review. Sports Medicine, 46(6), 763-781.
41. Logan, S. W., Barnett, L. M., Goodway, J. D., & Stodden, D. F. (2017). Comparison of performance on process-and product-oriented assessments of fundamental motor skills across childhood. Journal of sports sciences, 35(7), 634-641.
42. Tompsett, C., Burkett, B., & McKean, M. (2014). Development of physical literacy and movement competency: A literature review. Journal of Fitness Research, 3(2), 53-74.
43. Burton, A. W., & Miller, D. E. (1998). Movement skill assessment Human Kinetics.
44. Faigenbaum, A. D., Farrell, A., Fabiano, M., Radler, T., Naclerio, F., Ratamess, N. A., ... & Myer, G. D. (2011). Effects of integrative neuromuscular training on fitness performance in children. Pediatric exercise science, 23(4), 573-584.
45. Myer, G. D., Faigenbaum, A. D., Ford, K. R., Best, T. M., Bergeron, M. F., & Hewett, T. E. (2011). When to initiate integrative neuromuscular training to reduce sports-related injuries in youth?. Current sports medicine reports, 10(3), 155.
46. Barnett LM, Van Beurden E, Morgan PJ, Brooks LO, Beard JR. Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2009;44(3):252–9.
47. Goodway JD, Robinson LE, Crowe H. Gender differences in fundamental motor skill development in disadvantaged preschoolers from two geographical regions. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2010;81(1):17–24. doi:10.1080/02701367.2010. 10599624
48. Hardy LL, Reinten-Reynolds T, Espinel P, Zask A, Okely AD. Prevalence and correlates of low fundamental movement skill competency in children. Pediatrics. 2012;130(2):e390–8.
49. Clark JE, Metcalfe JS. The mountain of motor development: A metaphor. In: Clark JE, Humphrey JH, editors. Motor development: Research and reviews. Reston, VA: National Association of Sport and Physical Education; 2002. p. 163–90.
50. Hirvensalo M, Rantanen T, Heikkinen E. Mobility difficulties and physical activity as predictors of mortality and loss of independence in the community-living older population. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2000;48(5):493–8.
51. Guralnik JM, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L, Glynn RJ, Berkman LF, Blazer DG, et al. A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: Association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. Journal of Gerontology. 1994;49(2):85–94.
52. Seefeldt V. Developmental motor patterns: Implications for elementary school physical education. In: Nadeau CH, Halliwell WR, Newell M, Roberts C, editors. Psychology of motor behavior and sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1980. p. 314–23.
53. Tompsett, C., Sanders, R., Taylor, C., & Cobley, S. (2017). Pedagogical approaches to and effects of fundamental movement skill interventions on health outcomes: A systematic review. Sports Medicine, 47(9), 1795-1819. doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0697-z
54. Francis, C. E., Longmuir, P. E., Boyer, C., Andersen, L. B., Barnes, J. D., Bojarski, E., et al. (2016). The Canadian assessment of physical literacy: Development of a model of children's capacity for a healthy, active lifestyle through a Delphi process. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 13(2), 214-222. doi:10.1123/jpah.2014-0597
55. Logan, S. W., Ross, S. M., Chee, K., Stodden, D. F., & Robinson, L. E. (2018). Fundamental motor skills: A systematic review of terminology. Journal of sports sciences, 36(7), 781-796.
56. Walkley, J., & Holland, B. (1996). Fundamental motor skills: A manual for classroom teachers. Victoria: Community Information Service, Department of Education,
57. Longmuir, P. E., Boyer, C., Lloyd, M., Borghese, M. M., Knight, E., Saunders, T. J., et al. (2017). Canadian agility and movement skill assessment (CAMSA): Validity, objectivity, and reliability evidence for children 8-12 years of age. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 6(2), 231-240. doi: 10.1016/j.jshs.2015.11.004
58. Magill, R. A., & Anderson, D. I. (2007). Motor learning and control: Concepts and applications (Vol. 11). New York: McGraw-Hill.
59. Haubenstricker JL, Seefeldt V. Acquisition of motor skills during childhood. In: Seefeldt V, editor. Physical activity & well-being. Reston, VA: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance; 1986. p. 49–110.
