Login | Register

Fourth Wave Feminism, Shadow Feminism, and the Explicit Body in the Performances of Kate Durbin, Ann Hirsch and Faith Holland


Fourth Wave Feminism, Shadow Feminism, and the Explicit Body in the Performances of Kate Durbin, Ann Hirsch and Faith Holland

Larin, Eli (2020) Fourth Wave Feminism, Shadow Feminism, and the Explicit Body in the Performances of Kate Durbin, Ann Hirsch and Faith Holland. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Larin_MA_F2020.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Larin_MA_F2020.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.



Fourth Wave Feminism, Shadow Feminism, and the Explicit Body in the Performances of Kate Durbin, Ann Hirsch and Faith Holland
Eli Larin

This thesis explores fourth-wave feminist art through the critical analysis of three performance-based works in the 2015 online independent exhibition Body Anxiety: Kate Durbin's performance Hello, Selfie!, Faith Holland's Lick Suck Screen 2, and Ann Hirsch's video dance party just us girls. I argue that these works speak to four common characteristics of fourth-wave feminism, starting with the dominant use of social media and commonly accessible technology. In all the performances we also see the continuation of the strategies and themes of cyberfeminism, as well as a focus on the apparatus that is central to post-internet art. Both have influenced fourth-wave feminism, a new wave of feminism which is to be understood from within an alternative narrative of waves that is linked to an affective temporality determined by a specific socio-economical context. Another characteristic of fourth-wave feminist art is a critical engagement with “shadow feminism” (antisocial feminism), which queer theorist Jack Halberstam argues provides alternative tools of resistance through negative actions such as failure and refusal. Finally, fourth-wave feminist art is largely influenced by its relation to Internet pornography, the pornification of culture, and the rise of porn studies, which artists Durbin, Hirsch and Holland mediate through the use of the “explicit body” in digital spaces, a concept introduced by Rebecca Schneider to discuss earlier explicit feminist performances of the 1970-1990s. In the discussed artworks, all three artists use the explicit body to gain agency from the binary model of a gendered (male or female) gaze.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Fine Arts > Art History
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Larin, Eli
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A.
Program:Art History
Date:20 August 2020
Thesis Supervisor(s):Jim, Alice
Keywords:fourth-wave feminism; cyberfeminism; queer theory; antisocial feminism; porn studies; post-internet art; feminist art history; new media; internet art
ID Code:987150
Deposited By: Elicia Larin
Deposited On:25 Nov 2020 15:41
Last Modified:25 Nov 2020 15:41


Agamben, Giorgio. What Is An Apparatus? and Other Essays. Translated by David Kishik and Stefan Pedatella. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2009.

Ahmed, Sara. “A phenomenology of whiteness.” Feminist Theory 8 no.2 (2007): 149–168. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464700107078139.

Ahmed, Sara. “Declarations of Whiteness: The Non-Performativity of Anti-Racism.” borderlands 3 no. 2 (2004). http://www.borderlands.net.au/vol3no2_2004/ahmed_declarations.htm.

Ahn, Mihi. “Gwenihana: Gwen Stefani Neuters Japanese Street Fashion To Create Spring's Must-Have Accessory: Giggling geisha!” Salon. April 10, 2005. https://www.salon.com/test2/2005/04/09/geisha_2/.

Bardelli Nonino, Chiara. “Girl On Girl by Charlotte Jansen.” Vogue Italia. April 7, 2017. https://www.vogue.it/en/photography/news/2017/04/07/girl-on-girl-charlotte-jansen/?refresh_ce=.

Benjamin, Ruha. Race After Technology: Abolitionist Tools for the New Jim Code. Medford: Polity, 2019.

Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. Harmondsworth: BBC Publications & Penguin Books, 1972.

Berlant, Laura. Cruel Optimism. Durham: Duke University Press, 2011. Kindle.

Bersani, Leo. Homos. Buenos Aires: Manantial, 1998.

