Login | Register

What drives the young generation to swap clothes? The moderating role of culture


What drives the young generation to swap clothes? The moderating role of culture

Armouch, Farah (2023) What drives the young generation to swap clothes? The moderating role of culture. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Armouch_MSc_S2023.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Armouch_MSc_S2023.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


As the new generation’s interest in collaborative fashion is rising, the purpose of this study is to explore the motivations that influence their swapping behavior of clothes. The study focuses on self-oriented motives including economic and hedonic factors as well as other-oriented motives including environmental and activist factors. Additionally, Hofstede’s six cultural dimensions are examined as moderators. A quantitative approach was adopted in the research and the data were collected from a worldwide sample through an online questionnaire. Findings reveal that the economic, hedonic, environmental, and activist motivations have a positive relationship with the young generation’s swapping behavior. As for the culture’s role, the results showed that the effect of the economic motivation on the swapping behavior is stronger in masculine cultures, while the relationship between the hedonic motivation and the swapping behavior is stronger in collectivist cultures. Individuals in collectivist, low power distance, and indulgent cultures are more driven by environmental motives to swap clothes. Finally, the effect of the activist motivation is stronger in collectivist, feminine, low power distance, low uncertainty avoidance, and indulgent cultures. Accordingly, managerial and theoretical implications are discussed.

Divisions:Concordia University > John Molson School of Business > Marketing
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Armouch, Farah
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M. Sc.
Date:10 January 2023
Thesis Supervisor(s):Laroche, Michel and Paulin, Michele
ID Code:991781
Deposited By: Farah Armouch
Deposited On:21 Jun 2023 14:45
Last Modified:21 Jun 2023 14:45


Albinsson, P. A., & Perera, B. Y. (2009). From trash to treasure and beyond: the meaning of voluntary disposition. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 8(6), 340–353.
Albinsson, P. A., & Yasanthi Perera, B. (2012). Alternative marketplaces in the 21st century: Building community through sharing events. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 11(4), 303–315.
Alden, D. L., Steenkamp, J.-B. E., & Batra, R. (1999). Brand positioning through advertising in Asia, North America, and Europe: The role of global consumer culture. Journal of Marketing, 63(1), 75.
Armstrong, C. M., Niinimäki, K., Kujala, S., Karell, E., & Lang, C. (2015). Sustainable product-service systems for clothing: exploring consumer perceptions of consumption alternatives in Finland. Journal of Cleaner Production, 97, 30–39.
Armstrong, C. M., Niinimäki, K., Lang, C., & Kujala, S. (2015). A use-oriented clothing economy? Preliminary affirmation for sustainable clothing consumption alternatives. Sustainable Development, 24(1), 18–31.
Arnold, M. J., & Reynolds, K. E. (2003). Hedonic shopping motivations. Journal of Retailing, 79(2), 77–95.
Balck, B., & Cracau, D. (2015). Empirical analysis of customer motives in the shareconomy: A cross-sectoral comparison. Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Faculty of Economics and Management.
Barari, M., Paul, J., Ross, M., Thaichon, S., & Surachartkumtonkun, J. (2022). Relationships among actors within the sharing economy: Meta-analytics review. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 103, 103215.
Batson, C. D. (2011). Altruism in humans. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Bayton, J. A. (1958). Motivation, cognition, learning: Basic factors in consumer behavior. Journal of Marketing, 22(3), 282.
Bearden, W. O., Money, R. B., & Nevins, J. L. (2006). A measure of long-term orientation: Development and validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(3), 456–467.
Belk, R. (2010). Sharing. Journal of Consumer Research, 36(5), 715–734.
Belk, R. (2014). You are what you can access: Sharing and collaborative consumption online. Journal of Business Research, 67(8), 1595–1600.
Bergmuller, S. (2013). The relationship between cultural individualism–collectivism and student
aggression across 62 countries. Aggressive Behavior, 39(3), 182-200.
Bolino, M. C., & Turnley, W. H. (2008). Old faces, new places: equity theory in cross-cultural contexts. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(1), 29–50.
Botsman, R., & Rogers, R. (2010). What’s mine is yours: The rise of collaborative consumption (1st ed.). HarperCollins Publishers.
Camacho‐Otero, J., Pettersen, I. N., & Boks, C. (2019). Consumer engagement in the circular economy: Exploring clothes swapping in emerging economies from a social practice perspective. Sustainable Development, 28(1), 279–293.