60. Stodden DF, True LK, Langendorfer SJ, Gao Z. Associations among selected motor skills and health-related fitness: Indirect evidence for Seefeldt’s proficiency barrier in young adults? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2013;84(3):397–403. doi:10.1080/02701367.2013.814910
61. Malina RM. Top 10 research questions related to growth and maturation of relevance to physical activity, performance, and fitness. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2014;85(2):157–73. doi:10.1080/02701367.2014.897592
62. Clark JE. From the beginning: A developmental perspective on movement and mobility. Quest. 2005;57(1):37–45. doi:10.1080/00336297.2005.10491841
63. Thelen E. Dynamic systems theory and the complexity of change. Psychoanalytic Dialogues. 2005;15(2):255–83.
64. 101. Thelen E, Bates E. Connectionism and dynamic systems: Are they really different? Developmental Science. 2003;6(4):378–91.
65. Secretary, I. (2015). The Role of Dynamic Systems in Motor Development Research: Just a Metaphor or a Notable Reality? Annales Kinesiological, 5(2).
66. Thelon, E. (1995). Motor development: A new synthesis. American Psychologist, 50(2), 79.
67. Winnick, J., & Poretti, D. (2016). Adapted physical education and sport, 6E Human Kinetics.
68. Goodway JD, Robinson LE. Developmental trajectories in early sport specialization: A case for early sampling from a physical growth and motor development perspective. Kinesiology Review. 2015;4(3):267–78. doi:10.1123/kr.2015-0028
69. Myer GD, Jayanthi N, DiFiori JP, Faigenbaum AD, Kiefer AW, Logerstedt D, et al. Sports specialization, part II: Alternative solutions to early sport specialization in youth athletes. Sports Health. 2016;8(1):65–73. doi:10.1177/1941738115614811
70. 168. Malina R. Early sport specialization: Roots, effectiveness, risks. Current Sports Medicine Reports. 2010;9(6):364–71. doi:10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181fe3166
71. Edwards, L. C., Bryant, A. S., Keegan, R. J., Morgan, K., & Jones, A. M. (2017). Definitions, foundations and associations of physical literacy: a systematic review. Sports medicine, 47(1), 113-126.
72. Lander, N., Morgan, P. J., Salmon, J., Logan, S. W., & Barnett, L. M. (2017). The reliability and validity of an authentic motor skill assessment tool for early adolescent girls in an australian school setting. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(6), 590-594. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.007
73. The Aspen Institute. (2015). Project Play, Physical Literacy. Retrieved from Physical Literacy Report: http://plreport.projectplay.us/
74. Ulrich D. Test of gross motor development: Examiners’ manual. 2nd ed. Austin, TX: Pro-ED; 2000.
75. Francis, C. E., Longmuir, P. E., Boyer, C., Andersen, L. B., Barnes, J. D., Bojarski, E., et al. (2016). The Canadian assessment of physical literacy: Development of a model of children's capacity for a healthy, active lifestyle through a Delphi process. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 13(2), 214-222. doi:10.1123/jpah.2014-0597
76. Asserted, J., McGrane, B., Fletcher, R., O'Brien, W., Powell, D., & Belton, S. (2017). A cross-validation study of the TGMD-2: The case of an adolescent population. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(5), 475-479. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2016.09.013
77. Bruin inks, R. H., & Bruin inks, B. D. (2005). Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency [with student booklet] Pearson, Incorporated
78. Barnett, L. M., Stodden, D., Cohen, K. E., Smith, J. J., Lubans, D. R., Lenoir, M., ... & Lander, N. J. (2016). Fundamental movement skills: An important focus. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 35(3), 219-225.
79. Heber, J., Krijger-Hombergen, M., Savelsbergh, G., & De Vries, S. (2017). Reliability and concurrent validity of a motor skill competence test among 4-to 12-year old children. Journal of sports sciences, 1-7
80. Veldhuis, S., River, L., & Carney, J. (2017). Relative age effects in the Movement Assessment Battery for Children‐2: age banding and scoring errors. Child: care, health and development, 43(5), 752-757.
81. Giblin, S., Collins, D., & Button, C. (2014). Physical literacy: importance, assessment and future directions. Sports Medicine, 44(9), 1177-1184.
82. Fabricant, P. D., Lakomkin, N., Sugimoto, D., Tepolt, F. A., Stracciolini, A., & Kocher, M. S. (2016). Youth sports specialization and musculoskeletal injury: a systematic review of the literature. The Physician and sportsmedicine, 44(3), 257-262.
