Login | Register

Friends from Far and Close: The Transition to Multiculturalism in a School Context


Friends from Far and Close: The Transition to Multiculturalism in a School Context

Trigonakis, Stephanie (2021) Friends from Far and Close: The Transition to Multiculturalism in a School Context. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Trigonakis_MA_F2021.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Trigonakis_MA_F2021.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


Within Canada’s history comes multiple immigration surges which resulted in a rich ethnic diversity that currently exists in metropolitan areas. With the diversity of Montreal comes certain experiences that are unique to specific ethnic communities. Many mono-cultural schools exist which are alternative to the mainstream multicultural curriculums. Students in certain communities are immersed within their own culture for years before mixing in an academic setting with diversity. Often, this shift occurs during the transition to high school which is a time of great development within its own. This phenomenological study was interested in better understanding the experiences of students who had transitioned to a multicultural high school setting during a global pandemic after having attended a mono-cultural elementary school. A mixed-method design was employed to capture the essence of the students’ experiences including both interview and art-based data. Various art options were available for students to choose from including creating a drawing or collage, writing a song or poem or presenting artifacts that represented their experiences in both elementary and high school. Data gathered from the participants (N=5) was presented in a case-study format. Although transition experiences differed for each student, all were affected in one way or another by the pandemic context. In terms or ethnic diversity, some students initially found it difficult to adapt to a multicultural environment although they eventually got used to it. All students spoke about the importance of their friends and other systems in helping them adjust to their new school context.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Education
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Trigonakis, Stephanie
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A.
Program:Child Studies
Date:16 August 2021
Thesis Supervisor(s):Petrakos, Harriet Hariclia
Keywords:school transition; high school; ethnicity; multicultural; ethnic school; Covid-19; pandemic
ID Code:988994
Deposited On:29 Nov 2021 16:36
Last Modified:26 Aug 2022 17:52


Akos, P. (2002). Student perceptions of the transition from elementary to middle school. Professional School Counseling, 5(5), 339. Retrieved from: https:// https://lib-ezproxy.concordia.ca/login?url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/42732374
Akos, P. & John P. Galassi (2004). Gender and race as aariables in psychosocial adjustment to middle and high school, The Journal of Educational Research, 98(2), 102-108, https://doi.org/10.3200/JOER.98.2.102-108
Agustina, P. Z. R., & Cheng, T. H. (2020). How students’ perspectives about online learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic?. Studies in Learning and Teaching, 1(3), 133-139. https://scie-journal.com/index.php/SiLeT
Anctil, P. (2011). A community in transition: The Jews of Montréal. Contemporary Jewry, 31(3), 225-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12397-011-9067-65.
Andrews, C. & Bishop, P. (2012). Middle grades transition programs around the globe: Effective school transition programs take a comprehensive approach to ensuring student success in the middle grades. Middle School Journal, 44(1), 8-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/00940771.2012.11461834
Arends-Tóth, J.& Van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2004). Domains and dimensions in acculturation: Implicit theories of Turkish-Dutch. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 28(1), 19-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2003.09.001
Arora A. (2019). A data story on ethnocultural diversity and inclusion in Canada. Statistics Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-631-x/11-631-x2019001-eng.htm
Asanova, J. (2008). Educating ethnic minority children: The case of Canada. In G. Wang (Eds) The Education of Diverse Student Populations (pp. 65-77). Springer. http://ndl.ethernet.edu.et/bitstream/123456789/31049/1/88.Guofang%20Wan.pdf#page=75
Alspaugh, J. W. (1998). Achievement loss associated with the transition to middle school and high school. The Journal of Educational Research, 92(1), 20-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220679809597572