Cheetham, F. (2009). Out of control? An ethnographic analysis of the disposal of collectable objects through auction. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 8(6), 316–326.
Cherrier, H. (2009). Anti-consumption discourses and consumer-resistant identities. Journal of Business Research, 62(2), 181–190.
Chu, H. & Liao, S. (2007). Exploring consumer resale behavior in c2c online auctions: Taxonomy and influences on consumer decisions. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 11, 1-27.
Cornelis, I., van Hiel, A., & de Cremer, D. (2013). Volunteer work in youth organizations: predicting distinct aspects of volunteering behavior from self- and other-oriented motives. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(2), 456–466.
Dabrowska, A., & Gutkowska, K. (2015). Collaborative consumption as a new trend of sustainable consumption. Oeconomia, 14(2), 39-49
Davidson, A., Habibi, M. R., & Laroche, M. (2018). Materialism and the sharing economy: A cross-cultural study of American and Indian consumers. Journal of Business Research, 82, 364–372.
Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1992). Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation to Use Computers in the Workplace. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22(14), 1111–1132.
Degli Esposti, P., Mortara, A., & Roberti, G. (2021). Sharing and sustainable consumption in the era of COVID-19. Sustainability, 13(4), 1903.
De Mooij, M. & Hofstede, G. (2011). Cross-cultural consumer behavior: A review of research
findings. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23(3/4), 181-192.
Dubois, D., Rucker, D. D., & Galinsky, A. D. (2015). Social class, power, and selfishness: When and why upper and lower class individuals behave unethically. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108(3), 436–449.
Firat, A. F. (1995). Consumer culture, or culture consumed. Marketing in a multicultural world.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 105–23.
Francis, T., & Hoefel, F. (2018). ‘True Gen’: Generation Z and its implications for companies. Mckinsey & Company. https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Industries/Consumer%20Packaged%20Goods/Our%20Insights/True%20Gen%20Generation%20Z%20and%20its%20implications%20for%20companies/Generation-Z-and-its-implication-for-companies.pdf
Galinsky, A. D., Magee, J. C., Inesi, M. E., & Gruenfeld, D. H. (2006). Power and perspectives not taken. Psychological Science, 17(12), 1068–1074.
Godelnik, R. (2017). Millennials and the sharing economy: Lessons from a ‘buy nothing new, share everything month’ project. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 23, 40–52.
Grigsby, M. (2004). Buying time and getting by: The voluntary simplicity movement. State University of New York Press.
Guiot, D., & Roux, D. (2010). A second-hand shoppers’ motivation scale: Antecedents, consequences, and implications for retailers. Journal of Retailing, 86(4), 355–371.
Guo, Q., Liu, Z., Li, X., & Qiao, X. (2018). Indulgence and long term orientation influence prosocial behavior at national level. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1798.
Gupta, M., Esmaeilzadeh, P., Uz, I., & Tennant, V. M. (2019). The effects of national cultural values on individuals’ intention to participate in peer-to-peer sharing economy. Journal of Business Research, 97, 20–29.
Hamari, J., Sjöklint, M., & Ukkonen, A. (2016). The sharing economy: Why people participate in collaborative consumption. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 67(9), 2047–2059.
Hanson, J. W. (1980). A proposed paradigm for consumer product disposition processes. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 14(1), 49–67.
Hassan, S. S., & Katsanis, L. P. (1991). Identification of global consumer segments: Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 3(2), 11–28.
Henninger, C. E., Bürklin, N., & Niinimäki, K. (2019). The clothes swapping phenomenon – when consumers become suppliers. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 23(3), 327–344.
Heydari, A., Laroche, M., Paulin, M., & Richard, M.-O. (2021). Hofstede's individual-level indulgence dimension: Scale development and validation. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 62, 102640.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture′s consequences: International differences in work-related values Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture′s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G. & Arrindell, W. A. (1998). Masculinity and femininity: The taboo dimension of national cultures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G., & McCrae, R. R. (2004). Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross-Cultural Research, 38(1), 52–88.
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J. & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hollenbeck, C. R., Peters, C., & Zinkhan, G. M. (2006). Gift giving: A community paradigm. Psychology & Marketing, 23(7), 573–595.
Holt, D. B., Quelch, J. A., & Taylor, E. L. (2004). How global brands compete.
Harvard Business Review, 82(9), 68–75.
