Login | Register

Energy Efficiency and Flexibility Analysis for Building-Integrated Photovoltaics-Heat Pump Combinations in a House


Energy Efficiency and Flexibility Analysis for Building-Integrated Photovoltaics-Heat Pump Combinations in a House

Gaucher-Loksts, Erin (2022) Energy Efficiency and Flexibility Analysis for Building-Integrated Photovoltaics-Heat Pump Combinations in a House. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Gaucher-Loksts_MASc_S2022.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Gaucher-Loksts_MASc_S2022.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


This thesis considers three design configurations of air source heat pumps and building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems in a solar house concerning energy efficiency and energy flexibility in interacting with a smart grid. BIPV/Thermal (BIPV/T) provides electricity generation and reduces the electricity consumption when pre-heating air for a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system such as a heat pump. A heat pump’s coefficient of performance (COP) and capacity decrease at colder temperatures. Therefore, increasing the inlet temperature can significantly increase the capacity or enable a heat pump to operate when the outdoor air is below the cut-off temperature. A higher COP enables an efficient heat transfer and storage when heat is available; this provides flexibility to the system. Energy flexibility is an important factor to consider as providing flexibility to the grid helps alleviate its demand and stress during critical periods. In addition to the grid’s need, the utility often provides incentives for consumers to reduce electricity consumption during critical periods. Adopting advanced controls that can provide flexibility is beneficial to help reduce overall electricity consumption and energy cost.
A comprehensive literature review of various BIPV systems and their applications demonstrated a gap in the current research to investigate the possibility of utilizing solar gain (from inside a solarium or greenhouse) to pre-heating air for a heat pump. Furthermore, the use of semi-transparent photovoltaic (STPV) windows with a heat pump have not been explored. Thus, a new configuration is proposed utilizing the solar heated air in an attached solarium as a source for the air side of an air-source heat pump water heater (HPWH) with integrated water thermal storage and a 5kW semi-transparent photovoltaic façade. This configuration is compared with two other cases: a reference case consists of a 5kW BIPV system on the roof with a separate HPWH and a more novel option of a 5kW BIPV/T roof system. The heated air from the BIPV/T system is ducted to the air source of the HPWH, which also contains integrated thermal storage (the hot water). The three cases are modelled with an explicit finite difference thermal network model, and energy performance is determined and compared over a typical heating season in Montreal.
Another important gap in the research found from the literature review is maximizing the flexibility of BIPV/T and heat pump systems. Thus, the energy flexibility of the BIPV/T configurations listed previously is compared for different scenarios, such as heating the thermal water storage during the daytime (e.g., using the solar heat in the novel options) and using it for space heating during the time that the grid is under stress (and may have price incentives).
A full-scale experimental set-up modelling the passive solar case was completed to demonstrate this novel system configuration and to partially verify the developed model using the Future Buildings Laboratory at Concordia University. The real-time data collected from the experiment is analyzed and utilized to verify each component within the system. Results show that the proposed case utilizing the solarium air as the inlet of the heat pump had over 80% reduction in annual electricity consumption relative to the reference. In comparison, the BIPV/T configuration had around a 5% reduction compared to the reference case. The proposed configuration improves system performance significantly compared to the reference and ducted BIPV/T systems. The tank volume and solarium size had the highest impact on the system's energy flexibility. Optimal thermal storage size was between 300 – 600 L for a house with a floor area of 116 m2. The experimental results confirmed the increased energy savings from the passive solar configuration operation. The temperature in the test rooms reached over 20 °C on a cold sunny day from passive solar gains. The simulation models had a similar performance to the experimental data which also demonstrated the significant energy flexibility potential of the configuration tested.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Concordia University > Research Units > Centre for Zero Energy Building Studies
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Gaucher-Loksts, Erin
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Building Engineering
Date:28 February 2022
Thesis Supervisor(s):Athienitis, Andreas and Ouf, Mohamed
ID Code:990349
Deposited By: Erin Gaucher-Loksts
Deposited On:27 Oct 2022 14:57
Last Modified:27 Oct 2022 14:57


Abdelsalam, M., Lightstone, M., & Cotton, J. (2019, 6 1). A novel approach for modelling thermal energy storage with phase change materials and immersed coil heat exchangers. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 136, 20-33.
