Login | Register

Collapse Safety Assessment of Steel Multi-storey Buildings with Friction Sliding Braced Frames and Backup Moment Resisting Frames as a Dual System


Collapse Safety Assessment of Steel Multi-storey Buildings with Friction Sliding Braced Frames and Backup Moment Resisting Frames as a Dual System

Millichamp, Derek (2021) Collapse Safety Assessment of Steel Multi-storey Buildings with Friction Sliding Braced Frames and Backup Moment Resisting Frames as a Dual System. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Millichamp_MASc._S2022.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Millichamp_MASc._S2022.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


In the early 1980’s, Concordia University’s library building saw the first application of cross-braced Pall friction dampers (PFD). Although PFDs have evolved and improved, including the friction material used, development of the design procedure has been limited. Using a recently proposed force-based design method and considering detailed computational and modeling techniques, three types of seismic force resisting systems are presented herein: the bare Friction Sliding Braced Frame (FSBF), Friction Sliding Braced Frame with Continuous Columns including gravity columns (FSBF-CC) and Dual FSBF system (D-FSBF). Installing backup MRFs in parallel with a primary FSBF can provide the structure with load path redundancy and elastic-frame action, while taking advantage of the large energy dissipation capacity of PFDs.

The objectives of this research are three-fold: 1) to develop an accurate nonlinear model for PFD that is capable of bearing and failure, 2) to quantify the ductility-related force modification factor, Rd, for the proposed seismic force resisting systems: bare FSBF, FSBF-CC, and D-FSBF and 3) assess fragility and collapse safety of low-rise and middle-rise buildings braced with the proposed seismic force resisting systems subjected to crustal and subduction ground motions.

These objectives are carried out using 2-D numerical models developed in OpenSees for 4- and 8-storey prototype buildings located on Site class C in Vancouver, B.C. A force-based design method was developed in line with NBCC 2015 and CSA/S16-14 standard requirements. Considering the similarity with buckling restrained braced frames (BRBF), design was conducted for RdRo=4 and RdRo=5. All buildings were subjected to short duration crustal and long duration subduction ground motions, and a discussion regarding the slip length demand of PFD was provided.

From nonlinear response history analysis of 4 and 8-storey FSBF buildings (RdR0=4), it was found that the bare FSBF was structurally unstable and reached collapse prior to design level under the ground motion suites. Therefore, using the bare FSBF is not recommended. The 4-storey FSBF-CC building (RdR0=4) prevented collapse at design level, however experienced excessive residual drift, while the 8-storey FSBF-CC building reached collapse at design level under both crustal and subduction ground motions. Thus, the FSBF-CC system can be used only for low-rise buildings, but caution should be taken.

Using the Dual FSBF system composed of FSBF and a backup MRF, designed for an additional 25% base shear and two sets of RdR0 =4 and 5, it resulted that both 4-storey and 8-storey D-FSBF buildings showed sufficient margin of safety under both ground motion suites. Subsequently, when increasing the building height (e.g. the 8-storey building), the ductility-related force modification factor, Rd = 4 is recommended. The Dual FSBF system is recommended to brace low-rise and middle-rise buildings located in subduction zone, as Cascadia subduction zone, where megathrust earthquakes could occur.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Millichamp, Derek
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Civil Engineering
Date:17 December 2021
Thesis Supervisor(s):Tirca, Lucia
Keywords:Friction Damper, Dual System, Steel Braced Frame, Incremental Dynamic Analysis, Collapse Safety, Fragility Analysis, Friction Sliding Braced Frame, Residual Drift
ID Code:990157
Deposited On:16 Jun 2022 14:52
Last Modified:16 Jun 2022 14:52


Abrahamson, N. A., and Silva, W. J. (1997). “Empirical response spectral attenuation relations for shallow crustal earthquakes.” Seismological Research Letters, 68(1), 94–109.

Aiken, I. D., Kelly, J. M., and Pall, A. (1988). “Seismic response of a nine-story steel frame with friction damped cross-bracing.” 9th World Conference Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo, Japan.

ASCE. (2000). Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures. ANSI/ASCE Standard.

ASCE. (2013). ASCE 41-13 - Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings. American Society of Civil Engineers.

Astaneh-Asl, A. (1998). Seismic behavior and design of gusset plates for braced frames. Structural Steel Educational Council - Technical Information & Product Service.

Atkinson, G. M., and Goda, K. (2011). “Effects of seismicity models and new ground-motion prediction equations on seismic hazard assessment for four Canadian cities.” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 101(1), 176–189.

Baker, J. W., and Cornell, A. (2006). “Spectral shape, epsilon and record selection.” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 35, 1077–1095.

Baker, J. W., and Cornell, C. A. (2005). “A vector-valued ground motion intensity measure consisting of spectral acceleration and epsilon.” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 34(10), 1193–1217.