Huneke, M. E. (2005). The face of the un-consumer: An empirical examination of the practice of voluntary simplicity in the United States. Psychology and Marketing, 22(7), 527–550.
Iran, S., Geiger, S. M., & Schrader, U. (2019). Collaborative fashion consumption – A cross-cultural study between Tehran and Berlin. Journal of Cleaner Production, 212, 313–323.
Iyer, R., & Muncy, J. A. (2009). Purpose and object of anti-consumption. Journal of Business Research, 62(2), 160–168.
Jacobson, H., Carlson, A., & Lindahl, M. (2021). Legal, environmental and economic issues with functional sales – A case of indoor lighting. Journal of Cleaner Production, 298, 126713.
Johnson, K. K., Mun, J. M., & Chae, Y. (2016). Antecedents to internet use to collaboratively consume apparel. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 20(4), 370–382.
Jonassen, D. H., & Rohrer-Murphy, L. (1999). Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47(1), 61–79.
Karpova, E. E., Kunz, G., I., & Garner, M. B. (2021). Going Global: The Textile and Apparel Industry (4th ed.). Fairchild Books.
Kim, N. L., & Jin, B. E. (2019). Why buy new when one can share? Exploring collaborative consumption motivations for consumer goods. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 44(2), 122–130.
Laitala, K., & Klepp, I. G. (2017). Clothing reuse: The potential in informal exchange. Clothing Cultures, 4(1), 61–77.
Laitala, K., & Klepp, I. G. (2018). Care and production of clothing in Norwegian homes: Environmental implications of mending and making practices. Sustainability, 10(8), 2899.
Laitala, K., & Klepp, I. G. (2018). Motivations for and against second-hand clothing acquisition. Clothing Cultures, 5(2), 247–262.
Lang, C., & Zhang, R. (2019). Second-hand clothing acquisition: The motivations and barriers to clothing swaps for Chinese consumers. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 18, 156–164.
Lastovicka, J., & Fernandez, K. (2005). Three paths to disposition: The movement of meaningful possessions to strangers. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 813–823.
Leonidou, L. C., Eteokleous, P. P., Christofi, A.-M., & Korfiatis, N. (2022). Drivers, outcomes, and moderators of consumer intention to buy organic goods: Meta-analysis, implications, and future agenda. Journal of Business Research, 151, 339–354.
Liang, J., & Xu, Y. (2017). Second‐hand clothing consumption: A generational cohort analysis of the Chinese market. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 42(1), 120–130.
Long, M.M., & Fain, D. (2015). The clothing swap: social, sustainable, and sacred. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.kennesaw.edu/ama_proceedings/2015/Track6/1/
Madlock, P. E. (2012). The influence of power distance and communication on Mexican
workers. Journal of Business Communication, 49(2), 169–184.
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224–253.
Matthews, D., & Hodges, N. N. (2016). Clothing swaps: An exploration of consumer clothing exchange behaviors. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 45(1), 91–103.
Mazaheri, E., Richard, M. O., & Laroche, M. (2011). Online consumer behavior: Comparing Canadian and Chinese website visitors. Journal of Business Research, 64(9), 958–965.
McCoy, L., Wang, Y.-T., & Chi, T. (2021). Why is collaborative apparel consumption gaining popularity? an empirical study of US Gen Z Consumers. Sustainability, 13(15), 8360.
Millan, E., de Pelsmacker, P., & Wright, L. T. (2013). Clothing consumption in two recent EU Member States: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Business Research, 66(8), 975–982.
Ming-Yi Wu. (2020). Exploring organizational use of social media marketing: A global perspective. China Media Research, 16(1), 92–101.
Minkov, M. (2007). What makes us different and similar: A new interpretation of the World Values Survey and other cross-cultural data. Klasika i Stil Publishing House.
Miyamoto, Y., Yoo, J., Levine, C. S., Park, J., Boylan, J. M., Sims, T., Markus, H. R., Kitayama, S., Kawakami, N., Karasawa, M., Coe, C. L., Love, G. D., & Ryff, C. D. (2018). Culture and social hierarchy: Self- and other-oriented correlates of socioeconomic status across cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115(3), 427–445.
Nissanoff, D. (2007). FutureShop: How to Trade Up to a Luxury Lifestyle Today. New York, NY: Penguin Group.
Nordlund, A. M., & Garvill, J. (2003). Effects of values, problem awareness, and personal norm on willingness to reduce personal car use. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(4), 339–347.
