Login | Register

Learning English L2 vocabulary with clickers


Learning English L2 vocabulary with clickers

Sénécal, Anne-Marie ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8725-0413 (2022) Learning English L2 vocabulary with clickers. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Senecal_MA_S2022.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Senecal_MA_S2022.pdf - Accepted Version


This study explored the use of clickers (i.e., a polling technology) as a tool to promote the acquisition of second language (L2) vocabulary. A growing body of literature on the pedagogical effectiveness of clickers in an L2 context has revealed that clickers can foster learning gains (e.g., Reynolds & Taylor, 2020). However, the extent to which clickers play a role in learning gains compared to other pedagogical approaches lacks consensus; in addition, most research has focused on adult learners and has taken place in large classrooms (Caldwell, 2007).

To address these limitations, the current research investigated the effects of clickers on L2 vocabulary acquisition in a K-12 educational setting. Two intact groups comprised of 61 Grade 8 students (age range: 13-14) learning English as a second language (ESL) in Montréal (Québec) were assigned to a vocabulary acquisition treatment: while the Clicker Group (CG: n = 31) received instruction via clickers, the Non-Clicker Group (NCG: n = 30) was treated via hand-raising without the target technology. The target vocabulary for the experiment constituted 30 low-frequency words extracted from James and the Giant Peach, a novel by Roald Dahl.

The pedagogical effectiveness of clickers on participants’ acquisition of the target vocabulary was measured via pretests, posttests and delayed posttests. Overall, the results indicate that the pedagogical use of clickers contributed to L2 vocabulary acquisition, but that the learning gains are comparable in both groups. The discussion of the findings highlights the role of individual differences among members (i.e., some participants improved significantly more than others) and the implications for L2 teaching/learning.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Education
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Sénécal, Anne-Marie
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A.
Program:Applied Linguistics
Date:13 March 2022
Thesis Supervisor(s):Cardoso, Walcir
Keywords:L2 pedagogy, clickers, vocabulary
ID Code:990374
Deposited By: Anne-Marie Sénécal
Deposited On:16 Jun 2022 15:10
Last Modified:16 Jun 2022 15:10