Bosma, Josephine. “‘Body Anxiety’: Sabotaging Big Daddy Mainframe, Via Online Exhibition.” Rhizome. January 26, 2015. http://rhizome.org/editorial/2015/jan/26/body-anxiety/.

Bow, Leslie. “Racist Cute: Caricature, Kawaii-Style, and the Asian Thing.” American Quarterly 71, no. 1 (2019): 29-58. doi:10.1353/aq.2019.0002.

Bromseth, Janne and Jenny Sundén. “Queering Internet Studies: Intersections of Gender and Sexuality.” In The Handbook of Internet Studies, edited by Mia Consalvo, and Charles Ess, 270–299. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

Brooks, Ann. Postfeminisms: Feminism, Cultural Theory and Cultural Forms. London: Routledge, 1997.

burrough, xtine, Owen Gallagher, and Eduardo Navas, eds. The Routledge Companion to Remix Studies. New York: Routledge, 2015. https://www.routledgehandbooks.com/doi/10.4324/9781315879994.

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. New York and London: Routledge, 2007.

Butler, Judith. “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory.” Theatre Journal 40, no. 4 (December 1988): 519-531. Accessed July 20, 2020. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3207893.

Chamberlain, Prudence. The Feminist Fourth Wave: Affective Temporality. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.

Chan, Jennifer. “How We Became Objects.” Body Anxiety. January 24, 2015. http://bodyanxiety.com/jen/.

Chan, Jennifer. “Notes on Post-Internet.” In You Are Here: Art After the Internet, edited by Omar Kholeif, 106–123. Manchester and London: Cornerhouse and SPACE, 2014.

Chan, Jennifer. “On the Web, Gendered Space is Gendered.” .dpi Feminist Journal of Art and Digital Culture no. 28 (2013). https://dpi.studioxx.org/en/no/28-gendered-cultures-internet/web-gendered-space-gendered.

Chan, Jennifer. “Why Are There No Great Women Net Artists?” Pool. June 2011. http://pooool.info/why-are-there-no-great-women-net-artists-2/.

Chan, Jennifer, Rozsa Farkas, Ann Hirsch and Cadence Kinsey. “Becoming Camwhore, Becoming Pizza.” Mute. November 8, 2012. https://www.metamute.org/editorial/articles/becoming-camwhore-becoming-pizza.

Cochrane, Kira. “The Fourth Wave of Feminism: Meet the Rebel Women.” The Guardian. December 10, 2013. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/10/fourth-wave-feminism-rebel-women.

Connor, Michael, Aria Dean and Dragan Espenshied. “Net Art Anthology.” Rhizome. June 2019. https://anthology.rhizome.org/.

Consalvo, Mia and Susanna Paasonen (ed.) Women & Everyday Uses of the Internet: Agency & Identity. New York: Peter Lang, 2002.

Crenshaw, Kimberle. “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics.” University of Chicago Legal Forum 1, no. 8 (1987): 139-167. http://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/uclf/vol1989/iss1/8.

Crowder, Jenna. “Ann Hirsch, IRL.” The Chart, vol. 1, no. 9. August 2016. https://thechart.me/ann-hirsch-irl/.

Dean, Aria. “Closing the Loop.” The New Inquiry. March 1, 2016. https://thenewinquiry.com/closing-the-loop/.

Dean, Jonathan and Kristin Aune. “Feminism Resurgent? Mapping Contemporary Feminist Activisms in Europe.” Social Movement Studies, vol. 14, no. 4, (2015): 375–395. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2015.1077112.

Diawara, Manthia “Black Spectatorship: Problems of Identification and Resistance.” Screen, vol. 29, no. 4 (Autumn 1988): 66-76.

Dietz, Steve, “Why Have There Been No Great Net Artists?”. 1999. Accessed July 27, 2020. http://www.voyd.com/ttlg/textual/dietzessay.htm.

Dockterman, Eliana. “Before We Embrace Gwen Stefani's Comeback, She Owes Us An Apology.” Time Magazine. October 20, 2014. https://time.com/3524847/gwen-stefani-racist-harajuku-girls/.

