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A study of the integration of semi-transparent phtovoltaics with sunscreen structures in a major transportation infrastructure tunnel


A study of the integration of semi-transparent phtovoltaics with sunscreen structures in a major transportation infrastructure tunnel

Sun, David Yuan-Jae ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6002-3138 (2019) A study of the integration of semi-transparent phtovoltaics with sunscreen structures in a major transportation infrastructure tunnel. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

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This thesis presents a study of the energy consumption of a major underwater road tunnel in Québec and the possible integration of photovoltaics, as well as other energy efficiency
measures. A novel application of semi-transparent photovoltaics (STPV) integrated with sunscreen structures (SS) installed at the portals of the tunnel is presented as a retrofit primarily for the tunnel lighting system, but with auxiliary benefits to other major systems and road safety conditions. A study on the operational power and energy use of the heating,
lighting, and ventilation systems was performed to estimate the potential energy and monetary savings of this application.

Lighting subsystems account for up to 50% of the energy consumption of a typical tunnel. Day-time lighting levels account for over two-thirds of the total system lighting power; their periodic nature creates daily peaks in the tunnel’s energy load profile.

The 1.3 km long Louis-Hippolyte-La Fontaine underwater road tunnel, located in Montréal, Québec is presented as a representative case study for cold climates. A model of the lightingsystem was developed using recorded data from a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system and calibrated using metered data provided by the electric utility. This model was used to evaluate the energy and power demands of the lighting system, in comparison
to estimates of other major systems that consume electricity in the tunnel.

Additionally, a daylighting model was created with the DIVA-for-Rhino daylighting plugin for the Rhinoceros and Grasshopper software using detailed construction plans. This
was used to evaluate the function of the semi-transparent photovoltaic sunscreen (STPV-SS) structure as a shading device to gradually reduce the contrast between the outdoor and indoor environments. Its primary goal is to reduce the lighting requirements necessary for the safe adaptation of the human visual system (HVS) of motorists entering the tunnel and reduce the black hole effect and glare from the sun during critical glare hours (CGH). Different STPV options with varying transparencies and visible light transmittances (VLT) were considered to determine the option most suitable for tunnels. Matrix-based STPVs achieve their degree of transparency by alternating between opaque PV material and transparent glass.
Intrinsically STPVs are process-induced materials such as thin-film or organic PVs whose transparency is an innate characteristic. Energy saving and energy production potential from the STPV system is greatest with matrix-based STPV options, however, safety conditions suffer greatly from poor visibility, resulting from poor uniformity of the transmitted daylight. The most balanced option was low VLT intrinsically STPV technology, which resulted in better daylight uniformity, and lower artificial lighting demands. Low VLT intrinsically
STPV options also have higher PV efficiencies than their high VLT counterparts. It also resulted in the highest reduction in equivalent veiling luminance (disability glare) for drivers
during CGH. Reductions in lighting system requirements over the tunnel length, including the threshold, transition and interior lighting zones of the tunnel were considered. Results
showed that the application of STPV-SS structures at entrances of the LHLF tunnel could reduce annual energy demands of the lighting system by between 10% to 18%, depending on
the VLT of the structure.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Concordia University > Research Units > Centre for Zero Energy Building Studies
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Sun, David Yuan-Jae
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Building Engineering
Date:14 August 2019
Thesis Supervisor(s):Athienitis, Andreas and D'Avignon, Katherine
Keywords:Daylighting, net-zero energy systems, semi-transparent photovoltaics, transportation infrastructure, tunnels
ID Code:985664
Deposited By: David Sun
Deposited On:05 Feb 2020 14:04
Last Modified:05 Feb 2020 14:04


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