83. Bahr, R., & Krosshaug, T. (2005). Understanding injury mechanisms: A key component of preventing injuries in sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(6), 324-329. doi:39/6/324 [pii]
84. Stracciolini, A., Casciano, R., Levey Friedman, H., Meehan III, W. P., & Micheli, L. J. (2013). Pediatric sports injuries: An age comparison of children versus adolescents. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(8), 1922-1929.
85. Bizzini, M., & Dvorak, J. (2015). FIFA 11+: an effective programme to prevent football injuries in various player groups worldwide—a narrative review. Br J Sports Med, 49(9), 577-579.
86. Faude, O., Rössler, R., Petushek, E. J., Roth, R., Zahner, L., & Donath, L. (2017). Neuromuscular adaptations to multimodal injury prevention programs in youth sports: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Frontiers in physiology, 8, 791.
87. O'malley, E., Murphy, J. C., Persson, U. M., Gissane, C., & Blake, C. (2017). The effects of the Gaelic Athletic Association 15 training program on neuromuscular outcomes in Gaelic football and hurling players: a randomized cluster trial. The Journal of orngth & Conditioning Research, 31(8), 2119-2130.
88. Rössler, R., Donath, L., Verhagen, E., Junge, A., Schweizer, T., & Faude, O. (2014). Exercise-based injury prevention in child and adolescent sport: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 44(12), 1733-1748.
89. O’Brien, W., Belton, S., & Issartel, J. (2016). The relationship between adolescents’ physical activity, fundamental movement skills and weight status. Journal of sports sciences, 34(12), 1159-1167.
90. Lloyd, R. S., Faigenbaum, A. D., Stone, M. H., Oliver, J. L., Jeffreys, I., Moody, J. A., ... & Herrington, L. (2014). Position statement on youth resistance training: the 2014 International Consensus. Br J Sports Med, 48(7), 498-505.
91. Stovitz, S. D., & Johnson, R. J. (2006). “Underuse” as a cause for musculoskeletal injuries: is it time that we started reframing our message?
92. Burnett-Lecturer-Biomechanics, A. Jumping Injuries: Their Cause, Possible Prevention and Rehabilitation.
93. Giles, K. B. (2011). Injury resilience–let's control what can be controlled!.
94. Ekstrand, J., Hagglund, M. and Walden, M. (2011) Epidemiology of muscle injuries in professional football (soccer). American Journal of Sports Medicine.39(6); 1226-1232
95. Bradley, P. and Portas, M. (2007) The relationship between preseason range of motion and muscle strain injury in elite soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 27(4); 1155-1159.
96. Witvrouw, E., Daneels, L., Asleman, P., D’Have, T. and Cambier, D. (2003) Muscle flexibility as a risk factor for developing muscle injuries in male professional soccer players. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 31(1); 41-46.
97. Burt, B. A. (2001). Definitions of risk. Journal of dental education, 65(10), 1007-1008.
98. Sense About Science (2015). Making Sense of Screening, Sense About Science, London, Second Edition
99. Read PJ, Oliver JL, De Ste Croix MBA, Myer GD, Lloyd RS. Assessment of injury risk factors in male youth soccer players. Strength Cond J. 38: 12-21, 2016a.
100. Read, PJ, Oliver, JL, De Ste Croix, MBA, Myer, GD and Lloyd, RS. Neuromuscular Risk Factors for Knee and Ankle Ligament Injuries in Male Youth Soccer Players. Sports Med. DOI 10.1007/s40279-016-0479. Feb 2016b.
101. Sugimoto D, Alerton-Geli E, Mediquicha J, Samuelsson K, Karlsson J, Myer GD. Biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics of male athletes: implications for the development of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs. Sports Med. 45:809-802 22, 2015.
102. Schneiders, A., Davidson, A., Horman, E. and Sullivan, J. (2011) Functional movement screen normative values in a young, active population. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 6(2); 75-80.
103. Blanch, P. (2005) Musculoskeletal screening: why musculoskeletal screening for athletes matters and how to go about it. Sports Injury Bulletin [online]. Available from: http://www.sportsinjurybulletin.com/archive/musculoskeletal-screening.html Last Accessed [1.2.14]
104. Rosch, D., Hodson, R., Peterson, L., Graf-Baumann, T., Junge, A., Chomiak, J. and Dvorak, J. (2000) Assessment and evaluation of football performance. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 28(5); S-29-S-39.