Driver, Susan. “Pornographic Pedagogies?: The Risks of Teaching “Dirrty” Popular Cultures.” M/C Journal 7, no. 4 (2004). http://journal.media-culture.org.au/0410/03_teaching.php.

Duits, Linda and Liesbet van Zoonen. “Headscarves and Porno-Chic: Disciplining Girls’ Bodies in the European Multicultural Society.” European Journal of Women’s Studies 13, no. 2 (May 2006): 103–117. doi:10.1177/1350506806062750.

Durbin, Kate. “Hello Selfie.” Accessed May 9, 2018. https://www.katedurbin.la/hello-selfie/.

Durbin, Kate. “HELLO, SELFIE! Project Statement.” Body Anxiety. 2014. http://bodyanxiety.com/gallery/kate-durbin/.

Durbin, Kate. “Women as Objects.” Accessed May 9, 2018. https://www.katedurbin.la/women-as-objects/.

Dyer, Richard. White: Essays on Race and Culture. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Eler, Alicia and Kate Durbin. “The Teen-Girl Tumblr Aesthetic.*” Hyperallergic. March 1, 2013. https://hyperallergic.com/66038/the-teen-girl-tumblr-aesthetic/.

Edelman, Lee. No Future Queer Theory and the Death Drive. Durham: Duke University Press, 2007.

Evans, Elizabeth and Prudence Chamberlain. “Critical Waves: Exploring Feminist Identity, Discourse and Praxis in Western Feminism.” Social Movement Studies vol. 14, no. 4, (2015): 396–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2014.964199.

Evans, Caroline and Lorraine Gamman. “The Gaze Revisited, Or Reviewing Queer Viewing.” In A Queer Romance: Lesbians, Gay Men and Popular Culture. Edited by Paul Burston, Paul Burston Nfa and Colin Richardson. 12–61. London: Routledge, 1995.

Fateman, Johanna. “Women on The Verge: Art, Feminism, And Social Media.” Artforum 53, no. 8 (April 2015). https://www.artforum.com/print/201504/art-feminism-and-social-media-50736.

Ferguson, Roderick. Aberrations in Black: Toward a Queer of Color Critique. Minneapolis, London: University of Minnesota Press, 2005.

Fernandez Maria, Faith Wilding and Michelle Wright. Domain Errors!: Cyberfeminist Practices. Brooklyn: Autonomedia, 2002.

Finch, Mark. “Sex and Address in Dynasty.” Screen 23, nos. 3/4 (September–October 1982): 24–43.

Foucault, Michel. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-1977. New York: Pantheon Books, 1980.

Gervais, Emilie. “A Letter To Young Internet Artists.” Animal New York. July 6, 2014.

Greene, Rachel. Internet Art. London: Thames and Hudson, 2004.

Gubar, Susan. “Representing Pornography: Feminism, Criticism, and Depictions of Female Violation.” Critical Inquiry 13, no. 4 (Summer, 1987): 712-741. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1343526.

Halberstam, J. Gaga Feminism: Sex, Gender, and the End of Normal. Boston: Beacon Press Queer Ideas/Queer Action, 2012.

Halberstam, J. Queer Art of Failure. Durham: Duke University Press, 2011.

Hester, Helen. Beyond Explicit: Pornography and the Displacement of Sex. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2014.

Hirsch, Ann. horny little feminist screen captures. December 2014 to May 2015. http://hornylilfeminist.com/.

Holland, Faith. “Porn Interventions.” Accessed June 1, 2020. http://www.faithholland.com/portfolio_page/porn-interventions/.

hooks, bell. “Choosing the Margin as a Space of Radical Openness.” Framework: The Journal of Cinema and Media no. 36 (1989): 15–23. https://www.jstor.org/stable/44111660.

hooks, bell. “The Oppositional Gaze: Black Female Spectators.” In Movies and Mass Culture. Edited by John Belton. 247–266. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1996.