Balazic, J., Guruswamy, G., Elliot, J., Pall, R. T., and Pall, A. (2011). “Seismic Rehabilitation of Justice Headquarters Building Ottawa , Canada.” 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 1–8.

Bertero, V. (1977). “Strength and deformation capacities of buildings under extreme environments.” Structural Engineering and Structural Mechanics, 211–215.

Bosco, M., and Tirca, L. (2017). “Numerical simulation of steel I-shaped beams using a fiber-based damage accumulation model.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Elsevier Ltd, 133, 241–255.

Bowden, F. P., and Tabor, D. (2001). The Friction and Lubrication of Solids. Oxford University Press.

Bruneau, M., and MacRae, G. (2017). A Seismic Shift in Building Structural Systems: Reconstructing Christchurch.

Chopra, A. K. (2012). Dynamics of structures : theory and applications to earthquake engineering. Pearson.

Clifton, C., Bruneau, M., Macrae, G., Leon, R., and Fussell, A. (2011). “Steel Building Damage from the Christchurch Earthquake Series of 2010/2011.” Journal of the Structural Engineering Society New Zealand Inc., 24(2).
CSA S16. (2014). S16-14 - Design of Steel Structures. Canadian Standards Association.

Ellington, B. R., Celik, O. C., and Kinali, K. (2007). “Fragility assessment of building structural systems in Mid-America.” Earthquake
Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 36(13), 1–6.

Erochko, J., Christopoulos, C., Tremblay, R., and Choi, H. (2011). “Residual Drift Response of SMRFs and BRB Frames in Steel Buildings Designed according to ASCE 7-05.” Journal of Structural Engineering, 137(5), 589–599.

FEMA. (2000). FEMA 356 Prestandard and commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings.

FEMA. (2003). FEMA 450. NEHRP Recomended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures.

FEMA. (2009). Quantification of building seismic performance factors. FEMA P695, Washington, DC.

Filiatrault, A. (1985). “Performance and Evaluation of Friction Damped Braced Frames under Simulated Earthquake Loads.” University of British Columbia.

Filiatrault, A., Tremblay, R., and Kar, R. (2000). “Performance Evaluation of Friction Spring Seismic Damper.” Journal of Structural Engineering, 126(4), 491–499.

Fitzgerald, T. F., Anagnos, T., Goodson, M., and Zsutty, T. (1989). “Slotted Bolted Connections in Aseismic Design for Concentrically Braced Connections.” Earthquake Spectra, 5(2).

Giberson, M. F. (1969). “Two Nonlinear Beams With Definitions of Ductility.” Journal of the Structural Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 95(2), 137–157.

Jaisee, S., Yue, F., and Ooi, Y. H. (2021). “A state-of-the-art review on passive friction dampers and their applications.” Engineering Structures, Elsevier, 235, 112022.

Ji, X., Kato, M., Wang, T., Hitaka, T., and Nakashima, M. (2009). “Effect of gravity columns on mitigation of drift concentration for braced frames.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Elsevier Ltd, 65(12), 2148–2156.

Joyner, W. B., and Boore, D. M. (1981). “Peak horizontal acceleration and velocity from strong-motion records including records from the 1979 imperial valley, California, earthquake.” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 71(6), 2011–2038.

Kiggins, S., and Uang, C. M. (2006). “Reducing residual drift of buckling-restrained braced frames as a dual system.” Engineering Structures, 28(11), 1525–1532.

Lignos, D. G., Asce, A. M., Krawinkler, H., and Asce, M. (2011). “Deterioration Modeling of Steel Components in Support of Collapse Prediction of Steel Moment Frames under Earthquake Loading.”

Ludema, K. C., Arbor, A., Carlisle, S., and Schwartz, S. (1997). Friction, wear, lubrication: a textbook in tribology. Choice Reviews Online.

Lukkunaprasit, P., Wanitkorkul, A., and Filiatrault, A. (2004). “Performance Deterioration of Slotted-Bolted Connection Due to Bolt Impact and Remedy by Restrainers.” 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering.

Macrae, G. A., Kimura, Y., and Roeder, C. (2004). “Effect of Column Stiffness on Braced Frame Seismic Behavior.” Journal of Structural Engineering, 130(3), 381–391.

McCormick, J., Aburano, H., Ikenaga, M., and Nakashima, M. (2008). “Permissible Residual Deformation Levels for Building Structures Considering both Safety and Human Elements.” The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 8.

Morales, J. D. (2011). “Numerical Simulations of Steel Frames Equipped with Friction-Damped Diagonal- Bracing Devices.” Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.

National Research Council Canada. (2015). “NBCC 2015.” Government of Canada.

NEHRP. (2010). Evaluation of the FEMA P-695 Methodology for Quantification of Building Seismic Performance Factors NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture A partnership of the Applied Technology Council and the Consortium of Universities for Research in
Earthquake Engineering.