Overby, J. W., Woodruff, R. B., & Gardial, S. F. (2005). The influence of culture upon consumers’ desired value perceptions: A research agenda. Marketing Theory, 5(2), 139–163.
Park, H., & Armstrong, C. M. J. (2017). Collaborative apparel consumption in the digital sharing economy: An agenda for academic inquiry. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 41(5), 465–474.
Park, H., Russell, C., & Lee, J. (2007). National culture and environmental sustainability: A cross-national analysis. Journal of Economics and Finance, 31(1), 104–121.
Philip, H. E., Ozanne, L. K., & Ballantine, P. W. (2015). Examining temporary disposition and acquisition in peer-to-peer renting. Journal of Marketing Management, 31(11–12), 1310–1332.
Philip, H. E., Ozanne, L. K., & Ballantine, P. W. (2019). Exploring Online Peer-to-Peer Swapping: A Social Practice Theory of Online Swapping. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 27(4), 413–429.
Philip, H.E. (2016). An examination of online swapping and peer-to-peer renting: exploring the providers, takers, and non-users of collaborative consumption. University of Canterbury.
Pitesa, M., & Thau, S. (2013). Compliant sinners, obstinate saints: How power and self-focus determine the effectiveness of social influences in ethical decision making. Academy of Management Journal, 56(3), 635–658.
PWC. (2015). Consumer intelligence series: The sharing economy. https://www.pwc.com/us/en/industry/entertainment-media/publications/consumer-intelligence-series/assets/pwc-cis-sharing-economy.pdf
Rucker, D. D., & Galinsky, A. D. (2017). Social power and social class: conceptualization, consequences, and current challenges. Current Opinion in Psychology, 18, 26–30.
Ruiz de Maya, S., López-López, I., & Munuera, J. L. (2011). Organic food consumption in Europe: International segmentation based on value system differences. Ecological Economics, 70(10), 1767–1775.
Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human
values? Journal of Social Issues, 50 (4), 19–45.
Sheth, J. N., Sisodia, R. S., & Sharma, A. (2000). The antecedents and consequences of customer-centric marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(1), 55–66.
Singelis, T. M. (1994). The measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(5), 580–591.
Soares, A. M., Farhangmehr, M., & Shoham, A. (2007). Hofstede’s dimensions of culture in international marketing studies. Journal of Business Research, 60(3), 277–284.
Sreen, N., Purbey, S., & Sadarangani, P. (2018). Impact of culture, behavior and gender on green purchase intention. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 41, 177–189.
Stern, P. C., Kalof, L., Dietz, T., & Guagnano, G. A. (1995). Values, beliefs, and proenvironmental action: Attitude formation toward emergent attitude objects. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25(18), 1611–1636.
Sun, T., Horn, M. & Merritt, D. (2004). Values and lifestyles of individualists and collectivists: A study on Chinese, Japanese, British, and US consumers. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 21(5), 318-331.
Taljaard, H., & Sonnenberg, N. (2019). Voluntary simplistic clothing consumption practices: Global Fashion Management Conference, 2019, 277–282.
Trauth, E. (2014). How clothing swaps could help save the world. One Green Planet. https://www.onegreenplanet.org/lifestyle/how-clothing-swaps-could-help-save-the-world/
thredUP. (2019). 2019 Resale Report.
van den Bos, K., & Lind, E. A. (2001). The psychology of own versus others’ treatment: Self-oriented and other-oriented effects on perceptions of procedural justice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(10), 1324–1333.
Vesterinen, E., & Syrjälä, H. (2022). Sustainable anti-consumption of clothing: A systematic literature review. Cleaner and Responsible Consumption, 5, 100061.
Wagner III, J. A. (1995). Studies of individualism-collectivism: Effects on cooperation in
groups. Academy of Management Journal, 38(1), 152–173.
Yan, L., Keh, H. T., & Wang, X. (2019). Powering sustainable consumption: The roles of green consumption values and power distance belief. Journal of Business Ethics, 169(3), 499–516.
Yoo, B., Donthu, N. & Lenartowicz, T. (2011). Measuring Hofstede’s five dimensions of
cultural values at the individual level: Development and validation of CVSCALE.
Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23(3/4), 193–210.
Zamani, B., Sandin, G., & Peters, G. M. (2017). Life cycle assessment of clothing libraries: can collaborative consumption reduce the environmental impact of fast fashion? Journal of Cleaner Production, 162, 1368–1375.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top