Beaulac, S., Charest, I., Daigle, C., Dupras, M., Jean, C., Marzinotto, L., . . . Piché, C. (2012). Ensuring a smoot transition from elementary to secondary school. Gouvernement de Quebec : Ministère de l’Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport. http://www.education.gouv.qc.ca/fileadmin/site_web/documents/dpse/adaptation_serv_compl/Guide_SoutenirTransitionScolaireQualiteVersSec_a.pdf
Beauregard, F., Petrakos, H. & Dupont, A. (2014). Family-school partnership: Practices of immigrant parents in Quebec, Canada. School Community Journal, 24(1), 177-210. https://search-ebscohost-com.lib-ezproxy.concordia.ca
Benedict, R. (1938). Continuities and discontinuities in cultural conditioning. Psychiatry, 1(2), 161-167. https://doi.org/10.1080/00332747.1938.11022182
Benner, A. D. & Graham, S. (2009). The transition to high school as a developmental process among multiethnic urban youth. Child Development, 80(2), 356-376. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01265.x
Benner, A. D., & Graham, S. (2011). Latino adolescents’ experiences of discrimination across the first 2 years of high school: Correlates and influences on educational outcomes. Child Development, 82(2), 508-519. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01524.x
Berndt, T. J., & Mekos, D. (1995). Adolescents' perceptions of the stressful and desirable aspects of the transition to junior high school. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 5(1), 123-142. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327795jra0501_6
Berry, J. W. & Sam, D. L. (1997). Acculturation and adaptation. In J. W. Berry, M. H. Segall, C. Kagitçibatsi (2nd ed., Vol. 3). Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, (pp. 291-326). https://books.google.ca
Berry, J. W.& Hou, F. (2017). Acculturation, discrimination and wellbeing among second generation of immigrants in Canada. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 61(1), 29-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2017.08.003
Besser, A., Flett, G. L., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2020). Adaptability to a sudden transition to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: Understanding the challenges for students. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/stl0000198
Birman, D., & Ryerson Espino, S. (2007). The relationship of parental practices and knowledge to school adaptation for immigrant and non-immigrant high school students. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 22(2), 152-166. https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573507307803
Blau, P. M. (1977). A macrosociological theory of social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 83(1), 26-5. https://doi.org/10.1086/226505
Blyth et al., D. A., Simmons, R. G. & Carlton-Ford, S. (1983). The adjustment of early adolescents to school transitions. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 3(1-2), 105-120. https://doi.org/10.1177/027243168331008
Bongers, I. L., Koot, H. M., Van Der Ende, J.& Verhulst, F. C. (2004). Developmental trajectories of externalizing behaviors in childhood and adolescence. Child Development, 75(5), 1523-1537. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00755.x
Bradford, S.& Cullen, F. (Eds.). (2013). Research and research methods for youth practitioners. Routledge.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1992). Ecological systems theory. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Brown, B. B., & Larson, J. (2009). Peer relationships in adolescence. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of Adolescent Psychology: Contextual Influences on Adolescent Development. (pp. 74–103). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470479193.adlpsy002004
Bru, E., Stornes, T., Munthe, E., & Thuen, E. (2010). Students' perceptions of teacher support across the transition from primary to secondary school. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 54(6), 519-533. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00313831.2010.522842
Candela, A. G. (2019). Exploring the function of member checking. The Qualitative Report, 24(3), 619-628. https://lib-ezproxy.concordia.ca
Camacho-Zuñiga, C., Pego, L., Escamilla, J., & Hosseini, S. (2021). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on students’ feelings at high school, undergraduate, and postgraduate levels. Heliyon, 7(3), 1-11, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405844021005703
Cherng, H. Y., Turney, K., & Kao, G. (2014). Less socially engaged? Participation in friendship and extracurricular activities among racial/ethnic minority and immigrant adolescents. Teachers College Record, 116(3), 1-25. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=
Chichekian, G. (1977). Armenian immigrants in Canada and their distribution in Montreal. Cahiers de Géographie du Québec, 21(52), 65-81. https://doi.org/10.7202/021353ar
Coll, C. G. E.& Marks, A. K. E. (2012). The immigrant paradox in children and adolescents: Is becoming American a developmental risk? American Psychological Association. https://psycnet-apa-org.lib-ezproxy.concordia.ca/PsycBOOKS/toc/13094