Abrahamson, L. (2006). A brief history of networked classrooms: Effects, cases, pedagogy, and implications. In D. Banks (Ed.), Audience response systems in higher education (pp. 1-25). Information Science Publishing.
Agbatogun, A. (2014). Developing learners’ second language communicative competence through active learning: Clickers or communicative approach? Educational Technology & Society, 17(2), 257–269.
Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Longman.
Baran-Łucarz, M., Czajka, E., & Cardoso, W. (2015). Teaching English Phonetics with a learner response system. In E. Waniek-Klimczak & M. Pawlak (Eds.), Teaching and researching the pronunciation of English, Second language learning and teaching (pp. 35-61). Springer.
Bruff, D. (2009). Teaching with classroom response systems: Creating active learning environments. Wiley.
Bristol, T. J. (2011). Clickers: Audience response strategies. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 6(4), 192–195.
Caldwell, J. (2007). Clickers in the large classroom: current research and best-practice tips. Life Sciences Education, 6(1), 9–20.
Cardoso, W. (2011). Learning a foreign language with a learner response system: the students’
Perspective. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1–25.
Cardoso, W. (2013). Learner response systems in second language teaching. In C. Chapelle (ed.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics (pp. 1-7). Blackwell.
Cardoso, W. (2022). Technology for Speaking Development. In T. Derwing, M. Munro, & R. Thomson (Eds), Routledge Handbook on Second Language Acquisition and Speaking (p. 299-313). Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Chapelle, C. (2003). English language learning and technology: Lectures on applied linguistics in the age of information and communication technology. John Benjamins.
Chapelle, C., & Jamieson, J. (2008). Tips for teaching with CALL: Practical approaches to computer-assisted language learning. Pearson Longman.
Chun, D. M. (2012). Review article: replication studies in call research. CALICO Journal, 29(4), 591–600.
Coady, J. (1997). SLVA: A synthesis of research. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 273-290). Cambridge University Press.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. L. Erlbaum Associates.
Cutrim Schmid, E. (2007). Enhancing performance knowledge and self-esteem in classroom language learning: The potential of the ACTIVote system component of interactive whiteboard technology. System, 35, 119–133.
Draper, S., & Brown, M. (2004). Increasing interactivity in lectures using an electronic voting system. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20(2), 81–94.
Draper, S. W., Cargill, J., & Cutts, Q. (2002). Electronically enhanced classroom interaction. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 18(1), 13–23.
Foroozesh-nia, S. (2015). Overview of the significance of different learner characteristics in computer-based language learning environment. In M. Rahimi (Ed.), Handbook of research on individual differences in computer-assisted language learning (pp. 1-23). Information Science Reference.
Gillespie, J. (2020). CALL research: Where are we now? ReCALL, 32(2), 127-144.
Giridharan, B. (2013). Exploring the use of ARS-keypad technology in English vocabulary development. Arab World English Journal, 4(2), 93–105.
Guaqueta, C. A., & Castro-Garces, A. Y. (2018). The use of language learning apps as a didactic tool for EFL vocabulary building. English Language Teaching, 11(2), 61–71.
Hake, R. (1998). Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: A six-thousand-student survey of mechanics text data for introductory physics courses. American Journal of Physics, 66(1), 64–74.
Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81–112.
Horst, M. (2013). Mainstreaming second language vocabulary acquisition. The Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 16(1), 171–188.
Hung, H. (2017). Clickers in the flipped classroom: bring your own device (BYOD) to promote student learning. Interactive Learning Environments, (25)8, 983–995.
Hunsu, N., Adesope, O., & Bayly, D. (2016). A meta-analysis of the effects of audience response systems (clicker-based technologies) on cognition and affect. Computers & Education, 94, 102–119.
Iwamoto, D. H., Hargis, J., Taitano, E. J., & Vuong, K. (2017). Analyzing the efficacy of the testing etfect using KahootTM on student performance. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 18(2), 80–93.
Judson, E., & Sawada, D. (2002). Learning from past and present: electronic response systems in college lecture halls. Journal of Computers in Mathematics & Science Teaching, 21, 167–181.
Kay, R., & LeSage, A. (2009). Examining the benefits and challenges of using audience response systems: a review of the literature. Computer & Education, 53(3), 819–827.
Ko, M. H., & Goranson, J. (2014). Technology-assisted vocabulary learning and student learning outcomes: A case study. Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning, 17(1), 11–33.
Landrum, R. (2015). Teacher-ready research review: clickers. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 1(3), 250-254.
