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Study of Smoke Control in High-rise Buildings and Safe Evacuation of the Occupants


Study of Smoke Control in High-rise Buildings and Safe Evacuation of the Occupants

Mashayekh, Shamim (2020) Study of Smoke Control in High-rise Buildings and Safe Evacuation of the Occupants. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

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Fire protection systems in high-rise buildings play an essential role in the safety of human beings. These systems are in place to control the fire, to notify the occupants in case of emergency, and to provide the necessary time for a safe evacuation. Every year many fire incidents are reported in residential high-rise buildings. As reports show, many civilians' deaths, injuries, and property loss are caused by the smoke from the fire. When a fire starts in a high-rise building, the first goal is to control the fire and to evacuate the occupants safely. Smoke control in high-rise buildings has always been a big challenge, and as the technology advances and buildings are built higher, this challenge gets even more complicated.
In the event of a fire, staircases are the main and most unique way of evacuation. New construction buildings that are designed based on the new code requirements are mostly equipped with fire protection systems such as sprinkler and standpipe systems, which provide a safer environment for occupants and fire department employees during the evacuation process. On the other hand, there are many existing buildings that do not conform to the new codes. The purpose of this research is to study the smoke control in a staircase shaft of a forty-five-story building using a pressurized system and to provide a reasonable method that can be used for both existing and new construction buildings during the evacuation process.
Using Fire Dynamic Simulation (FDS), a model of the building is prepared, and the theoretical data from the fire department is compared with the results of the smoke movements from the software. By using Pathfinder and based on the results from the fire incidents reported in high-rise buildings, the evacuation time of the same building is analyzed. The advantage of the smoke control using the ventilation system and its effect on the evacuation process is studied to prove that keeping the HVAC system in service during an emergency is necessary. Due to high cost and safety concerns, a real experiment cannot be conducted to validate the theoretical and FDS model results. For future research and as a starting point for improving the emergency planning during an evacuation in the island of Montreal, a report of these analyses is gathered and presented to SFPE chapter St-Laurent located in Quebec and the fire department staffs at Service Incendies de Montreal (SIM).

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Mashayekh, Shamim
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Building Engineering
Date:3 March 2020
Thesis Supervisor(s):Wang, Liangzhu
Keywords:Fire protection, Evacuation, Smoke control, High-rise building
ID Code:986615
Deposited On:26 Nov 2020 14:56
Last Modified:26 Nov 2020 14:56
Additional Information:None


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