Cornell, D., Gregory, A., Huang, F.& Fan, X. (2013). Perceived prevalence of teasing and bullying predicts high school dropout rates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(1), 138. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030416
Côté, J. E. & Levine, C. (1988). A critical examination of the ego identity status paradigm. Developmental Review, 8(2), 147–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297(88)90002-0
Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., Luyckx, K., & Meeus, W. (2008). Identity formation in early and middle adolescents from various ethnic groups: From three dimensions to five statuses. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(8), 983-996. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-007-9222-2
Crocetti, E. (2017). Identity formation in adolescence: The dynamic of forming and consolidating identity commitments. Child Development Perspectives, 11(2), 145-150. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12226
Davalos, D. B., Chavez, E. L. & Guardiola, R. J. (1999). The effects of extracurricular activity, ethnic identification, and perception of school on student dropout rates. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21(1), 61-77. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739986399211005
Davids, L. (2003). Enrollment trends in Canadian Jewish day schools: What and why?. Journal of Jewish Education, 69(1), 63-68, https://doi.org/10.1080/0021624030690107
Douglas, M., Katikireddi, S. V., Taulbut, M., McKee, M., & McCartney, G. (2020). Mitigating the wider health effects of COVID-19 pandemic response. British Medical Journal Online, 369(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/ 10.1136/bmj.m1557
Douglass, S., Yip, T. & Shelton, J. N. (2014). Intragroup contact and anxiety among ethnic minority adolescents: Considering ethnic identity and school diversity transitions. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(10), 1628-1641. https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs10964-014-0144-5
Duchesne, S., Larose, S., Guay, F., Vitaro, F.& Tremblay, R. E. (2005). The transition from elementary to high school: The pivotal role of mother and child characteristics in explaining trajectories of academic functioning. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29(5), 409-417. https://doi.org/10.1177/01650250500206067
Dukes, S. (1984). Phenomenological methodology in the human sciences. Journal of Religion and Health, 23(3), 197-203. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00990785
Eccles, J. S., Lord, S.& Midgley, C. (1991). What are we doing to early adolescents? The impact of educational contexts on early adolescents. American Journal of Education, 99(4), 521-542. https://doi.org/10.1086/443996
Ellerbrock, C. R.& Kiefer, S. M. (2013). The interplay between adolescent needs and secondary school structures: Fostering developmentally responsive middle and high school environments across the transition. The High School Journal, 96(3), 170-194. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23351973?seq=1
Engzell, P., Frey, A., & Verhagen, M. D. (2021). Learning loss due to school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(17), 1-7 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2022376118
Erikson, E. H. (1959). Identity and the life cycle. W. W. Norton & Company. https://books.google.ca/
Etikan, I., Musa, S. A.& Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11
Feldlaufer, H., Midgley, C., & Eccles, J. S. (1988). Student, teacher, and observer perceptions of the classroom environment before and after the transition to junior high school. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 8(2), 133-156. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431688082003
Feldman, A. F., & Matjasko, J. L. (2005). The role of school-based extracurricular activities in adolescent development: A comprehensive review and future directions. Review of Educational Research, 75(2), 159-210. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543075002159
Figlio, D. & Özek, U. (2020). Cross-generational differences in educational outcomes in the second great wave of immigration. Education Finance and Policy, 7(10), 1-68. https://doi.org/10.1162/edfp_a_00283
Fitzpatrick, K. M. & Hwang, S. S. (1992). The effects of community structure on opportunities for interracial contact: Extending Blau's macrostructural theory. The Sociological Quarterly, 33(1), 51-61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1992.tb00363.x
French, S. E., Seidman, E., Allen, L. & Aber, J. L. (2000). Racial/ethnic identity, congruence with the social context, and the transition to high school. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15(5), 587-602. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558400155004