Hunt, Lynn. The Invention of Pornography, 1500–1800: Obscenity and the Origins of Modernity. New York: The MIT Press, 1996.

Ishii, Anne. “English as a Second Language.” The Village Voice. December 27, 2005. https://www.villagevoice.com/2005/12/27/english-as-a-second-language/.

Jacobs, Katrien. The Afterglow of Women’s Pornography in Post-Digital China. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

Jansen, Charlotte. “Body Anxiety and A New Wave of Digifeminist Art.” Dazed. February 26, 2016. https://www.dazeddigital.com/artsandculture/article/23717/1/body-anxiety-and-a-new-wave-of-digifeminist-art.

Jansen, Charlotte. Girl on Girl: Art and Photography in the Age of the Female Gaze. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2017.

Jansen, Charlotte. “Girl on Girl: the Female Photographers Pioneering the New Female Gaze.” It’s Nice That. April 4, 2017. https://www.itsnicethat.com/news/charlotte-jansen-girl-on-girl-female-gaze-photography-opinion-040417.

Jha, Sonora and Alka Kurian, eds. New feminisms in South Asia: disrupting the discourse through social media, film, and literature. New York and London: Routledge, 2018.

Johnson, Paddy. “Ryder Ripps Uses Jeff Koons Assistants for His Own Banality Series.” Artnet. January 28, 2015. https://news.artnet.com/market/ryder-ripps-uses-jeff-koons-assistants-for-his-own-banality-series-234987.

Jones, Amelia, “Televisual Flesh: Activating Otherness in New Media Art.” Parachute 113 (2004): 70-91.

Kaeh Garrison, Ednie. “Are We on a Wavelength Yet? On Feminist Oceanography, Radios, and Third Wave Feminism.” Paper presented at Women’s Center Dissertation Fellows Colloquium, University of California, Santa Barbara, April 21, 1999.

Levy, Ariel. Female Chauvinist Pigs: Women and the Rise of Raunch Culture. New York: Free Press, 2006.

Mackrous, Paule. “Pro Surfing, Remix, Apparatus: Émilie Gervais and Post-Internet Art.” ETC MEDIA no. 108, (2016): 44–47.

Matthews, Sean. “Change and Theory in Raymond Williams’s Structure of Feeling.” Pretexts: literary and cultural studies 10, no. 2, (November 2001): 179-194. doi:10.1080/10155490120106032.
McNair, Brian. Mediated sex: pornography and postmodern culture. London: Arnold, 1996.

McNair, Brian. Porno? Chic!: How Pornography Changed The World and Made It A Better Place. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2013.

Meier, Anika. “Selfies Can be Feminist—In Conversation with Charlotte Jansen.” Widewalls, April 20, 2017. https://www.widewalls.ch/charlotte-jansen-interview/.

Middleton, Stuart. “Raymond Williams’s “Structure of Feeling” and the Problem of Democratic Values in Britain, 1938–1961∗.” Modern Intellectual History, (2019): 1-29. doi:10.1017/S1479244318000537.

Muñoz, José Esteban. Cruising Utopia: The Then and There of Queer Futurity. New York and London: NYU Press, 2009.

Nakamura, Lisa. Digitizing Race: Visual Cultures of the Internet. London: University of
Minnesota Press, 2008.

Newell-Hanson, Alice. “Ann Hirsch is a ‘Horny Lil Feminist.’” i-D. June 11, 2015. https://i-d.vice.com/en_us/article/evna9j/ann-hirsch-is-a-horny-lil-feminist.

Oh, David C. ““Turning Japanese”: Deconstructive Criticism of White Women, the Western Imagination, and Popular Music.” Communication, Culture & Critique, no. 10 (2017): 365–381. doi:10.1111/cccr.12153.

Paasonen, Susanna. Carnal Resonance: Affect and Online Pornography. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011.