Adeli, M. M., Sobhnamayan, F., Farahat, S., Alavi, M. A., & Sarhaddi, F. (2012). Experimental Performance Evaluation of a Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T) Air Collector and Its Optimization. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 58, 309-318.
Allison, J., Bell, K., Clarke, J., Cowie, A., Elsayed, A., Flett, G., . . . Tuohy, P. (2018). Assessing domestic heat storage requirements for energy flexibility over varying timescales. Applied Thermal Engineering, 136, 602-616.
Al-Waeli, A. H., Kazem, H. A., Chaichan, M. T., & Sopian, K. (2019). Applications and PV/T Systems. In Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Systems (pp. 223-263). Springer, Cham.
Arteconi, A., Mugnini, A., & Polonara, F. (2019). Energy flexible buildings: A methodology for rating the flexibility performance of buildings with electric heating and cooling systems. Applied Energy(251), 113387.
ASHRAE. (2018). ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Applications 2018. Atlanta: ASHRAE.
ASHRAE. (2019). 2019 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Applications. Atlanta: ASHRAE.
Athienitis, A. (1998). Building Thermal Analysis. Boston MA: Electronic Mathcad Book, MathSoft Inc.
Athienitis, A., Dumont, E., Morovat, N., Lavigne, K., & Date, J. (2020). Development of a dynamic energy flexibility index for buildings and their interaction with smart grids. Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Montreal.
Bambara, J. (2012). Experimental Study of a Façade-integrated Photovoltaic/thermal System with Unglazed Transpired Collector. Montreal: Concordia University.
Bambara, J., & Athienitis, A. (2019). Energy and economic analysis for the design of greenhouses with semi-transparent photovoltaic cladding. Renewable Energy(131), 1274-1287.
Bastien, D., & Athienits, A. (2010). Analysis of the Solar Radiation Distribution and Passive Thermal Response of an Attached Solarium/Greenhouse. International High Performance Buildings Conference. Purdue.
Bastien, D., & Athienits, A. (2012). A control algorithm for optimal energy performance of a solarium/greenhouse with combined interior and exterior motorized shading. Energy Procedia, 30, 995-1005.
Benli, H. (2011). Energetic performance analysis of a ground-source heat pump system with latent heat storage for a greenhouse heating. Energy Conversion and Management, 52, 581-589.
Biancardo, M., Taira, K., Kogo, N., Kikuchi, H., Kumagai, N., Kuratani, N., . . . Nakata, J. (2006). Characterization of microspherical semi-transparent solar cells and modules. Solar Energy(81), 711-716.
Bigaila, E., & Athienitis, A. (2017). Modeling and simulation of a photovoltaic/thermal air collector assisting a façade integrated small scale heat pump with radiant PCM panel. Energy and Buildings, 149, 298-309.
Burch, J., & Christensen, C. (2004). TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT OF AN ALGORITHM FOR MAINS WATER TEMPERATURE. Golden, Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Candanedo, L., Athienits, A., Candanedo, J., O'Brien, W., & Chen, Y. (2010). Transient and Steady State Models for Open-Loop Air-Based BIPV/T Systems. ASHRAE Transactions 2010, 116, 600-612.
Chae, Y. T., Kim, J., Park, H., & Shin, B. (2014). Building energy performance evaluation of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) window with semi-transparent solar cells. Applied Energy(129), 217-227.
Chen, Y., Athienitis, A., & Galal, K. (2010). Modeling, design and thermal performance of a BIPV/T system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab in a low energy solar house: Part 1, BIPV/T system and house energy concept. Solar Energy(84), 1892-1907.
Chow, T., Chan, A., Fong, K., Lin, Z., He, W., & Ji, J. (2009). Annual performance of building-integrated photovoltaic/water-heating system for warm climate application. Applied Energy, 86(5), 689-696.