Fuligni, A. J. (1997). The academic achievement of adolescents from immigrant families: The role of family background, attitudes, and behavior. Child Development, 68(2), 351-363. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1997.tb01944.x
Ganeson, K., & Ehrich, L. C. (2009). Transition into high school: A phenomenological study. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 41(1), 60-78. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-5812.2008.00476.x?sid=worldcat.org
Gibbs, B.G., Heaton, T.B., (2014). Drop out from primary to secondary school in Mexico: a life course perspective. International Journal of Educational Development, 36 (1), 63–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2013.11.005
González C. F., Stein, J. A. & Bentler, P. M. (2009). Ethnic pride, traditional family values, and acculturation in early cigarette and alcohol use among Latino adolescents. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 30(3-4), 265–292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-009-0174-z
Gottfried, M. A. (2011). The detrimental effects of missing school: Evidence from urban siblings. American Journal of Education, 117(2), 147-182. https://doi.org/10.1086/657886
Greene, M. J. (2014). On the inside looking in: Methodological insights and challenges in conducting qualitative insider research. The Qualitative Report, 19(29), 1-13. https://doi=
Grolnick, W. S., Kurowski, C. O., Dunlap, K. G., & Hevey, C. (2000). Parental resources and the transition to junior high. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 10(4), 465-488. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/SJRA1004_05
Hankivsky, O. (2008). Cost estimates of dropping out of high school in Canada. Canadian Council on Learning. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=
Hays, D. G. & Singh, A. A. (2012). Qualitative inquiry in clinical and educational settings. The Guilford Press.
Hawkrigg, S., & Payne, D. N. (2014). Prolonged school non-attendance in adolescence: a practical approach. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 99(10), 954-957. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2013-304595
Hernandez, M. Y. (2009). Psychological theories of immigration. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(6), 713-729. https://doi.org/10.1080/10911350902910898
Hernández MM, Robins, R. W., Widaman, K. F. & Conger, R. D. (2017). Ethnic pride, self-esteem, and school belonging: a reciprocal analysis over time. Developmental Psychology, 53(12), 2384–2396. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000434
Hiebert, D. (2015). Ethnocultural minority enclaves in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver (Issue Brief No 52). Institute for Research and Public Policy. http://irpp.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/study-no52.pdf
Hoang, T. (2008). Thirteen-year-old girls: Tales of school transition and feminine identity. Irish Journal of Applied Social Studies, 8(1), 4-12. https://arrow.tudublin.ie/ijass/vol8/iss1/6
Hussen A. (2019). Government of Canada. Immigration, Refugees and Citezenship Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/publications-manuals/annual-report-parliament-immigration-2018/report.html#matters
Jones, S. R. & McEwen, M. K. (2000). A conceptual model of multiple dimensions of identity. Journal of College Student Development, 41(4), 405-414. https://doi.org/
Jonsson, J. O. & Rudolphi, F. (2011). Weak performance—strong determination: school achievement and educational choice among children of immigrants in Sweden. European Sociological Review, 27(4), 487-508. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcq021
Karilian-Konyalian, S. (2008). Acculturation stress and academic performance among foreign-born Armenian youth in the United States and Canada: an exploratory study (Doctoral dissertation, Concordia University). Spectrum. https://spectrum.library.concordia.ca/976046/
Kelly P. (1999). Integration and identity in Muslim schools: Britain, United States and Montreal. Islam and Christian‐Muslim Relations, 10(2), 197-217. https://doi.org/10.1080/09596419908721180
Kia-Keating, M., & Ellis, B. H. (2007). Belonging and connection to school in resettlement: Young refugees, school belonging, and psychosocial adjustment. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 12(1), 29-43. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104507071052
Kich, G. K. (1992). The developmental process of asserting a biracial, bicultural identity. In M. P.P. Root (Ed.), Racially Mixed People in America (pp. 304—317). Sage Publications. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/George-Kich/publication/232558662
LaFromboise, T., Coleman, H. & Gerton, J. (1993). Psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 114(3), 395- 412. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.114.3.395
Laser J. A. & Nicotera N. (2011). Guide for Practitioners. The Guilford Press.
