Login | Register

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF ANTENNA PROBES FOR DETECTION / IMAGING APPLICATIONS

Title:

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF ANTENNA PROBES FOR DETECTION / IMAGING APPLICATIONS

Elboushi, Ayman (2014) ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF ANTENNA PROBES FOR DETECTION / IMAGING APPLICATIONS. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

[img]
Preview
Text (application/pdf)
Elboushi_PhD_F2014.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.
6MB

Abstract

Analysis and Design of Antenna Probes for Detection / Imaging Applications
Ayman Elboushi, Ph.D.
Concordia University.

As a result of increasing international terrorist threats, the need for an efficient inspecting tool has become urgent. Not only for seeing through wall applications, but also to be employed as a safe human body scanner at public places such as airports and borders. The usage of microwave and millimeter wave antennas and systems for detection / imaging applications is currently of increasing research interest targeting the enhancement of different security systems. There are many challenges facing researchers in order to develop such systems. One of the challenges is the proper design of a low cost, reduced size and efficient antenna probe to work as a scanning sensor.
In this thesis, two different technology choices of antenna probes for the feasibility of constructing detection / imaging systems are investigated. The first one covers the Ultra Wide Band (UWB) range (3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz), while the second operates over the Millimeter-Wave (MMW) range. In addition to the development of several antenna probes, two detection / imaging systems are demonstrated and showed reasonably accurate detection results.
Three different UWB monopole antenna prototypes, with different radiator shapes (circular, crescent and elliptical) have been introduced. These antennas are designed using a standard printed circuit board (PCB) process to work as probing sensors in a proposed UWB detection / imaging system. In order to enhance the resolution and the detection accuracy of the probe, 4-element Balanced Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna (BAVA) array fed by 1-to-4 UWB modified Wilkinson power divider has been developed. Some successful experiments have been conducted using the proposed UWB detection / imaging system combined with the fabricated antenna probes to detect the presence of a gap between two walls made of different material types, to evaluate the gap width and to estimate the size and exact location of a hidden target between the walls.
The second research theme of this thesis is to develop small-sized, light-weight and high gain MMW scanning antenna probes. For the realization of such probes, several gain enhancement techniques have been adopted, including hybridization and a multi-element array principle. Several high-gain hybrid antennas have been designed, fabricated and tested. For demonstration purposes, experiments have been carried out for detecting and imaging a small metallic coin under the jeans layer of a three-layer target emulating a human body’s covering layers. A performance comparison between a standard metallic MMW horn and hybrid microstrip patch/conical horn antenna has been made. The proposed reduced size antenna sensor shows increased efficiency compared with the bulky horn antenna.
Resolution enhancement of the reconstructed image of the hidden target is implemented using a new triple-antenna MMW sensor. The triple-antenna sensor consists of three adjacent microstrip patch / conical horn antennas separated by 1.5 wavelengths at the center frequency for coupling reduction between these elements. The middle element of the sensor is used for monitoring the time domain back-reflected signal from the target under inspection, while the side elements are used for monitoring the scattered signals. By the aid of a special signal processing algorithm, an enhanced image of the concealed object can be obtained by combining the three readings of each point in the area under study. The proposed system shows a great ability for detecting a hidden target and enhances the reconstructed image resolution.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Electrical and Computer Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:Elboushi, Ayman
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Program:Electrical and Computer Engineering
Date:11 August 2014
Thesis Supervisor(s):Sebak, A.R.
Keywords:Microwave Imaging, mm-Wave imaging, High gain antenna, MMW antenna, UWB antenna, Antenna sensor, SIW antenna, Surface mounted horn, Conical antennas
ID Code:978821
Deposited By: AYMAN MOHAMED F ELBOUSHI
Deposited On:26 Nov 2014 13:44
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:47

References:

[1] Fear, E.C.; Meaney, P.M.; Stuchly, M.A, “Microwaves for breast cancer detection?” Potentials, IEEE, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 12-18, Feb/Mar 2003.
[2] Huang, C.L.; Zhu, S.P.; Lu, M., “Miniature multimode deep ground penetrating radar,” Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), 2010 13th International Conference on, pp. 1-5, 21-25 June 2010.
[3] Sun, Y.; Li, J., “Time-frequency analysis for plastic landmine detection via forward-looking ground penetrating radar,” Radar, Sonar and Navigation, IEE Proceedings, vol. 150, no. 4, pp. 253-61, 1 Aug. 2003.
[4] Zhou, Y., “Microwave imaging based on wideband range profiles,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, vol. 19, pp. 57-65, 2010.
[5] Conceição, R. C.; O'Halloran, M.; Glavin, M.; Jones, E., “Comparison of planar and circular antenna configurations for breast cancer detection using microwave imaging,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 99, pp. 1-20, 2009.
[6] Aryanfar, F.; Sarabandi, K., “Through wall imaging at microwave frequencies using space-time focusing”, Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2004. IEEE, vol. 3, pp. 3063- 3066, 20-25 June 2004.
[7] Yemelyanov, K.M.; Engheta, N.; Hoorfar, A.; McVay, J.A., “Adaptive polarization contrast techniques for through-wall microwave imaging applications”, Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1362-1374, May 2009.
[8] FCC, “First report and order, revision of part 15 of the commission’s rules regarding ultra-wideband transmission systems”, FCC02- 48, April 2002.
[9] James, D.T., Ultra-wideband radar technology, CRC Press LLC, 1st edition, 2001.
[10] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metal_detector, “web page”, 5/8/2014.
[11] Huang, H., “Flexible Wireless Antenna Sensor: A Review,” Sensors Journal, IEEE, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 3865-3872, Oct. 2013.
[12] Dallinger, A.; Schelkshorn, S.; Detlefsen, J., “Short distance related security millimeter-wave imaging systems,” German Microwave Conference - GeMIC 2005, pp. 244-246, April 2005.
[13] Dallinger, A.; Schelkshorn, S.; Detlefsen, J., “Millimeter-wave imaging of humans - basic experiments,” Infrared and Millimeter Waves, and 12th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, Conference Digest of the 2004 Joint 29th International Conference on, pp.521-522, 27 Sept.-1 Oct. 2004.
[14] Peichl, M.; Dill, S.; Jirousek, M.; Suess, H., “Passive microwave remote sensing for security applications,” Radar Conference, EuRAD 2007, pp.32-35, 10-12 Oct. 2007.
[15] Dill, S; Peichl, M.; Schreiber, E.; Süß, H., “Passive MMW imaging systems for security applications,” International Radar Symposium - IRS 2009, pp. 225-228, 9-11Sept. 2009.
[16] Doghri, Ali; Ghiotto, A.; Djerafi, T.; Ke Wu, “Early demonstration of a passive millimeter-wave imaging system using substrate integrated waveguide technology,” Mediterranean Microwave Symposium (MMS), 2011 11th, pp.215-218, 8-10 Sept. 2011.
[17] Ahmed, S.S.; Schiessl, A.; Schmidt, L., “A novel fully electronic active real-time imager based on a planar multistatic sparse array,” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 3567-3576, Dec. 2011.
[18] Nilsson, E.; Baath, L., “Radar interferometric measurements with a planar patch antenna array,” Sensors Journal, IEEE, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1025-1031, July 2007.
[19] Rizzoli, V.; Costanzo, A.; Montanari, E.; Benedetti, A., “A new wireless displacement sensor based on reverse design of microwave and millimeter-wave antenna array," Sensors Journal, IEEE, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1557-1566, Nov. 2009.
[20] Chan, Y.K.; Koo, V.C., “An introduction to synthetic aperture radar (SAR),” Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 2, pp. 27–60, 2008.
[21] Chinnam, D.M. et al., “Implementation of a low cost synthetic aperture radar using Software Defined Radio”, Computing Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT), 2010 International Conference on, pp. 1-7, 29-31 July 2010.
[22] Patel, V.M., Easley, G.R., Healy, D.M., Chellappa, R. , “Compressed synthetic aperture radar” Selected Topics in Signal Processing, IEEE Journal of , vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 244-254, April 2010.