Coninck, R. D., Baetens, R., Verbruggen, B., Driesen, J., Saelens, D., & Helsen, L. (2010). Modelling and simulation of a grid connected photovoltaic heat pump system with thermal energy using Modelica. 8th International Conference on System Simulation in Buildings. Liege.
Debbarma, M., Sudhakar, K., & Baredar, P. (2017). Thermal modeling, exergy analysis, performance of BIPV and BIPVT: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 73, 1276-1288.
Delisle, V. (2015). A Model to Evaluate the Performance of BIPV-T Air Systems. Varennes: Natural Resources Canada.
Delisle, V., & Kummert, M. (2016). Cost-benefit analysis of integrating BIPV-T air systems into energy-efficient homes. Solar Energy(136), 385-400.
Deschesne, B., Tello-Oquendo, F., Gendebien, S., & Lemort, V. (2019). Residential air-source heat pump with refrigerant injection and variable speed compressor: Experimental investigation and compressor modeling. International Journal of Refrigeration, 108, 79-90.
Dimri, N., Tiwari, A., & Tiwary, G. (2018). Effect of thermoelectric cooler (TEC) integrated at the base of opaque photovoltaic (PV) module to enhance an overall electrical efficiency. Solar Energy(166), 159-170.
Duffie, J., Beckman, W., & W.M., W. (2003). Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering.
Dumoulin, R. (2019). Integrated Modelling and Analysis of a Heat Pump BIPV/T System with. Montreal: Concordia University.
Emmott, C. J., Röhr, J. A., Campoy-Quiles, M., Kirchartz, T., Urbina, A., Ekins-Daukes, N. J., & Nelson, J. (2015). Organic photovoltaic greenhouses: a unique application for semi-transparent PV? Energy and Environmental Science(8), 1317-1328.
Facci, A., Krastev, V., Falcucci, G., & Ubertini, S. (2018). Smart integration of photovoltaic production, heat pump and thermal energy storage in residential applications. Solar Energy. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2018.06.017
Farshchimonfared, M., Bilbao, J., & Sproul, A. (2015). Channel depth, air mass flow rate and air distribution duct diameter optimization of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) air collectors linked to residential buildings. Renewable Energy, 76, 27-35.
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. (2006). Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering. Washington: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
Fischer, D., & Madani, H. (2017). On heat pumps in smart grids: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews(70), 342-357.
Gailland, L., Ménézo, C., Giroux, S., Pabiou, H., & Le-Berre, R. (2014). Experimental study of thermal response of PV modules integrated into naturally-ventilated double skin facades. Energy Procedia(48), 1254-1261.
Gaillard, L., Giroux-Julien, S., Ménézo, C., & Pabiou, H. (2014). Experimental evaluation of a naturally ventilated PV double-skin building envelope in real operating conditions. Solar Energy(103), 223-241.
Gan, G. (2009). Effect of air gap on the performance of building-integrated photovoltaics. Energy(34), 913-921.
Gautam, K. R., & Andresen, G. B. (2017). Performance comparison of building-integrated combined photovoltaic thermal solar collectors (BiPVT) with other building-integrated solar technologies. Solar Energy, 155, 93-102.
Ghorab, M., Entchev, E., & Yang, L. (2017). Inclusive analysis and performance evaluation of solar domestic hot water system (a case study). AEJ - Alexandria Engineering Journal, 56(2).
Ghosh, A., Sundaram, S., & Mallick, T. K. (2019). Colour properties and glazing factors evaluation of multicrystalline based semi-transparent Photovoltaic-vacuum glazing for BIPV application. Renewable Energy(131), 730-736.
Gorjian, S., Ebadi, H., Najafi, G., Chandel, S. S., & Yildizhan, H. (2021). Recent advances in net-zero energy greenhouses and adapted thermal energy storage systems. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 43.
Guarino, F., Cassara, P., Longo, S., Cellura, M., & Ferro, E. (2015). Load match optimisation of a residential building case study: A cross-entropy based electricity storage sizing algorithm. Applied Energy, 154, 380-391.
Hailu, G., Dash, P., & Fung, A. (2015). Performance Evaluation of an Air Source Heat Pump Coupled with a Building-Integrated Photovoltaic/Thermal (BIPV/T) System under Cold Climate Conditions. Energy Procedia(78), 1913-1918.