Nims, D. K., Richter, P. J., and Bachman, R. E. (1993). “The use of the energy dissipating restraint for seismic hazard mitigation.” Earthquake Spectra, SAGE PublicationsSage UK: London, England, 9(3), 467–489.

Ohira, M. (2020). “Effects of Connections Detailing and Friction Dissipation Devices on the Seismic Response of a Hospital Steel Braced Frame Building.” Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Pall, A. S., and Marsh, C. (1982). “Response of Friction Damped Braced Frames.” Journal of the Structural Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, 108(6), 1313–1323.

Pall, A. S., Marsh, C., and Fazio, P. (1980). “Friction joints for seismic control of large panel structures.” Journal - Prestressed Concrete Institute, 25(6), 38–61.

Pasquin, C., Leboeuf, N., and Pall, T. (2004). “Friction dampers for seismic rehabilitation of Eaton Building, Montreal.” 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

PEER/ATC 72-1. (2010). Modeling and acceptance criteria for seismic design and analysis of tall buildings. Applied Technology Council, Redwood City, CA.

Pettinga, D., Christopoulos, C., Pampanin, S., and Priestley, N. (2007). “Effectiveness of simple approaches in mitigating residual deformations in buildings.” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 36(12), 1763–1783.

Qing, C., and Driver, R. G. (2008). End tear-out failures of bolted tension members. University of Alberta.

Ribeiro, F. L. A., Barbosa, A. R., Asce, M., Scott, M. H., and Neves, L. C. (2015). “Deterioration Modeling of Steel Moment Resisting Frames Using Finite-Length Plastic Hinge Force-Based Beam-Column Elements.” Journal of Structural Engineering, 141(2).

Roik, K., Dorka, U., and Dechent, P. (1988). “Vibration control of structures under earthquake loading by three‐stage friction‐grip elements.” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 16(4), 501–521.

Sahoo, D. R., and Chao, S.-H. (2015). “Stiffness-Based Design for Mitigation of Residual Displacements of Buckling-Restrained Braced Frames.” Journal of Structural Engineering, 141(9), 04014229.

Scott, M. H., and Ryan, K. L. (2013). “Moment-Rotation Behavior of Force-Based Plastic Hinge Elements.” Earthquake Spectra, 29(2), 597–607.

Song, J., and Der Kiureghian, A. (2006). “Generalized Bouc–Wen Model for Highly Asymmetric Hysteresis.” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 132(6), 610–618.

Symans, M. D., Charney, F. A., Whittaker, A. S., Constantinou, M. C., Kircher, C. A., Johnson, M. W., and McNamara, R. J. (2008). “Energy Dissipation Systems for Seismic Applications: Current Practice and Recent Developments.” Journal of Structural Engineering, 134(1), 3–21.

Tirca, L., Serban, O., Lin, L., Wang, M., and Lin, N. (2016). “Improving the Seismic Resilience of Existing Braced-Frame Office Buildings.” Journal of Structural Engineering, 142(8), 1–14.

Tirca, L., Serban, O., Tremblay, R., Jiang, Y., and Chen, L. (2018). “Seismic Design, Analysis, and Testing of a Friction Stell Braced Frame System for Multi-Storey Buildings in Vancouver.” Key Engineering Materials, 763, 1077–1086.

Uriz, P., and Mahin, S. A. (2008). Toward Earthquake-Resistant Design of Concentrically Braced Steel-Frame Structures. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center.

Vamvatsikos, D., and Cornell, C. A. (2001). “Incremental Dynamic Analysis.” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 31(3), 491–514.

Wang, Y. (2018). “Seismic Performance of Steel Buildings with Braced Dual Configuration and Traditional Frame Systems through Nonlinear Collapse Simulations School of Graduate Studies Master of Applied Science ( Civil Engineering ).” Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.

Wen, Y. K. (1980). “Equivalent linearization for hysteretic systems under random excitation.” Journal of Applied Mechanics, Transactions ASME, 47(1), 150–154.

Wen, Y. K. (1989). “Methods of random wibration for inelastic structures.” Applied Mechanics Reviews, 42(2), 39–52.

Wen, Y. K., Ellingwood, B. R., and Bracci, J. (2004). Vulnerability function framework for consequence-based engineering. Mid-America earthquake center project.

Whittaker, A. S. (1990). An experimental study of the behavior of dual steel systems. University of California at Berkeley.

Yeo, G. L., Cornell, C. A., and University, D. of C. and E. E. S. (2005). Stochastic Characterization and Decision Bases under Time-
Dependent Aftershock Risk in Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering.

Zareian, F., and Krawinkler, H. (2007). “Assessment of probability of collapse and design for collapse safety.” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 36(13), 1901–1914.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top