Paasonen, Susanna. “Revisiting Cyberfeminism.” Communications 36 (2011): 335–352. Doi: 10.1515/COMM.2011.017.

Paasonen, Susanna, Kaarina Nikunen, and Laura Saarenmaa, eds. Pornification: Sex and Sexuality in Media Culture. Oxford: Bloomsbury, 2007.

Patraka, Vivian M. “Binary Terror and Feminist Performance: Reading Both Ways.” Discourse, vol. 14, no. 2, (Spring 1992): 163–185. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41389223.

Paul, Pamela. Pornified: How Pornography Is Damaging Our Lives, Our Relationships, and Our Families. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2006.

Penny, Laurie. Unspeakable Things: Sex, Lies and Revolution. London: Bloomsbury, 2015.

Rivers, Nicola. Postfeminism(s) and the Arrival of the Fourth Wave. Cheltenham: Turning Tides, 2017.

Said, Edward W.. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978.

Saner, Emine. “Digital Artist Ann Hirsch on Why Her ‘Singing Vagina’ Empowers Women—and Terrifies Men.” The Guardian. March 21, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2016/mar/21/digital-artist-ann-hirsch-singing-vagina.

Schneider, Rebecca. The Explicit Body in Performance. London: Routledge, 2010.

Smith, Clarissa and Feona Attwood, “Emotional Truths and Thrilling Slide Shows: The Resurgence of Antiporn Feminism.” In The Feminist Porn Book: The Politics of Producing Pleasure. Edited by Tristan Taormino, et al. 41–57. New York, NY: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 2013.

Sollfrank, Cornelia. “Revisiting Cyberfeminism.” Art Papers (May/June 2015): 29–33.

Solomon, Debra. “Questions for Jessica Valenti: Fourth-Wave Feminism.” The New York Times Magazine. November 13, 2009. https://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/15/magazine/15fob-q4-t.html.

Sontag, Susan. “Pornographic Imagination.” In Styles of Radical Will, 35–73. New York, NY: Dell, 1981.

Tazi, Maha and Kenza Oumlil. “The Rise of Fourth-Wave Feminism in the Arab region? Cyberfeminism and Women’s Activism at the Crossroads of the Arab Spring.” CyberOrient 14, no. 1 (2020): 44-71. https://cyberorient.net/2020/06/30/the-rise-of-fourth-wave-feminism-in-the-arab-region-cyberfeminism-and-womens-activism-at-the-crossroads-of-the-arab-spring/

Thompson, Wanna. “Sadly, Gwen Stefani Has Been Problematic This Whole Time.” Vice. November 16, 2018. https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/nepnqq/gwen-stefani-cultural-appropriation-legacy.

Twerdy, Saelan. “This Is Where It Ends: The Denouement of Post-Internet Art in Jon Rafman’s Deep Web.” Momus. July 9, 2015. https://momus.ca/this-is-where-it-ends-the-denouement-of-post-internet-art-in-jon-rafmans-deep-web/.

Vickery, Ann. “New Feelings: Modernism, Intimacy, and Emotion.” Affirmations: of the modern 1, no.2, (2014): 1–14. https://affirmationsmodern.com/articles/67/#.

Walker, Rebecca. “Becoming the Third Wave.” Ms Magazine (January 1992): 41.

Warner Marien, Mary. Photography: A Cultural History 4th Edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson, 2015.

Weinstock, Tish. “Investigating Porn with Feminist Artist Faith Holland.” i-D. May 19, 2015. https://i-d.vice.com/en_uk/article/wj5z49/investigating-porn-with-feminist-artist-faith-holland.

White, Michele. “The Aesthetic Of Failure: Net Art Gone Wrong.” Angelaki: Journal of the Theoretical Humanities 7, no. 1 (2002): 173-194. doi: 10.1080/0969725022014211 9.

Williams, Raymond. Marxism and Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.

Wright, Elizabeth, ed. Feminism and Psychoanalysis: A Critical Dictionary. Blackwell: Oxford, 1998.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top