Han, J., Lu, L., & Yang, H. (2010). Numerical evaluation of the mixed convective heat transfer in a double-pane window integrated with see-through a-Si PV cells with low-e coatings. Applied Energy, 87(11), 3431-3437.
Han, J., Lu, L., Peng, J., & Yang, H. (2013). Performance of ventilated double-sided PV façade compared with conventional clear glass façade. Energy and Buildings, 56, 204-209.
Hassanien, R. H., Li, M., & Tang, Y. (2018). The evacuated tube solar collector assisted heat pump for heating greenhouses. Energy and Buildings, 169, 305-318.
Hollands, T., Unny, T., Raithby, G., & Konicek, L. (1976). Free Convection Heat Transfer Across Inclined Air Layers. Journal of Heat Transfer, 189-193.
Hydro Quebec. (2019). 2019 Electricity Rates. Quebec: Hydro Quebec.
Incropera, F., Dewitt, D., Bergman, T., & Lavien, A. (2011). Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer (7th ed.). Jefferson: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Ioannidis, Z., Kapsis, K., Buonomano, A., Athienitis, A., Rounis, E. D., & Stathopoulos, T. (2017). Experimental Comparison on the Energy Performance of Semi-Transparent PV Facades Under Continental Climate. IEA SHC International Conference on Solar Heating and Cooling for Buildings and Industry. Montreal.
Jabir, H. J., Teh, J., Ishak, D., & Abunima, H. (2018). Impacts of Demand-Side Management and Electrical Power Systems: A Review. Energies, 11.
Jian, Z., He, Z., Jia, J., & Xie, Y. (2013). A Review of Control Strategies for DC Micro-grid. 2013 Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Control and Information Processing (ICICIP) . Beijing, China.
Jordehi, A. R. (2019). Optimisation of demand response in electric power systems, a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 103, 308-319.
Kamel, R. S., & Fung, A. S. (2014). Modeling, simulation and feasibility analysis of residential BIPV/T+ASHP system in cold climate—Canada. Energy and Buildings(82), 758-770.
Kamel, R., Ekrami, N., Dash, P., Fung, A., & Hailu, G. (2015). BIPV/T+ASHP: Technologies for NZEBs. Energy Procedia(78), 424-429.
Kamel, R., Fung, A., & Dash, P. (2015). Solar systems and their integration with heat pumps: A review. Energy and Buildings(87), 395-412.
Kapsis, K. (2016). Modelling, Design and Experimental Study of Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Windows for Commercial Building Applications. Montreal: Concordia University.
Karthick, A., Murugavel, K. K., & Kalaivani, L. (2018). Performance analysis of semitransparent photovoltaic module for skylights. Energy(162), 798-812.
Kasaeian, A., Khanjari, Y., Golzari, S., Mahian, O., & Wongwises, S. (2017). Effects of forced convection on the performance of a photovoltaic thermal system: An experimental study. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 85, 13-21.
Khaki, M., Shahsavar, A., Khanmohammadi, S., & Salmanzadeh, M. (2017). Energy and exergy analysis and multi-objective optimization of an air based building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) system. Solar Energy, 158, 380-395.
Larson, B., & Kvaltine, N. (2015). Laboratory Assessment of Demand Response Characteristics of Two CO2 Heat Pump Water Heaters. Ecotope inc.
Larson, B., Logston, M., & Baylon, D. (2011). Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation: Lab Testing & Energy Use Estimates. Seattle, USA: Ecotope, inc.
Li, D. H., Lam, T. N., & Cheung, K. (2009). Energy and cost studies of semi-transparent photovoltaic skylight. Energy Conversion and Management(50), 1981-1990.
Li, S., Joe, J., Hu, J., & Karava, P. (2015). System identification and model-predictive control of office buildings with integrated photovoltaic-thermal collectors, radiant floor heating and active thermal storage. Solar Energy, 113, 139-157.
Lim, T., Baik, Y.-K., & Kim, D. D. (2020). Heating Performance Analysis of an Air-to-Water Heat Pump Using Underground Air for Greenhouse Farming. Energies, 13, 3863.
