Login | Register

Monuments and Memory: The Remediation and the Visual Appropriations of the Mother Armenia Statue on Instagram During the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh War


Monuments and Memory: The Remediation and the Visual Appropriations of the Mother Armenia Statue on Instagram During the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh War

Mouradian, Lala (2021) Monuments and Memory: The Remediation and the Visual Appropriations of the Mother Armenia Statue on Instagram During the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh War. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Mouradian_MA_S2021.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Mouradian_MA_S2021.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


This thesis analyzes the remediation and the visual appropriations of the Mother Armenia statue on Instagram during the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war. The Mother Armenia statue was erected in 1967 in Armenia’s capital city of Yerevan as a female personification of Armenia. Its meaning and symbolism have been reworked during different collective crises for the Armenian nation. During the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war, the statue was a significant object of appropriation in the production and sharing of images on Instagram both by Armenians living in Armenia and the Armenian diaspora. This thesis examines the Instagram images in relation to historical and contemporary understandings of the concept of Armenian motherhood, the history of the construction and symbolism of the Mother Armenia statue, the intersection of monuments and memory studies, and visual cultural studies.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Communication Studies
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Mouradian, Lala
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A.
Program:Media Studies
Date:April 2021
Thesis Supervisor(s):Gagnon, Monika
ID Code:988243
Deposited By: Lala Mouradian
Deposited On:29 Jun 2021 22:27
Last Modified:29 Jun 2021 22:27