Leaton Gray, S., Saville, K., Hargreaves, E., Jones, E., & Perryman, J. (2021). Moving up: Secondary school transition processes during the COVID-19 pandemic for schools. https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10126990/7/Leaton%20Gray_UCLIOEMoving_Up_Report_FINAL.pdf
Legters, N. & Kerr, K. (2001). Easing the transition to high school: An investigation of reform practices to promote ninth grade success. UCLA Civil Rights Project. (pp. 1-30). https://escholarship.org/uc/item/26m5j3dr
Liamputtong, P. (2010). Performing qualitative cross-cultural research. Cambridge University Press. https://books.google.ca/books
Lipps, G. (2005). Making the transition: The impact of moving from elementary to secondary school on. Ministry of Industy. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/11f0019m/11f0019m2005242-eng.pdf?st=uLtawrbz
Longobardi, C., Prino, L. E., Marengo, D., & Settanni, M. (2016). Student-teacher relationships as a protective factor for school adjustment during the transition from middle to high school. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01988
Maguire, M. H. (2010). Lessons in understanding Montreal heritage language contexts: Whose literacies and voices are privileged?. Offical Languages and Bilingualism Institute, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.18192/olbiwp.v1i1.1073
Makaryan, S. (2010). Country report: Armenia. European University Institute. 1-26. https://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/19601/Armenia.pdf?sequence=1
Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of ego-identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3(5), 55-5581. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0023281
Marin, C. (2017). Montreal global city [Map]. Le Monde diplomatique. https://mondediplo.com/maps/Montreal
Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (2nd ed.). Start Publishing LCC. https://books.google.ca/books
Maxwell, B., Waddington, D. I., McDonough, K., Cormier, A. A. & Schwimmer, M. (2012). Interculturalism, multiculturalism, and the state funding and regulation of conservative religious schools. Educational Theory, 62(4), 427-447. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-5446.2012.00455.x
Mc Andrew, M. (2010). The Muslim community and education in Quebec: Controversies and mutual adaptation. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 11(1), 41-58. https://10.1007/s12134-009-0124-x
Meijers, F. (1998). The development of a career identity. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 20(3), 191-207. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005399417256
Mitman, A. L., & Packer, M. J. (1982). Concerns of seventh graders about their transition to junior high school. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 2(4), 319-338. https://doi-org.lib-ezproxy.concordia.ca/10.1177/027243168200200403
Motti-Stefanidi, F., Berry, J., Chryssochoou, X., Sam, D. L. & Phinney, J. (2012). Positive immigrant youth adaptation in context: Developmental, acculturation, and social-psychological perspectives. In A. S. Masten, K. Liebkind, & D. J. Hernandez (Eds.), Realizing the Potential of Immigrant Youth (pp. 117–158). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139094696.008
Newman, B. M., Newman, P. R., Griffen, S., O'Connor, K., & Spas, J. (2007). The relationship of social support to depressive symptoms during the transition to high school. Adolescence, 42(167), 441-459. https://www.academia.edu/47613355/
Noels, K. A. & Clément, R. (2015). Situational variations in ethnic identity across immigration generations: Implications for acculturative change and cross‐cultural adaptation. International Journal of Psychology, 50(6), 451-462. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12205
Odegaard, S. L., & Heath, J. A. (1992). Assisting the elementary school student in the
transition to a middle level school. Middle School Journal, 24(2), 20-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/00940771.1992.11495163
Okazaki, S.& Sue, S. (1998). Methodological issues in assessment research with ethnic minorities. In P.B. Organista, K. M. Chun, G. Marìn (Eds), Readings in ethnic psychology (1st ed., pp. 26-40). Routledge. https://books.google.ca/books
Ortlipp, M. (2008). Keeping and using reflective journals in the qualitative research process. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 695-705. https://doi.org/