Lioa, W., & Xu, S. (2015). Energy performance comparision amoung see-though amorphous-silicon PV (Photovoltaic) glazings and traditional glazings under different architectureal conditions in China. Energy(83), 267-275.
Liu, D., Sun, Y., Wilson, R., & Wu, Y. (2020). Comprehensive evaluation of window-integrated semi-transparent PV for building daylight performance. Renewable Energy(145), 1399-1411.
Lizana, J., Friedrich, D., Renaldi, R., & Chacartegui, R. (2018). Energy flexible building through smart demand-side management and latent heat storage. Applied Energy(230), 471-485.
Lu, L., & Law, K. M. (2013). Overall energy performance of semi-transparent single-glazed photovoltaic (PV) window for a typical office in Hong Kong. Renewable Energy(49), 250-254.
Luo, Y., Zhang, L., Liu, Z., Xie, L., Wang, X., & Wu, J. (2018). Experimental study and performance evaluation of a PV-blind embedded double skin façade in winter season. Energy, 165, 326-342.
Lynn, N., & Mohanty, L. (2012). Color rendering properties of semi-transparent thin-film PV modules. Building Environemnt(54), 148-158.
Marrec, J. (2019). Set Site Water Mains Temperature. (NREL) Retrieved February 2020, from https://bcl.nrel.gov/node/83628
Martin-Escudero, K., Salazar-Herran, E., Campos-Celador, A., Diarce-Belloso, G., & Gomez-Arriaran, I. (2019). Solar energy system for heating and domestic hot water supply by means of a heat pump coupled to a photovoltaic ventilated façade. Solar Energy(183), 453-462.
Marwan, M., & Kamel, F. (2011). Demand Side Response to Mitigate Electrical Peak Demand in Eastern and Southern Australia. Energy Procedia, 12, 133-142.
McLaughlin, D. V., Kapsis, K., Athienitis, A., Siassi, S., & Nichilo, L. (2014). Analysis of Building Envelope Performance effects of an Insulating Semi-transparent Photovoltaic (STPV) Glazing Unit. Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Montreal.
Miyazaki, T., Akisawa, A., & Kashiwagi, T. (2005). Energy savings of office buildings by the use of semi-transparent solar cells for windows. Renewable Energy(30), 281-304.
Naghibi, Z., Carriveau, R., & Ting, D. S.-K. (2020). Improving clean energy greenhouse heating with solar thermal energy storage and phase change materials. Energy Storage, 2.
Nash, A., Badithela, A., & Jain, N. (2017). Dynamic modeling of a sensible thermal energy storage tank with an immersed coil heat exchanger under three operation modes. Applied Energy, 195, 877-889.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2020). Best Research-Cell Efficiency Chart. (U.S. Department of Energy) Retrieved January 2020, from https://www.nrel.gov/pv/cell-efficiency.html
National Research Council of Canada. (2015). National Building Code of Canada 2015. Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada.
Newsham, G., & Bowker, B. (2010). The effect of utility time-varying pricing and load control strategies on residential summer peak electricity use: A review. Energy Policy, 38(7), 3289-3296.
Ng, P. K., Mithraratne, N., & Kua, H. W. (2013). Energy analysis of semi-transparent BIPV in Singapore buildings. Energy and buildings(66), 274-281.
Office of Energy Efficiency. (2014). Energy Efficiency trends in Canada. Ottawa, Canada: Natural Resources Canada.
Ontario Energy Board. (2020). Historical electricity rates. Retrieved May 2020, from https://www.oeb.ca/rates-and-your-bill/electricity-rates/historical-electricity-rates
Ontario Energy Board. (2020). Managing costs with time-of-use rates. Retrieved May 2020, from https://www.oeb.ca/rates-and-your-bill/electricity-rates/managing-costs-time-use-rates
Ozgener, O., & Hepbasli, A. (2005). Experimental performance analysis of a solar assisted ground-source heat pump greenhouse heating system. Energy and Buildings, 37, 101-110.