Lasry, N., Mazur, E., & Watkins, J. (2008). Peer instruction: From Harvard to the two-year college. American Journal of Physics, 76(11), 1066–1069.
Lee, C. M., & Oh, E. (2014). Exploring the effects of a learner response system on EFL reading. Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning, 17(2), 130–151.
Levy, M., & Hubbard, P. (2005). Why call CALL “CALL”? Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(3), 143-149.
Loewen, S. (Ed.). (2020). The Acquisition of Grammar. In Introduction to instructed second language acquisition (pp. 104-125). Routledge.
Ma, Q. (2009). Second language vocabulary acquisition. Peter Lang.
Ma, Q., & Kelly, P. (2006). Computer assisted vocabulary learning: Design and evaluation. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 19(1), 15–19.
Mays, B. R., Yeh, H.-C., & Chen, N.-S. (2020). The effects of using audience response systems incorporating student-generated questions on EFL students’ reading comprehension. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 29(6), 553–566.
Mazur, E. (1997). Peer instruction: A user's manual. Prentice Hall.
McDonough, K., & Foote, J. (2015). The impact of individual and shared clicker use on students' collaborative learning. Computers & Education, 86, 236–249.
Milton, J. (2009). Measuring second language vocabulary acquisition. Multilingual Matters.
Ministère de l'Éducation. (2006). Programme de formation de l'école québécoise : Enseignement secondaire, premier cycle. http://www.education.gouv.qc.ca/fileadmin/site_web/documents/PFEQ/prfrmsec1ercyclev2.pdf
Moss, K., & Crowley, M. (2011). Effective learning in science: The use of personal response systems with a wide range of audiences. Computers & Education, 56, 36–43.
Nation, I. S. P. (2013). Learning vocabulary in another language (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Nation, I. S. P. (1990). Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. Newbury House.
Oigara, J., & Keengwe, J. (2013). Students’ perceptions of clickers as an instructional tool to promote active learning. Education and Information Technologies, 18(1), 15–28.
Pan, S. C., Cooke, J., Little, J. L., McDaniel, M. A., Foster, E. R., Connor, L. T., & Rickard, T. C. (2019). Online and clicker quizzing on jargon terms enhances definition-focused but not conceptually focused biology exam performance. CBE Life Sciences Education, 18(54), 1–12.
Ranieri, M., Raffaghelli, J. E., & Bruni, I. (2018). Game-based student response system: Revisiting its potentials and criticalities in large-size classes. Active Learning in Higher Education, 1–14.
Reynolds, E. D., & Taylor, B. (2020). Kahoot!: EFL instructors’ implementation experiences and impacts on students’ vocabulary knowledge. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal, 21(2), 70–92.
Roth, K. A. (2012). Assessing clicker examples versus board examples in calculus. Primus, 22, 353–365.
Sénécal, A-M, Cardoso, W., & Mezzaluna, V. (2022). Make Words click! Learning English vocabulary with clickers: Users’ perceptions. Computer Assisted Language Learning. DOI: 10.1080/09588221.2022.2055082
Song, D., Oh, E., & Glazewski, K. (2017). Student-generated questioning activity in second language courses using a customized personal response system: A case study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 65(6), 1425–1449.
Sternberg, R. J. (1987). Most vocabulary is learned from context. In M. G. McKeown & M. E. Curtis (Eds.), The nature of vocabulary acquisition (pp. 89-105). Lawrence Erlbraum Associates.
Stewart, S., & Stewart, W. (2013). Taking clickers to the next level: A contingent teaching model. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 44(8), 1093–1106.
Taj, I. H., Ali, F., Sipra, M. A., & Ahmad, W. (2017). Effect of technology enhanced language learning on vocabulary acquisition of EFL learners. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 6(3), 262–272.
Treffers-Daller, J. (2020). Vocabulary and reading: Current research, tools, and practice. In J. Clenton & P. Booth (Eds), Vocabulary and the four skills: Pedagogy, practice, and implications for teaching vocabulary (pp. 67-72). Routledge.
Yu, Z., Chen, W., Kong, Y., Sun, X. L., & Zheng, J. (2014). The impact of clickers instruction on cognitive loads and listening and speaking skills in college English Class. PLoS ONE, 9(9), 1–8.
Yu, Z., & Yu, L. (2017). Correlations between learners’ initial EFL proficiency and variables of clicker-aided flipped EFL class. Education and Information Technologies, 22, 1587–1603.
Wang, A. I. (2015). The wear out effect of a game-based student response system. Computers & Education, 82, 217–227.
Webb, S. (2007). The effects of repetition on vocabulary knowledge. Applied Linguistics, 28(1), 46–65.
Wesche, M. B., & Paribakht, T. S. (2000). Reading-based exercises in second language vocabulary learning: an introspective study. The Modern Language Journal, 84(2), 196–213.
Wichadee, S., & Pattanapichet, F. (2018). Enhancement of performance and motivation through application of digital games in an English language classroom. Teaching English with Technology, 18(1), 77–92.
Zeng, Y. (2021). A review of foreign language enjoyment and engagement. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 1–5.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top