[23] Binbin, C.; et al., “Real-time imaging with a 140 GHz inverse synthetic aperture radar,” Terahertz Science and Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 594-605, Sept. 2013.
[24] Cataldo, A.; Tarricone, L.; Attivissimo, F.; Trotta, A., “A TDR method for real-time monitoring of liquids,” Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1616-1625, Oct. 2007.
[25] Suksmono, A.B.; Bharata, E.; Lestari, A.A.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Ligthart, L.P., “compressive stepped-frequency continuous-wave ground-penetrating radar,” Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE , vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 665-669, Oct. 2010.
[26] Huang, C.L.; Zhu, S.P.; Ming, L., “Miniature multimode deep ground penetrating radar,” Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), 2010 13th International Conference on , pp. 1-5, 21-25 June 2010.
[27] Sun, Y.; Li, J., “Time-frequency analysis for plastic landmine detection via forward-looking ground penetrating radar”, Radar, Sonar and Navigation, IEE Proceedings, vol. 150, no. 4, pp. 253-61, 1 Aug. 2003.
[28] Ghasr, M.T.; Kharkovsky, S.; Bohnert, R.; Hirst, B.; Zoughi, R., “30 GHz linear high-resolution and rapid millimeter wave imaging system for NDE,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 4733-4740, June 2013.
[29] Khor, W. C.; Bialkowski, M.E.; Crozier, S., “Microwave imaging using a planar scanning system with step-frequency synthesized pulse,” Microwave Conference Proceedings, 2005, APMC 2005, Asia-Pacific Conference Proceedings, vol. 1, pp., 4-7, Dec. 2005.
[30] Thajudeen, C.; Zhang, W.; Hoorfar, A., “Efficient forward modeling of large scale buildings and through-the-wall radar imaging scenarios,” 28th Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics (ACES), Columbus, Ohio, pp. 122-126, April 2012.
[31] Buonanno, A.; D’Urso, M.; Prisco, G.; Farina, A., “A model-based signal processor to see inside buildings,” 26th Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics (ACES), Tampere, Finland, pp. 846-851, April 2010.
[32] Nikolic, M.; Nehorai, A.; Djordjevic, A., “Estimating distributed objects
inside buildings by moving sensors,” 23rd Annual Review of Progress in Applied
Computational Electromagnetics (ACES), Verona, Italy, pp. 409-414, March 2007.
[33] Lubecke, V.M.; Boric, O.; Host, A.; and Fathy, A.E., “Through-the-wall radar life detection and monitoring”. IEEE Microwave symposium, pp. 769-772, June 2007.
[34] Mahfouz, M.; Fathy, A.; Yang, Y.; Elhak Ali, E.; Badawi, A., “See through- wall imaging using ultra wideband pulse systems,” IEEE Applied Imagery and Pattern Recognition Workshop, pp. 19-21, Oct. 2005.
[35] Lin, M.; Zhongzhao, Z.; Xuezhi, T., “A novel through-wall imaging method using ultra wideband pulse system,” IEEE Conf. on Intelligent Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, pp. 147-150, Dec. 2006.
[36] Cara, D.D.; Trajkovikj, J.; Torres-Sanchez, R.; Zurcher, J.; Skrivervik, A.K., “A low profile UWB antenna for wearable applications: The tripod kettle antenna (TKA),” Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2013 7th European Conference on, pp.3257-3260, 8-12 April 2013.
[37] Koohestani, M.; Zurcher, J.-F.; Moreira, A.; Skrivervik, A., “A Novel, Low-Profile, Vertically-Polarized UWB Antenna for WBAN,” Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, no. 99, pp. 1-7, Jan. 2014.
[38] Sibille, A., “Compared performance of UWB antennas for time and frequency domain modulation”, 28th URSI General Assembly, New Delhi, India, 2005.
[39] Alipour, A.; Hassani, H.R., “A Novel omni-directional UWB monopole antenna,” Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 3854-3857, Dec. 2008.
[40] Guha, D.; Gupta, B.; Antar, Y.M.M., “New pawn-shaped dielectric ring resonator loaded hybrid monopole antenna for improved ultrawide bandwidth,” Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE, vol. 8, no. 1, pp.1178-1181, 2009.
[41] Lao, J.; Jin, R.; Geng, J.; Wu, Q., “An ultra-wideband microstrip elliptical slot antenna excited by a circular patch”, Microwave Optical Technol. Lett., vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 845–846, Feb. 2008.