A1+. (2010, May 7). «Mayr Hayastan»-y Khnamqi Karot [Mother Armenia longs for care]. https://a1plus.am/hy/article/38112
Anahit & Gohar (Host). (2020, February 22). Yndrutyun, te partadranq․ mayrutyun [Choice or obligation? Motherhood] (No. 9) [Audio podcast episode]. In Akanjogh Podcast. https://anchor.fm/akanjogh-podcast/episodes/N9-ep7kq7
Ara Harutyunyan Official Website. (n.d.) Monument “Mother Armenia”. 1967. http://araharutyunyan.com/eng/index.php/top-list-news/21-praesent-et-orci-tellus
Ara Nakhshkaryan. (2015, July 6). Haytni anhayty «Mayr Hayastan» Hushardzan [The famous unknown “Mother Armenia” monument] [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qDB8VnJGc14
Aslanyan, S. (2005). Women’s social identity from an Armenian perspective: Armenian woman, Soviet woman, post-Soviet woman. Gendering Transformations, 192.
Atanesyan, A. (2020). Media framing on armed conflicts: Limits of peace journalism on the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 14(4), 534-550. https://doi.org/10.1080/17502977.2020.1780018
Baronian, M. A. (2016). Missing images: Textures of memory in diaspora. In Alexis Demirdjian (Ed.), The Armenian genocide legacy (pp. 303-313). Palgrave Macmillan.
Barseghyan, A. (December 10, 2020b). Duplicating Images: Azerbaijan’s Mirror Propaganda Operation Part II. EVN Report. Retrieved from https://www.evnreport.com/spotlight-karabakh/duplicating-images-azerbaijan-s-mirror-propaganda-operation-part-ii
Barseghyan, A. (November 19, 2020a). Azerbaijan’s Mirror Propaganda Operation. EVN Report. Retrieved from https://www.evnreport.com/spotlight-karabakh/azerbaijan-s-mirror-propaganda-operation
Beckstead, Z., Twose, G., Levesque-Gottlieb, E., & Rizzo, J. (2011). Collective remembering through the materiality and organization of war memorials. Journal of Material Culture, 16(2), 193-213.
Beukian, S. (2014). Motherhood as Armenianness: Expressions of femininity in the making of Armenian national identity. Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 14(2), 247-269. https://doi.org/10.1111/sena.12092
Bolter, J. D. & Grusin, R. A. (2000). Remediation: Understanding new media. MIT Press.
Burgess, J. (2006). Hearing ordinary voices: Cultural studies, vernacular creativity and digital storytelling. Continuum, 20(2), 201-214.
Cavoukian, K., & Shahnazaryan, N. (2019). Armenia: Persistent gender stereotypes. In Franceschet, S., Krook, M. L., & Tan, N. (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Women’s Political Rights (pp. 729-743). Palgrave Macmillan.
Chilingaryan, N., & Gurjyan, G. (2013). Socialist realism and Armenian building tradition: Steps to form a unique architectural language. ICOMOS, 58, 73-79.
Derderian, K. (2005). Common fate, different experience: Gender-specific aspects of the Armenian genocide, 1915-1917. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 19(1), 1-25.
Ekmekçioǧlu, L. (2016). Recovering Armenia: The limits of belonging in post-genocide Turkey. Stanford University Press.
Erll, A. (2008). Literature, film, and the mediality of cultural memory. In A. Erll, & A. Nunning (Eds.), Cultural memory studies: An international and interdisciplinary handbook (pp. 389–398). Walter de Gruyter.
Erll, A. (2011). Memory in culture. Palgrave Macmillan.
Erll, A. & Rigney, A. (2009). Mediation, remediation, and the dynamics of cultural memory. Walter de Gruyter.
Forest, B., & Johnson, J. (2002). Unraveling the threads of history: Soviet–era monuments and post–Soviet national identity in Moscow. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 92(3), 524-547.
Gulesseraian, L., & Phillips, L. D. (October 21, 2020). The media war by Azerbaijan and turkey against Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. The Institute for the Study of Human Rights. Retrieved from https://www.humanrightscolumbia.org/news/media-war-azerbaijan-and-turkey-against-armenia-and-nagorno-karabakh
Harutyunyan, K. (December 12, 2020). The Karabakh War, Media, Propaganda, and Immorality. Media.am. Retrieved from https://media.am/en/uncategorized/2020/12/15/25476/
Highfield, T., & Leaver, T. (2016). Instagrammatics and digital methods: Studying visual social media, from selfies and GIFs to memes and emoji. Communication Research and Practice, 2(1), 47-62. https://doi.org/10.1080/22041451.2016.1155332
Hirsch, M. (2019). Connective arts of postmemory. Analecta Política, 9(16), 171–176. https://doi.org/10.18566/apolit.v9n16.a09
Hovhannisyan, Z. (2020, September 21). Opinion | Armenia’s womanly face of war. OC Media. https://oc-media.org/opinions/armenias-womanly-face-of-war/
Huyssen, A. (1993). Monument and memory in a postmodern age. Yale Journal of Criticism, 6(2), 249–261.
HyeTert. (2020, September 19). PM’s spouse Anna Hakobyan organizes voluntary basic military training for young women. https://hyetert.org/2020/09/19/pms-spouse-anna-hakobyan-organizes-voluntary-basic-military-training-for-young-women/
Johnson, N. (1995). Cast in stone: Monuments, geography, and nationalism. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 13(1), 51-65.
Johnson, N. C. (2002). Mapping monuments: The shaping of public space and cultural identities. Visual Communication, 1(3), 293-298. https://doi.org/10.1177/147035720200100302
Laestadius, L. (2016). Instagram. In The SAGE Handbook of social media research methods (pp. 573-592). SAGE Publications Ltd. https://www.doi.org/10.4135/9781473983847
Leaver, T., Highfield, T., & Abidin, C. (2020). Instagram: Visual Social Media Cultures. John Wiley & Sons.
Lehmann, M. (2011). The Local Reinvention of the Soviet Project Nation and Socialism in the Republic of Armenia after 1945. Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 59(4), 481-508.
Lehmann, M. (2015). Apricot socialism: The national past, the Soviet project, and the imagining of community in late Soviet Armenia. Slavic Review, 74(1), 9-31. https://doi.org/10.5612/slavicreview.74.1.9