Palyvos, J. (2008). Survey of wind convection coefficient correlations for building envelop energy systems' modeling. Applied Thermal Engineering, 28, 801-808.
Park, K., Kang, G., Kim, H., Yu, G., & Kim, J. (2010). Analysis of thermal and electrical performance of semi-transparent photovoltaic (PV) module. Energy(35), 2681-2687.
Patteeuw, D., Henze, G., & Helsen, L. (2016). Comparison of load shifting incentives for low-energy buildings with heat pumps to attain grid flexibility benefits. Applied Energy, 167, 80-92.
Peng, J., Curcija, D., Lu, L., Selkowitz, S., Yang, H., & Zhang, W. (2016). Numerical investigation of the energy saving potential of a semi-transparent photovoltaic double-skin facade in a cool-summer Mediterranean climate. Applied Energy, 165, 345-356.
Rahman, A., Fumo, N., & Smith, A. (2015). Simplified modeling of thermal storage tank for distributed energy heat recovery applications. ASME 2015 9th International Conference on Energy Sustainability, ES 2015, collocated with the ASME 2015 Power Conference, the ASME 2015 13th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, and the ASME 2015 Nuclear Forum. 2. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Rashmi, Tiwari, A., Tiwari, G., & Bhatti, T. (2019). Performance evaluation of a semi-transparent photovoltaic thermal (SPVT) inverted absorber flat plate collector (IAFPC) for constant collection temperature (CCT) mode. Solar Energy(186), 382-391.
Renaldi, R., Kiprakis, A., & Friedrich, D. (2017). An optimisation framework for thermal energy storage integration in a residential heat pump heating system. Applied Energy(186), 520-529.
Robinson, L., & Athienitis, A. (2009). Design methodology for optimization of electrical generation and daylight utilization for façade with semi-transparent photovoltaics. Eleventh international IBPSA Conference. Glasgow.
Rounis, E. D. (2018). Modelling and Design Methodology for Air-based Building Integrated Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems including Thermal Enhancements and Wind Effects. Montreal: Concordia University.
Sager, J., Mackintosh, T., St-Onge, G., McDonald, E., & Kegel, M. (2018). Detailed performance Assessment of Variable Capacity Inverter-Driven Cold-Climate Air Source Heat Pumps. Cold Climate HVAC Conference. Sweden.
Saloux, E., & Candanedo, J. (2018). Control-oriented modelling of stratified storage tanks: an enhanced approach. eSim. Montreal, Canada.
Schuetz, P., Gwerder, D., Gasser, L., Fischer, L., Wellig, B., & Worlitschek, J. (2017). Thermal storage improves flexibility of residential heating systems for smart grids. 12th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2017. Rotterdam.
Semple, L., Carriveau, R., & Ting, D. S.-K. (2017). A techno-economic analysis of seasonal thermal energy storage for greenhouse applications. Energy and Buildings, 154, 175-187.
Shahsavar, A., & Khanmohammadi, S. (2019). Feasibility of a hybrid BIPV/T and thermal wheel system for exhaust air heat recovery: Energy and exergy assessment and multi-objective optimization. Applied Thermal Engineering, 146, 104-122.
Shariatzadeh, F., Mandal, P., & Srivastava, A. K. (2015). Demand response for sustainable energy systems: A review,application and implementation strategy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 45, 343-350.
Shuxue, X., & Guoyuan, M. (2017). Performance Evaluation of a Vapor Injection Refrigeration System Using Mixture Working Fluid R32/R1234ze. 12th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2017. Rotterdam: 12th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2017.
Sioshansi, F. P. (2011). So What's So Smart about the Smart Grid? The Electricity Journal, 24(10), 91-99.
Sun, W., Ji, J., Luo, C., & He, W. (2011). Performance of PV-Trombe wall in winter correlated with south façade design. Applied Energy, 86(1), 224-231.
Tello-Oquendo, F. M., Navarro-Peris, E., & Gonzálvez-Maciá, J. (2019). Comparison of the performance of a vapor-injection scroll compressor and a two-stage scroll compressor working with high pressure ratios. Applied Thermal Engineering, 160, 114023.