105. Whatman, C., Hing, W. and Hume, P. (2011). Kinematics during lower extremity functional screening tests–Are they reliable and related to jogging? Physical Therapy in Sport. 12(1); 22-29.
106. Mottram, S. and Comerford, M. (2007). A new perspective on risk assessment. Physical Therapy in Sport. 9; 40-51.
107. Bahr, R., & Holme, I. (2003). Risk factors for sports injuries—a methodological approach. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 37(5); 384-392.
108. Carek, P. and Mainous, A. (2003) The preparticpation physical examination for athletics: a systematic review of current recommendations. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2; 661- 664.
109. Myer GD, Ford KR, Khoury J, Succop P, Hewett TE. Development and validation of a clinic based prediction tool to identify female athletes at high risk of ACL injury. Am J Sports Med. 38: 2025-2033, 2010
110. Myer GD, Ford KR, Khoury JK, Hewett TE. Three-dimensional motion analysis validation of a clinic based nomogram designed to identify high ACL injury risk in females. Phys Sports Med. 1: 19-28, 2011b.
111. Padua DA, Marshall SW, Boling MC, Thigpen CA, Garrett WE, Beutler AI. The landing error scoring system (LESS) is a valid and reliable clinical assessment tool of jump-landing biomechanics. Am J Sports Med. 37: 1996-2002, 2009.
112. Chappell, J. D., & Lampasas, O. (2008). Effect of a neuromuscular training program on the kinetics and kinematics of jumping tasks. The American journal of sports medicine, 36(6), 1081-1086.
113. Distefano, L. J., Blackburn, J. T., Marshall, S. W., Juszkiewicz, K. M., Garrett, W. E., & Padua, D. A. (2011). Effects of an age-specific anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program on lower extremity biomechanics in children. The American journal of sports medicine, 39(5), 949-957.
114. Pollard, C. D., Sighard, S. M., Ota, S., Langford, K., & Powers, C. M. (2006). The influence of in-season injury prevention training on lower-extremity kinematics during landing in female soccer players. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 16(3), 223-227.
115. Okoli, C., & Pawlowski, S. (2004). The delphi method as a research tool: An example, design considerations and applications. Information & Management, 42(1), 15-29. doi:10.1016/j.im.2003.11.002
116. MITROFF, I., & Turoff, M. (2012). 11. B. Philosophical and methodological foundations of Delphi. The Delphi method: Techniques and applications, 30.
117. Dalkey, N. C. (1969). The Delphi method: An experimental study of group opinion (No. RM-5888-PR). RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CALIF.
118. Steurer, J. (2011). The Delphi method: An efficient procedure to generate knowledge. Esqueletal Radiología, 40(8), 959-961. doi:10.1007/s00256-011-1145-z
119. Hsu, C. C., & Sandford, B. A. (2007). The Delphi technique: making sense of consensus. Practical assessment, research & evaluation, 12(10), 1-8.
120. Schulz, V., Kozol, K., Biondo, P. D., Stiles, C., Tonkin, K., & Hagen, N. A. (2009). The malignant wound assessment tool: A validation study using a delphi approach. Paliativa Medicine, 23(3), 266-273. doi:10.1177/0269216309102536
121. Torres, X., Jesús Herrero, M., Martí, M., Conesa, A., Valdés, M., Arias, A., et al. (2013). Why people with fibromyalgia persist in activity despite the increasing pain? A Delphi Study of the content of the Clinic Scale of Persistence in Activity in Fibromyalgia. Revisit De Pituitaries Y Salad Mental, 6(1), 33-44. doi: 10.1016/j.rpsm.2012.03.001
122. Van de Ven-Stevens, Lucelle A W, Graff, M. J. L., Selles, R. W., Schroeder, T. A. R., van der Linde, H., Saluen, P. H., et al. (2015). Instruments for assessment of impairments and activity limitations in patients with hand conditions: A European Delphi study. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 47(10), 948-956. doi:10.2340/16501977-2015
123. Lietz, P. (2010). Research into questionnaire design. International Journal of Market Research, 52(2), 249-272.
124. Delbecq, A. L., & Van de Ven, A. H. (1971). A group process model for problem identification and program planning. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 7(4), 466-492.