Lleshaj, S. (2015, June 14). The “National Mothers” of Socialism: From Mother Albania to the Mother of Georgia. Balkanist. https://balkanist.net/national-mothers-of-socialism/
Marutyan, H. (2007). Iconography of historical memory and Armenian national identity at the end of the 1980s. In Darieva, Ts. & Kaschuba, W. (Eds.), Representations on the Margins of Europe: Politics and Identities in the Baltic and South Caucasian States (pp. 82-107). Chicago University Press.
Mayo, J. M. (1988). War memorials as political memory. Geographical Review, 62-75.
Mitchell, K. (2003). Monuments, memorials, and the politics of memory. Urban Geography, 24(5), 442-459.
Mortensen, M. (2017). Constructing, confirming, and contesting icons: The Alan Kurdi imagery appropriated by# humanitywashedashore, Ai Weiwei, and Charlie Hebdo. Media, Culture & Society, 39(8), 1142-1161. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443717725572
Nemsitsveridze-Daniels et. al. (2020, October 9). The Missing Peace. The Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation. https://kvinnatillkvinna.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/The-Missing-Peace.pdf?fbclid=IwAR0BYUq7DIXwOgrSc_obmTyS-ZNywR2pCBaYtFRt80C_LfW-K4IILJz3hyI
NEWS.am. (2020, September 28). Mother Armenia monument in Yerevan is illuminated with Artsakh flag. https://news.am/eng/news/604559.html
Niven, B. (2007). War memorials at the intersection of politics, culture and memory. Journal of War & Culture Studies, 1(1), 39-45. https://doi.org/10.1386/jwcs.1.1.39_0
Nora, P. (1989). Between memory and history: Les lieux de mémoire. representations, 26, 7-24.
Ohanian, S. D. (2020). The role of women in the social and political life of the Republic of Armenia (1918-1920). In Der Matossian, B. (Ed.), The first Republic of Armenia (1918-1920) on its centenary: Politics, gender, and diplomacy (pp. 113-132). The Press at California State University Fresno.
Ohanyan, A. (2009). State-society nexus and gender: Armenian Women in postcommunist context. In Gelb, J., & Palley, M. L. (Eds.), Women and Politics Around the World: A Comparative History and Survey (pp. 231-45). ABC-Clio, LLC.
Omena, J. J., Rabello, E. T., & Mintz, A. G. (2020). Digital methods for hashtag engagement research. Social Media+ Society, 6(3) 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305120940697
Papacharissi, Z. (2016). Affective publics and structures of storytelling: Sentiment, events and mediality. Information, Communication & Society, 19(3), 307-324.
Pearce, k. (December, 4, 2020). While Armenia and Azerbaijan fought over Nagorno-Karabakh, their citizens battled on social media. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/12/04/while-armenia-azerbaijan-fought-over-nagorno-karabakh-their-citizens-battled-social-media/
Rose, G. (2016). Visual methodologies: An introduction to researching with visual materials. Sage.
Rowe, V. (2009). A History of Armenian women's writing, 1880-1922. Gomidas Institute.
Shahnazarian, N., & Ziemer, U. (2020). The Politics of Widowhood in Nagorny Karabakh. In Ziemer U. (Ed.) Women's Everyday Lives in War and Peace in the South Caucasus (pp. 179-201). Palgrave Macmillan.
Shirinian, T. (2018). The nation‐family: Intimate encounters and genealogical perversion in Armenia. American Ethnologist, 45(1), 48-59. https://doi.org/10.1111/amet.12598
Shirinian, T. (2020). Political patriarchy: Gendered hierarchies, paternalism, and public space in Armenia’s ‘Velvet Revolution’. In Ohanyan, A. & Broers, L (Eds.), Armenia’s velvet
revolution: Authoritarian decline and civil resistance in a multipolar world (pp. 181-199). Bloomsbury Publishing.
Shirinyan, A. (2018). Karabakh discourses in Armenia following the Velvet Revolution. Caucasus Edition: Journal of Conflict Transformation, 3(2), 140-154.
Sovetakan Arvest [Soviet Art]. (1973). Qaghaqn u Qandakagordzu [The City and the Sculptor], (9), 6-14. Retrieved October 24, 2020, from http://tert.nla.am/archive/NLA%20AMSAGIR/Sovetakanarvest/1973/9.pdf
Sturken, M. (2008). Memory, consumerism and media: Reflections on the emergence of the field. Memory Studies, 1(1), 73-78.
The Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation. (2019). Listen to her: Gendered effects of the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh and women’s priorities for peace. https://kvinnatillkvinna.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Listen-to-Her-%E2%80%93-Gendered-Effects-of-the-Conflict-over-Nagorno-Karabakh-and-Womens-Priorities-for-Peace.pdf
Till, K. (2003). Places of memory. In Agnew, J. A., Mitchell, K., & Toal, G. (Eds.), A companion to political geography (pp. 289-301). John Wiley & Sons.
Vasilyan, V. (2013). Mayr Hayastani hnaguyn Nakhatipery [The most ancient prototypes of Mother Armenia]. History and Culture Journal of Armenian Studies, (A), 209-223.
Women For Peace Campaign. (2020, July 25). Anna Hakobyan’s message. https://wfp.annahakobyan.am/en/2020/07/25/%d5%a1%d5%b6%d5%b6%d5%a1-%d5%b0%d5%a1%d5%af%d5%b8%d5%a2%d5%b5%d5%a1%d5%b6%d5%ab-%d5%b8%d6%82%d5%b2%d5%a5%d6%80%d5%b1%d5%a8/
Women For Peace Campaign. (n.d.). Women For Peace Campaign Declaration. https://wfp.annahakobyan.am/en/who-we-are/
Zartonk Media. (2020, September 2). Artsakh women participate in 1-week combat preparedness training at initiative of Armenian PM’s wife. https://zartonkmedia.com/2020/09/02/artsakh-women-participate-in-1-week-combat-preparedness-training-at-initiative-of-armenian-pms-wife/
Ziemer, U. (2019). Women against authoritarianism: Agency and political protest in Armenia. In Ziemer, U. (Ed.), Women's everyday lives in war and peace in the South Caucasus (pp. 71-100). Palgrave Macmillan.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top