Thür, A., Calabrese, T., & Streicher, W. (2018). Smart grid and PV driven ground heat pump as thermal battery in small buildings for optimized electricity consumption. Solar Energy(174), 273-285.
Tiwari, A., & Sodha, M. (2007). Parametric study of various configurations of hybrid PV/thermal air collector: Experimental validation of theoretical model. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 91, 17-28.
Tonui, J., & Tripanagnostopoulos, Y. (2007). Improved PV/T solar collectors with heat extraction by forced or natural air circulation. Renewable Energy, 32, 623-637.
Tsai, H.-L. (2015). Modeling and validation of refrigerant-based PVT-assisted heat pump water heating (PVTA-HPWH) system. Solar Energy, 122, 36-47.
Tsai, H.-L., Hsu, C.-Y., & Yang, C.-Y. (2013). Design and performance evaluation of building integrated PVT and heat pump water heating (BIPVT/HPWH) system. IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC). Tampa.
Tyagi, V., Kaushik, S., & Tyagi, S. (2012). Advancement in solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) hybrid collector technology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 1383-1398.
Underwood, C., Royapoor, M., & Sturm, B. (2017). Parametric modelling of domestic air-source heat pumps. Energy and Buildings, 139, 578-589.
University of Wisconsin. (2017). Transient System Simulation Tool (18 ed.). Madison, Wisconsin: Solar Energy Laboratory.
Vandewalle, J., Keyaerts, N., & D'haeseleer, W. (2012). The role of thermal storage and natural gas in a smart energy system. 2012 9th International Conference on the European Energy Market. Florence.
Vats, K., & Tiwari, G. (2012). Performance evaluation of a building integrated semitransparent photovoltaic thermal system for roof and fac¸ ade. Energy and Buildings(45), 211-218.
Vats, K., Tomar, V., & Tiwari, G. (2012). Effect of packing factor on the performance of a building integrated semitransparent photovoltaic thermal (BISPVT) system with air duct. Energy and Buildings(53), 159-165.
Wang, M., Peng, J., Li, N., Yang, H., Wang, C., Li, X., & Lu, T. (2017). Comparison of energy performance between PV double skin facades and PV insulating glass units. Applied Energy(194), 148-160.
Wong, P., Shimoda, Y., Nonaka, M., Inoue, M., & Mizuno, M. (2008). Semi-transparent PV: Thermal performance, power generation, daylight modelling and energy saving potential in a residential application. Renewable Energy(33), 1024-1036.
Yan, C., Xue, X., Wang, S., & Cui, B. (2015). A novel air-conditioning system for proactive power demand response to smart grid. Energy Conversion and Management(102), 239-546.
Yang, L., Zhao, L.-X., Zhang, C.-L., & Gu, B. (2009). Loss-efficiency model of single and variable-speed compressors using neural networks. International Journal of Refrigeration, 32, 1423-1432.
Yang, S.-H., & Rhee, J. Y. (2013). Utilization and performance evaluation of a surplus air heat pump system for greenhouse cooling and heating. Applied Energy, 105, 244-251.
Yang, T. (2015). A Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Enhanced Open-Loop Air-Based Building-Integrated Photovoltaic/Thermal (BIPV/T) Systems. Montreal: Concordia University.
Yang, T., & Athienitis, A. (2014). A study of design options for a building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) system with glazed air collector and multiple inlets. Solar Energy, 104, 82-92.
Zhang, L., Good, N., & Mancarella, P. (2019). Building-to-grid flexibility: Modelling and assessment metrics for residential demand response from heat pump aggregations. Applied Energy, 233-234, 709-723.
Zhang, S., Guo, Y., Zhao, H., Wang, Y., Chow, D., & Fang, Y. (2020). Methodologies of control strategies for improving energy efficiency in agricultural greenhouses. Journal of Cleaner Production, 274, 122695.
Zhang, X., Zhao, X., Smith, S., Xu, J., & Yu, X. (2012). Review of R&D progress and practical application of the solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 599-617.
Zondag, H., & Heldan, W. v. (2003). PV-thermal domestic systems. 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion. Osaka, Japan.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top