Login | Register

Evaluating a dynamic moment of inertia bat in baseball: the influence on swing speed, training, and infrared technology


Evaluating a dynamic moment of inertia bat in baseball: the influence on swing speed, training, and infrared technology

Castonguay, Tristan (2021) Evaluating a dynamic moment of inertia bat in baseball: the influence on swing speed, training, and infrared technology. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

[thumbnail of Castonguay_MSc_F2021.pdf]
Text (application/pdf)
Castonguay_MSc_F2021.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


This dissertation reports the results of multiple quantitative investigations looking at the effect of using a dynamic moment of inertia bat prototype. This dissertation includes four (4) experimental research projects. The four (4) experimental research projects look at different ways to measure the efficacy of a dynamic moment of inertia bat to improve swing speed in baseball and softball. The findings suggest that a dynamic moment of inertia bat can be used as an effective warm-up tool and an effective training tool to improve bat swing speed in competitive baseball and softball players. The findings suggest that a dynamic moment of inertia bat is superior to a weighted bat as a warm-up tool because it negates the kinesthetic illusion. When athletes combine strength training and swing training using a dynamic moment of inertia bat over a 6-week training period it can lead to a significant improvement in bat swing speed that is superior to the improvement following a normal warm-up. The last experiment confirmed that using the dynamic moment of inertia bat can replicate a high-intensity warm-up and be effective as a warm-up tool. Baseball and softball players should consider using a dynamic moment of inertia to improve their bat swing speed during their training and as an on-deck warm-up tool before their at-bat performance.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Health, Kinesiology and Applied Physiology
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Castonguay, Tristan
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M. Sc.
Program:Health and Exercise Science
Date:30 June 2021
Thesis Supervisor(s):Dover, GD
ID Code:988618
Deposited On:29 Nov 2021 16:32
Last Modified:29 Nov 2021 16:32