Özdemir, A., Utkualp, N., & Palloş, A. (2016). Physical and psychosocial effects of the changes in adolescence period. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 9(2), 717-723. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Aysel-Oezdemir/publication/311607528
Panagiotopoulou, J. A., Rosen, L., Kirsch, C., & Chatzidaki, A. (Eds.). (2019). 'New' migration of families from Greece to Europe and Canada: A'new' challenge for education?. Springer. https://books.google.ca/books
Pfefferbaum, B., & North, C. S. (2020). Mental health and the COVID-19 pandemic. New England Journal of Medicine, 383, 510-512 https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2008017
Phinney, J. S. (1996). Understanding ethnic diversity: the role of ethnic identity. American Behavioral Scientist, 40(2), 143–52. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764296040002005
Phinney, J. S., Romero, I., Nava, M.& Huang, D. (2001). The role of language, parents, and peers in ethnic identity among adolescents in immigrant families. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(2), 135-153. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010389607319
Phillippi, J.& Lauderdale, J. (2018). A guide to field notes for qualitative research: Context and conversation. Qualitative Health Research, 28(3), 381-388. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732317697102
Pullmann, H., & Allik, J. (2008). Relations of academic and general self-esteem to school achievement. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(6), 559-564. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.06.017
Rivas-Drake, D., Seaton, E. K., Markstrom, C., Quintana, S., Syed, M., Lee, R. M., … Yip, T. (2014). Ethnic and racial identity in adolescence: implications for psychosocial, academic, and health outcomes. Child Development, 85(1), 40–57. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/cdev.12200
Romero, A. J. & Roberts, R. E. (2003). Stress within a bicultural context for adolescents of Mexican descent. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9(2), 171-184. https://doi.org/ 10.1037/1099-9809.9.2.171
Rosenberg, M. M., & Jedwab, J. (1992). Institutional completeness, ethnic organizational style and the role of the state: the Jewish, Italian and Greek communities of Montreal. Canadian Review of Sociology, 29(3), 266-287. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-618X.1992.tb02439.x
Schachter, E. P. (2005). Context and identity formation: A theoretical analysis and a case study. Journal of Adolescent Research, 20(3), 375-395. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558405275172
Schachner, M. (2014). Contextual conditions for acculturation and school-related outcomes of early adolescent immigrants in Germany (Doctoral dissertation, Tilburg University). Tilburg University Research Portal. https://research.tilburguniversity.edu/en/
Schermerhorn, R.A. (1972). Ethnicity in perspective of sociology and knowledge. In D.E., Weinberg (Ed) Ethnicity a conceptual approach (pp. 5-18) https://engagedscholarship.csuohio.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1059&context=clevmembks#page=14
Sheets, R. H. & Hollins E. R. (1999). Human development and ethnic identity. In R.H. Sheets ( Ed.) Racial and ethnic identity in school practices: Aspects of human development, (1st Ed, pp. 91-101). Routledge. https://books.google.ca
Shoffner, M. F.& Williamson, R. D. (2000). Facilitating student transitions into middle school. Middle School Journal, 31(4), 47-52. https://doi.org/ 1080/00940771.2000.11494639
Sirin, S. R., Ryce, P., Gupta, T. & Rogers-Sirin, L. (2013). The role of acculturative stress on mental health symptoms for immigrant adolescents: A longitudinal investigation. Developmental Psychology, 49(4), 736. https://10.1037/a0028398
Sneed, J. R., Schwartz, S. J.& Cross, J. W. E. (2006). A multicultural critique of identity status theory and research: a call for integration. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 6(1), 61–84. https://doi.org/ 10.1207/s1532706xid0601_5
Statistics Canada (2019). Focus on Geography Series, 2016 Census. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/as-sa/fogs-spg/Facts-cma-