125. Fern, E. F., & Fern, E. E. (2001). Advanced focus group research. Sage.
126. Gallagher, M., Hares, T., Spencer, J., Bradshaw, C., & Webb, I. A. N. (1993). The nominal group technique: a research tool for general practice?. Family practice, 10(1), 76-81.
127. Hallowell, M. R., & Gambatese, J. A. (2009). Qualitative research: Application of the Delphi method to CEM research. Journal of construction engineering and management, 136(1), 99-107.
128. Hasson, F., & Keeney, S. (2011). Enhancing rigour in the Delphi technique research. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 78(9), 1695-1704.
129. Mullen, P. M. (2003). Delphi: myths and reality. Journal of health organization and management, 17(1), 37-52.
130. Zimmermann, M., Darkow, I. L., & Heiko, A. (2012). Integrating Delphi and participatory backcasting in pursuit of trustworthiness—the case of electric mobility in Germany. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 79(9), 1605-1621.
131. Shenton, A. K. (2004). Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Education for information, 22(2), 63-75.
132. Kahneman, D., Slovic, S. P., Slovic, P., & Tversky, A. (Eds.). (1982). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Cambridge university press.
133. Woudenberg, F. (1991). An evaluation of Delphi. Technological forecasting and social change, 40(2), 131-150.
134. Morgan, P. J., Lam-McCulloch, J., Herold-McIlroy, J., & Tarshis, J. (2007). Simulation performance checklist generation using the Delphi technique. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, 54(12), 992-997.
135. Goodman, C. M. (1987). The Delphi technique: a critique. Journal of advanced nursing, 12(6), 729-734.
136. Walker, A. M., & Selfe, J. (1996). The Delphi method: a useful tool for the allied health researcher. British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 3(12), 677-681.
137. Williams, P. L., & Webb, C. (1994). The Delphi technique: a methodological discussion. Journal of advanced nursing, 19(1), 180-186.
138. Guba, E. G. (1981). Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries. Ectj, 29(2), 75.
139. Day, J., & Bobeva, M. (2005). A generic toolkit for the successful management of Delphi studies. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methodology, 3(2), 103-116.
140. Cornick, P. (2006). Nitric oxide education survey–Use of a Delphi survey to produce guidelines for training neonatal nurses to work with inhaled nitric oxide. Journal of Neonatal Nursing, 12(2), 62-68.
141. Engels, T. C., & Kennedy, H. P. (2007). Enhancing a Delphi study on family-focused prevention. Technological forecasting and social change, 74(4), 433-451.
142. Su, Y. Y., Win, K. T., & Chung, T. C. (2010). Applying the modified Delphi method to identify the Taiwanese electronic health record systems evaluation framework and instrument.
143. Kennedy, H. P. (2004). Enhancing Delphi research: methods and results. Journal of advanced nursing, 45(5), 504-511.
144. Powell, C. (2003). The Delphi technique: myths and realities. Journal of advanced nursing, 41(4), 376-382.
145. Skulmoski, G. J., Hartman, F. T., & Krahn, J. (2007). The Delphi method for graduate research. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 6(1), 1-21.
146. Akins, R. B., Tolson, H., & Cole, B. R. (2005). Stability of response characteristics of a Delphi panel: application of bootstrap data expansion. BMC medical research methodology, 5(1), 37.
147. Baker, J., Lovell, K., & Harris, N. (2006). How expert are the experts? An exploration of the concept of ‘expert’within Delphi panel techniques. Nurse researcher, 14(1).
148. Malone, D. C., Armstrong, E. P., Abarca, J., Grizzle, A. J., Hansten, P. D., Van Bergen, R. C., ... & Lipton, R. B. (2004). Identification of serious drug–drug interactions: results of the partnership to prevent drug–drug interactions. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 44(2), 142-151.
149. Adler, M., & Ziglio, E. (1996). Gazing into the oracle: The Delphi method and its application to social policy and public health. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
150. Hoffman, L. R. (1959). Homogeneity of member personality and its effect on group problem-solving. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58(1), 27.
151. Clayton, M. J. (1997). Delphi: a technique to harness expert opinion for critical decision‐making tasks in education. Educational Psychology, 17(4), 373-386.