[42] Yoon, J.H.; Han, G.H.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J.C.; Woo, S.M.; Kim, H.H., “Design of triangular slot antenna for triple-band (2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz) antenna with fork-like tuning stub”, Microwave Optical Technol. Lett., vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 1561–1565, April 2007.
[43] Sorbello, G.; Pavone, M.; Russello, L., “Numerical and experimental study of a rectangular slot antenna for UWB communications”, Microwave Optical Technol. Lett., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 315–319, Aug. 2005.
[44] Ma, T.G.; Jeng, S.K.; “Planar miniature tapered-slot-fed annular slot antennas for ultra-wideband radios,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, vol. 53, pp. 1194–1202, Mar. 2005.
[45] Sorbello, G.; Consoli, F.; Barbarino, S., “Numerical and experimental analysis of a circular slot antenna for UWB communications,” Microwave Optical Technol. Lett., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 465–470, Jan. 2005.
[46] Gao, G.P.; Hu, B.; Zhang, J.S., “Design of a miniaturization printed circular-slot UWB antenna by the half-cutting method,” Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 567-570, 2013.
[47] Gautam, A.K.; Yadav, S.; Kanaujia, B.K., “A CPW-fed compact uwb microstrip antenna,” Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE, vol. 12, no. 12, pp.151-154, 2013.
[48] Kuiwen, X.; Zhongbo, Z.; Huan, L.; Jiangtao, H.; Changzhi, L.; Lixin R., “A printed single-layer UWB monopole antenna with extended ground plane stubs,” Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE , vol. 12, no. 12, pp.237-240, 2013.
[49] Srifi, M.N.; Podilchak, S.K.; Essaaidi, M.; Antar, Y.M.M., “Compact disc monopole antennas for current and future ultrawideband (UWB) applications,” Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 4470-4480, Dec. 2011.
[50] Fereidoony, F.; Chamaani, S.; Mirtaheri, S.A., “UWB monopole antenna with stable radiation pattern and low transient distortion,” Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE, vol.10, no. 10, pp.302-305, 2011.
[51] Levy, M.; Kumar, D.S.; Dinh, A., “A novel fractal UWB antenna for earthquake and tsunami prediction application (LETPA),” Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE), 2013 26th Annual IEEE Canadian Conference on, pp.1-4, 5-8 May 2013.
[52] Oraizi, H.; Hedayati, S., “Miniaturized UWB monopole microstrip antenna design by the combination of Giusepe Peano and Sierpinski carpet fractals,” Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 67-70, 2011.
[53] Fallahi, H.; Atlasbaf, Z., “Study of a class of UWB CPW-fed monopole antenna with fractal elements,” Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE, vol.12, no. 12, pp.1484-1487, 2013.
[54] Bitchikh, M.; Ghanem, F., “An UWB to three sub-bands frequency reconfigurable antipodal Vivaldi antenna,” Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (APSURSI), 2013 IEEE, pp. 670-671, 7-13 July 2013.
[55] Teni, G.; Ning Zhang; Jinghui Qiu; Pengyu Zhang, “Research on a novel miniaturized antipodal Vivaldi antenna with improved radiation,” Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 417-420, 2013.
[56] Chao, Y.; Wei, H.; Leung, C.; Guohua, Z.; Chen, Y.; Wei, Q.; Kuai, Z., “Ultrawideband Printed log-periodic dipole antenna with multiple notched bands,” Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on , vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 725-732, March 2011.
[57] Orlob, C.; Dao, Q. H.; Geck, B., “Conformal log.-periodic antenna with integrated feeding network for UWB-MIMO applications,” Microwave Conference (GeMiC), 2012 The 7th German, pp. 1-4, 12-14 March 2012.
[58] Omar, A.A.; Qaroot, A.; Scardelletti, M.C., “UWB coplanar-waveguide-fed spiral slot antenna,” Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2013 7th European Conference on, pp. 2901-2902, 8-12 April 2013.
[59] Licul, S.; Noronha, J.A.N.; Davis, W.A.; Sweeney; D.G.; Anderson, C.R.; Bielawa, T.M., “A parametric study of time-domain characteristics of possible UWB antenna architectures,” IEEE 58th Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2003-Fall, vol. 5, pp. 3110-3114, 6-9 October, 2003.