Stefanek, E., Strohmeier, D. & Van de Schoot, R. (2015). Individual and class room predictors of same-cultural friendship preferences in multicultural schools. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 39(3), 255-265. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/0165025414538556
Steinbach, M. (2010). Quand je sors d'accueil: linguistic integration of immigrant adolescents in Quebec secondary schools. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 23(2), 95-107. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908311003786711
Steinberg, A. M., Brymer, M. J., Steinberg, J. R., & Pfefferbaum, B. E. T. T. Y. (2006). Conducting research on children and adolescents after disaster. Methods for disaster mental health research, 243-253. https://books.google.ca/books
Strayhorn, T. L. (2010). When race and gender collide: Social and cultural capital's influence on the academic achievement of African American and Latino males. The Review of Higher Education, 33(3), 307-332. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/372485/summary
Sutton, A., Langenkamp, A. G., Muller, C., & Schiller, K. S. (2018). Who gets ahead and who falls behind during the transition to high school? Academic performance at the intersection of race/ethnicity and gender. Social Problems, 65(2), 154-173. https://doi.org/10.1093/socpro/spx044
Svensson, Y., Berne, J.& Syed, M. (2018). A narrative approach to the role of others in ethnic identity formation. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(2), 187. https://doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000182
Symonds, J.& Hargreaves, L. (2016). Emotional and motivational engagement at school transition: A qualitative stage-environment fit study. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 36(1), 54-85. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/0272431614556348
Tajfel, H. T.& Turner, J. JC (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. Psychology of Intergroup Relations, pp. 7-24.
Taylor, R. J., Forsythe-Brown, I., Mouzon, D. M., Keith, V. M., Chae, D. H.& Chatters, L. M. (2019). Prevalence and correlates of everyday discrimination among black Caribbeans in the United States: the impact of nativity and country of origin. Ethnicity & Health, 24(5), 463-483. https://doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2017.1346785
Telzer, E. H.& Fuligni, A. J. (2013). Positive daily family interactions eliminate gender differences in internalizing symptoms among adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(10), 1498-1511. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-013-9964-y
Topolewska-Siedzik, E., & Cieciuch, J. (2019). Modes of personal identity formation: A preliminary picture from the lifespan perspective. Personality and Individual Differences, 138(1), 237-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.09.041
Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Bhanot, R. & Shin, N. (2006). Ethnic identity formation during adolescence: The critical role of families. Journal of Family Issues, 27(3), 390-414. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X05282960
Uppal, S. (2017). Young men and women without a high school diploma. Insights on Canadian Society. Statistics Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/75-006-x/2017001/article/14824-eng.htm
United Nations (1989). Convention on the rights of the child. United Nations General Assembly, Treaty Series, 1577(3). http://wunrn.org/reference/pdf/Convention_Rights_Child.PDF
Wait, D. L. E., Roessingh, H., & Bosetti, L. (1996). Success and failure: Stories of ESL students' educational and cultural adjustment to high school. Urban Education, 31(2), 199-221. https://doi-org.lib-ezproxy.concordia.ca/10.1177/0042085996031002005
Wallace, K. R. (2004). Situating multiethnic identity: contributions of discourse theory to the study of mixed heritage students. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 3(3), 195–213. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327701jlie0303_2
Wang, G., Zhang, Y., Zhao, J., Zhang, J., & Jiang, F. (2020). Mitigate the effects of home confinement on children during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet, 395(10228), 945-947. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30547-X
Winchie, D. B. & Carment, D. W. (1989). Migration and motivation: the migrant's perspective. The International Migration Review, 23(1), 96–104. https://doi.org/10.1177/019791838902300105`
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top