152. Marqués, A. I., Santos, L., Soares, P., Santos, R., Oliveira-Tavares, A., Mota, J., et al. (2011). A proposed adaptation of the European foundation for quality management excellence model to physical activity programmes for the elderly - development of a quality self-assessment tool using a modified Delphi process. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8, 104. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-104
153. Avella, J. R. (2016). Delphi panels: Research design, procedures, advantages, and challenges. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 11(1), 305-321
154. Choi, B. C., & Pak, A. W. (2005). Peer reviewed: a catalog of biases in questionnaires. Preventing chronic disease, 2(1).
155. Likert, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology,
156. Taste, W., & Wierman, M. (2005). Consensus and dissention: A new measure of agreement. NEW YORK; 345 E 47TH ST, NEW YORK, NY 10017 USA: IEEE. doi:10.1109/NAFIPS.2005.1548566
157. Waiters, B., Kabouter, E., & Stillwater, N. (2010). The effect of rating scale format on response styles: The number of response categories and response category labels. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 27(3), 236-247.
158. Cantrell, J. A., Sib bald, B., & Bestow, S. (1998). Indicators of the appropriateness of long-term prescribing in general practice in the United Kingdom: Consensus development, face and content validity, feasibility, and reliability. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 7(3), 130-135.
159. Hulteen, R. M., Smith, J. J., Morgan, P. J., Barnett, L. M., Hallal, P. C., Colyvas, K., & Lubans, D. R. (2017). Global participation in sport and leisure-time physical activities: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Preventive medicine, 95, 14-25.
160. Graham, J. W. (2009). Missing data analysis: Making it work in the real world. Annual review of psychology, 60, 549-576.
161. Choi, B. C., & Pak, A. W. (2005). Peer reviewed: a catalog of biases in questionnaires. Preventing chronic disease, 2(1).
162. Chek, P. (2000). Movement that matters. San Diego, CA: CHEK Institute, 54.
163. Kritz, M., Cronin, J., & Hume, P. (2009). Using the body weight forward lunge to screen an athlete's lunge pattern. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 31(6), 15-24.
164. Hewett, T. E., Myer, G. D., Ford, K. R., Heidt Jr, R. S., Colosimo, A. J., McLean, S. G., ... & Succop, P. (2005). Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study. The American journal of sports medicine, 33(4), 492-501.
165. Escamilla, R. F., Fleisig, G. S., Lowry, T. M., Barrentine, S. W., & Andrews, J. R. (2001). A three-dimensional biomechanical analysis of the squat during varying stance widths. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(6), 984-998.
166. Escamilla, R. F. (2001). Knee biomechanics of the dynamic squat exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(1), 127-141.
167. Brocki, K. C., & Bohlin, G. (2004). Executive functions in children aged 6 to 13: A dimensional and developmental study. Developmental neuropsychology, 26(2), 571-593.
168. Hirth, C. J. (2007). Clinical movement analysis to identify muscle imbalances and guide exercise. Athletic Therapy Today, 12(4), 10-14.
169. Hung, Y. J., & Gross, M. T. (1999). Effect of foot position on electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis during lower-extremity weight-bearing activities. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 29(2), 93-105.
170. Fry, A. C., Smith, J. C., & Schilling, B. K. (2003). Effect of knee position on hip and knee torques during the barbell squat. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 17(4), 629-633.
171. List, R., Gülay, T., Stoop, M., & Lorenzetti, S. (2013). Kinematics of the trunk and the lower extremities during restricted and unrestricted squats. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27(6), 1529-1538.
172. Kritz, M., Cronin, J., & Hume, P. (2009). The bodyweight squat: A movement screen for the squat pattern. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 31(1), 76-85.
173. Tompsett, C., Burkett, B., & McKean, M. R. (2015). COMPARING PERFORMANCES OF FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS AND BASIC HUMAN MOVEMENTS: A PILOT STUDY. Journal of Fitness Research, 4(3).
174. Lubans, D. R., Smith, J. J., Harries, S. K., Barnett, L. M., & Faigenbaum, A. D. (2014). Development, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the resistance training skills battery. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(5), 1373-1380.
175. Schoenfeld, B. J. (2010). Squatting kinematics and kinetics and their application to exercise performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(12), 3497-3506.