[60] Harvey, B.A.; Howard, D.H.; et al., “An analysis of MMW wireless LANs for LPVAJ command post communications,” Military Communications Conference, MILCOM '93. Conference record, pp. 580- 584, 1993.
[61] Emerson, D.T., “The work of Jagadis Chandra Bose: 100 years of millimeter-wave research," Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 2267-2273, Dec 1997.
[62] Costanzo, S.; Venneri, I.; Massa, G.D.; Amendola, G., “Hybrid array antenna for broadband millimeter-wave applications,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 83, pp. 173-183, 2008.
[63] Akkermans, J.A.G., Herben, M.H.A. “Millimeter-Wave Antenna With Adjustable Polarization”, Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE, vol. 7, pp.539 – 542, 2008.
[64] Pilard, R.; Montusclat, S.; Elwertowska, A.; Gloria, D.; Le Pennec, F.; Person, C.; , “Size reduction and input impedance increase in advanced MMW silicon integrated double-slotted antenna using fractal and director slot layout,” Antenna Technology: Small Antennas and Novel Metamaterials, 2008, iWAT 2008 International Workshop on, pp.294-297, 4-6 March 2008.
[65] Hwann-Kaeo, C.; I-Shan, C.; Nan-Wei, C., “Corrections to “V-band on-chip dipole-based antenna” [Oct. 09 2853-2861]," Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on , vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 2144-2145, April 2012.
[66] Rashidian, A.; Klymyshyn, D.M.; Aligodarz, M.T.; Boerner, M.; Mohr, J., “Development of polymer-based dielectric resonator antennas for millimeter-wave applications,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, vol. 13, pp. 203-216, 2010.
[67] Perron, A.; Denidni, T.A.; Sebak, A.R, “High-gain hybrid dielectric resonator antenna for millimeter-wave applications: Design and Implementation,” Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 57, no. 10, Part 1, pp. 2882 - 2892, Oct. 2009.
[68] Kramer, O.; Djerafi, T.; Ke Wu, “Very small footprint 60 GHz stacked Yagi antenna array,” Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 3204-3210, Sept. 2011.
[69] Tan, K.J.; Luan, X.Z., “Millimeter wave circularly polarized substrate integrated waveguide antenna,” ICMMT 2008. vol. 3, pp. 1058 - 1061, April 2008.
[70] Tian, Y.Y.; Wei, H.; Yan, Z., “Wideband millimeter-wave substrate integrated waveguide cavity-backed rectangular patch antenna,” Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE, vol. 13, no. 13, pp. 205-208, 2014.
[71] Alhalabi, R.A.; Yi, C.; Rebeiz, G.M., “Self-shielded high-efficiency Yagi-Uda antennas for 60 GHz communications,” Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 742-750, March 2011.
[72] Li, M.; Luk, K.-M., “A low-profile unidirectional printed antenna for millimeter-wave applications,” Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 62, no. 99, pp.1232-1237, Dec. 2013.
[73] Ghassemi, N.; Ke Wu, “Planar high-gain dielectric-loaded antipodal linearly tapered slot antenna for E- and W-band gigabyte point-to-point wireless services,” Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1747-1755, April 2013.
[74] Al-Tarifi, M.A.; Anagnostou, D.E.; Amert, A.K.; Whites, K.W., “Bandwidth enhancement of the resonant cavity antenna by using two dielectric superstrates,” Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1898-1908, April 2013.
[75] Ying, S.Z.; Wei, H., “A Millimeter-wave gain enhanced multi-beam antenna based on a coplanar cylindrical dielectric lens,” Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 3485-3488, July 2012.
[76] Gentile, C.; Kik, A., “A comprehensive evaluation of indoor ranging using ultra-wideband technology”, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2007, id. 86031, 2007.
[77] Craddock; I.J.; Klemm, M.; Leendertz, J.; Preece, A.W.; Benjamin, R., “An improved hemispeherical antenna array design for breast imaging”, Antennas and Propagation, 2007, EuCAP 2007, The Second European Conference on, , pp.1-5, 11-16 Nov. 2007.
[78] http://www.camero-tech.com/product.php?ID=40, “web page”, 4th April 2014.
[79] http://www.cambridgeconsultants.com/projects/prism-2
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top