176. Aerts, I., Cumps, E., Verhagen, E. A. L. M., Verschueren, J., & Meeusen, R. (2013). A systematic review of different jump-landing variables in relation to injuries. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 53(5), 509-519.
177. Graham, J. F. (2007). Dumbbell forward lunge. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 29(5), 36-37.
178. Kovács, I., Tihanyi, J., Devita, P. A. U. L., Racz, L. E. V. E. N. T. E., Barrier, J., & Hortobágyi, T. (1999). Foot placement modifies kinematics and kinetics during drop jumping. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31, 708-716.
179. Flanagan, S. P., Wang, M. Y., Greendale, G. A., Azen, S. P., & Salem, G. J. (2004). Biomechanical attributes of lunging activities for older adults. Journal of strength and conditioning research/National Strength & Conditioning Association, 18(3), 599.
180. Escamilla, R. F., Fleisig, G. S., Zheng, N., Barrentine, S. W., Wilk, K. E., & Andrews, J. R. (1998). Biomechanics of the knee during closed kinetic chain and open kinetic chain exercises. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 30(4), 556-569.
181. Escamilla, R. F., Lander, J. E., & Garhammer, J. (2000). Biomechanics of powerlifting and weightlifting exercises. Exercise and sport science, 585-615.
182. Thijs, Y., Van Tiggelen, D., Willems, T., De Clercq, D., & Witvrouw, E. (2007). Relationship between hip strength and frontal plane posture of the knee during a forward lunge. British journal of sports medicine, 41(11), 723-727.
183. Sahrmann, S., Azevedo, D. C., & Van Dillen, L. (2017). Diagnosis and treatment of movement system impairment syndromes. Brazilian journal of physical therapy, 21(6), 391-399.
184. Hewett, T. E., Ford, K. R., Hoogenboom, B. J., & Myer, G. D. (2010). Understanding and preventing acl injuries: current biomechanical and epidemiologic considerations-update 2010. North American journal of sports physical therapy: NAJSPT, 5(4), 234.
185. Myer, G. D., Ford, K. R., Khoury, J., Succop, P., & Hewett, T. E. (2011). Biomechanics laboratory-based prediction algorithm to identify female athletes with high knee loads that increase risk of ACL injury. British journal of sports medicine, 45(4), 245-252.
186. Hewett, T. E., Torg, J. S., & Boden, B. P. (2009). Video analysis of trunk and knee motion during non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: lateral trunk and knee abduction motion are combined components of the injury mechanism. British journal of sports medicine, 43(6), 417-422.
187. Crill, M. T., Kolba, C. P., & Chleboun, G. S. (2004). Using lunge measurements for baseline fitness testing. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 13(1), 44-53.
188. Hulteen, R. M., Barnett, L. M., Morgan, P. J., Robinson, L. E., Barton, C. J., Wrotniak, B. H., & Lubans, D. R. (2018). Development, content validity and test-retest reliability of the Lifelong Physical Activity Skills Battery in adolescents. Journal of sports sciences, 36(20), 2358-2367.
189. Duffey, M. J., Martin, D. F., Cannon, D. W., Craven, T., & Messier, S. P. (2000). Etiologic factors associated with anterior knee pain in distance runners. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 32(11), 1825-1832.
190. Nicola, T. L., & Jewison, D. J. (2012). The anatomy and biomechanics of running. Clinics in sports medicine, 31(2), 187-201.
191. Dugan, S. A., & Bhat, K. P. (2005). Biomechanics and analysis of running gait. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics, 16(3), 603-621.Nelson, N. G., Alhajj, M., Yard, E., Comstock, D., & Mckenzie, L. B. (2009). Physical education class injuries treated in emergency departments in the US in 1997-2007. Pediatrics, 124(3), 918.
192. Dicharry, J. (2010). Kinematics and kinetics of gait: from lab to clinic. Clinics in sports medicine, 29(3), 347-364.
193. Fields, K. B., Sykes, J. C., Walker, K. M., & Jackson, J. C. (2010). Prevention of running injuries. Current sports medicine reports, 9(3), 176-182.
194. Seto, C. K., Statuta, S. M., & Solari, I. L. (2010). Pediatric running injuries. Clinics in sports medicine, 29(3), 499-511.
195. Caine, D., Maffulli, N., & Caine, C. (2008). Epidemiology of injury in child and adolescent sports: injury rates, risk factors, and prevention. Clinics in sports medicine, 27(1), 19-50.
196. Boden, B. P., Dean, G. S., Feagin, J. A., & Garrett, W. E. (2000). Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Orthopedics, 23(6), 573-578.
197. Zazulak, B. T., Hewett, T. E., Reeves, N. P., Goldberg, B., & Cholewicki, J. (2007). The effects of core proprioception on knee injury: a prospective biomechanical-epidemiological study. The American journal of sports medicine, 35(3), 368-373.
198. Boden, B. P., Torg, J. S., Knowles, S. B., & Hewett, T. E. (2009). Video analysis of anterior cruciate ligament injury: abnormalities in hip and ankle kinematics. The American journal of sports medicine, 37(2), 252-259.
199. Blackburn, J. T., & Padua, D. A. (2008). Influence of trunk flexion on hip and knee joint kinematics during a controlled drop landing. Clinical biomechanics, 23(3), 313-319.
200. Zazulak, B. T., Hewett, T. E., Reeves, N. P., Goldberg, B., & Cholewicki, J. (2007). The effects of core proprioception on knee injury: a prospective biomechanical-epidemiological study. The American journal of sports medicine, 35(3), 368-373.
201. Lephart SM, Ferris CM, Riemann BL, Myers JB, Fu FH. Gender differences in strength and lower extremity kinematics during landing. Clin Orthop Relat Res 162-169, 2002.
202. Yeow CH, Lee PVS, Goh, JCH. Sagittal knee joint kinematics and energetics in response to different landing heights and techniques. The Knee. 17: 127–131, 2010.
203. Bisseling, R. W., Hof, A. L., Bredeweg, S. W., Zwerver, J., & Mulder, T. (2008). Are the take-off and landing phase dynamics of the volleyball spike jump related to patellar tendinopathy?. British journal of sports medicine, 42(6), 483-489.
204. Wulf, G., Höß, M., & Prinz, W. (1998). Instructions for motor learning: Differential effects of internal versus external focus of attention. Journal of motor behavior, 30(2), 169-179.
205. Veldhuizen, S., Rivard, L., & Cairney, J. (2017). Relative age effects in the Movement Assessment Battery for Children‐2: age banding and scoring errors. Child: care, health and development, 43(5), 752-757.
206. Barnett, L. M., Van Beurden, E., Morgan, P. J., Brooks, L. O., & Beard, J. R. (2009). Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity. Journal of adolescent health, 44(3), 252-259.
207. Cairney, J., Veldhuizen, S., Graham, J. D., Rodriguez, C., Bedard, C., Bremer, E., & Kriellaars, D. (2017). A Construct Validation Study of PLAYfun. Medicine and science in sports and exercise.
208. King, M. A., Pickett, W., & King, A. J. (1998). Injury in Canadian youth: a secondary analysis of the 1993–94 health behaviour in school-aged children survey. Canadian journal of public health, 89(6), 397-401.
209. Bijur, P. E., Trumble, A., Harel, Y., Overpeck, M. D., Jones, D., & Scheidt, P. C. (1995). Sports and recreation injuries in US children and adolescents. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 149(9), 1009-1016.
210. Belechri, M., Petridou, E., Kedikoglou, S., & Trichopoulos, D. (2001). Sports injuries among children in six European union countries. European journal of epidemiology, 17(11), 1005-1012.
211. Hedström, E. M., Bergström, U., & Michno, P. (2012). Injuries in children and adolescents—Analysis of 41,330 injury related visits to an emergency department in northern Sweden. Injury, 43(9), 1403-1408.
212. Emery, C. A., & Tyreman, H. (2009). Sport participation, sport injury, risk factors and sport safety practices in Calgary and area junior high schools. Paediatrics & child health, 14(7), 439-444.
213. Emery, C. A., Meeuwisse, W. H., & McAllister, J. (2005). 040 SURVEY OF SPORT PARTICIPATION, SPORT INJURY, AND SPORT SAFETY PRACTICES IN ADOLESCENTS. British Journal Of Sports Medicine, 39(6).
214. Verhagen, E. A. L. M., Collard, D., Paw, M. C. A., & Van Mechelen, W. (2009). A prospective cohort study on physical activity and sports-related injuries in 10–12-year-old children. British journal of sports medicine, 43(13), 1031-1035.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top