Adair et al. (2002). The Physics of Baseball (3rd ed.). Harper Collins Publishers Inc.
Adamczyk, J. G., Olszewska, M., Boguszewski, D., Białoszewski, D., & Reaburn, P. (2016). Is it possible to create a thermal model of warm-up? Monitoring of the training process in athletic decathlon. Infrared Physics & Technology, 76, 555–559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infrared.2016.04.017
Aguinaldo, A. (2016). Baseball Bat Swing Sensor Validation. Center for Human Performances, 5 p.
Albert, J., Szymanski, D. J., & Stanley, B. E. (2008). Relationship between changes in physiological characteristics and softball-specific variables of NCAA division 1 softball players. J Strength Cond Res, 22, 83–84.
Ammer, K. (2008). The Glamorgan Protocol for recording and evaluation of thermal images of the human body. Thermology International, 18(4), 125–144.
Baker et al. (2003). Acute effect of alternating heavy and light resistances on power output during upper-body complex power training. J Strength Cond, 17(1), 493–497.
Balsalobre-Fernández, C., Tejero-González, C. M., del Campo-Vecino, J., & Bavaresco, N. (2014). The Concurrent Validity and Reliability of a Low-Cost, High-Speed Camera-Based Method for Measuring the Flight Time of Vertical Jumps: J Strength Cond Res, 28(2), 528–533. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318299a52e
Beals, N., Zhang, L., Law, M., Hwang, D., Acharya, J., & Basu, S. (2019). Physicochemical Investigation into Major League Baseballs in the Era of Unprecedented Rise in Home Runs. ACS Omega, 4(23), 20109–20117. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b00405
Bishop, C., Turner, A., & Read, P. (2018). Effects of inter-limb asymmetries on physical and sports performance: A systematic review. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(10), 1135–1144. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1361894
Blakemore, S.-J., Frith, C. D., & Wolpert, D. M. (1999). Spatio-Temporal Prediction Modulates the Perception of Self-Produced Stimuli. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 11(5), 551–559. https://doi.org/10.1162/089892999563607
Breen, J. L. (1967). What makes a good hitter? J Health Phys Educ Recreation, 38, 36–39.
Carabello, R. J., Reid, K. F., Clark, D. J., Phillips, E. M., & Fielding, R. A. (2010). Lower extremity strength and power asymmetry assessment in healthy and mobility-limited populations: Reliability and association with physical functioning. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 22(4), 324–329. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03337729
Chappell, J. D., Yu, B., Kirkendall, D. T., & Garrett, W. E. (2002). A Comparison of Knee Kinetics between Male and Female Recreational Athletes in Stop-Jump Tasks. Am J Sports Med, 30(2), 261–267. https://doi.org/10.1177/03635465020300021901
Chudecka, M., & Lubkowska, A. (2010). Temperature changes of selected body’s surfaces of handball players in the course of training estimated by thermovision, and the study of the impact of physiological and morphological factors on the skin temperature. Journal of Thermal Biology, 35(8), 379–385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2010.08.001
Chudecka, M., & Lubkowska, A. (2012). The Use of Thermal Imaging to Evaluate Body Temperature Changes of Athletes During Training and a Study on the Impact of Physiological and Morphological Factors on Skin Temperature. Human Movement, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.2478/v10038-012-0002-9
Crisco, J. J., Greenwald, R. M., Blume, J. D., & Penna, L. H. (2002). Batting performance of wood and metal baseball bats: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(10), 1675–1684. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200210000-00021
Dabbs et Al. (2010). Effect Of Whole-body Vibration Warm-up On Bat Speed. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(Journal Article), 317.
de Azevedo Neto, R. M., & Teixeira, L. A. (2009). Control of interceptive actions is based on expectancy of time to target arrival. Experimental Brain Research, 199(2), 135–143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-009-1987-y
DeRenne, C. (2007). The Scientific Approach to Hitting. San Diego University Readers Custom Publishing.
DeRenne, C., Ho, K. W., Hetzler, R. K., & Chai, D. X. (1992). Effects of warm up with various weighted implements on baseball bat swing velocity. J Strength Cond Res, 6, 214–218.
Dickson, P. (1999). The New Dickson Baseball Dictionary: A Cyclopedic Reference to More Than 7,000 Words, Names, Phrases, and Slang Expressions that Define the Game, Its Heritage, Culture, and Variations (1st ed.). New York : Harcourt Brace & Co., 1999.
Djuric, S., Cuk, I., Sreckovic, S., Mirkov, D., Nedeljkovic, A., & Jaric, S. (2016). Selective Effects of Training Against Weight and Inertia on Muscle Mechanical Properties. IJSPP, 11(7), 927–932. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0527
Dowling, B., & Fleisig, G. S. (2016). Kinematic comparison of baseball batting off of a tee among various competition levels. Sports Biomechanics, 15(3), 255–269. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2016.1159320
Escamilla-Galindo, V. L., Estal-Martínez, A., Adamczyk, J. G., Brito, C. J., Arnaiz-Lastras, J., & Sillero-Quintana, M. (2017). Skin temperature response to unilateral training measured with infrared thermography. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 13(5), 526–534. https://doi.org/10.12965/jer.1735046.523
Fernández Cuevas, I., Quintana, M., García-Concepción, M., Ribot Serrano, J., Carmona, P., & Marins, J. (2014). Monitoring skin thermal response to training with Infrared Thermography. New Studies in Athletics, 29, 57–71.
Fernández-Cuevas, I., Bouzas Marins, J. C., Arnáiz Lastras, J., Gómez Carmona, P. M., Piñonosa Cano, S., García-Concepción, M. Á., & Sillero-Quintana, M. (2015). Classification of factors influencing the use of infrared thermography in humans: A review. Infrared Physics & Technology, 71, 28–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infrared.2015.02.007
Fleisig, G. S., Zheng, N., Stodden, D. F., & Andrews, J. R. (2002). Relationship between bat mass properties and bat velocity. Sports Eng, 5(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1460-2687.2002.00096.x
Formenti, D., Ludwig, N., Trecroci, A., Gargano, M., Michielon, G., Caumo, A., & Alberti, G. (2016). Dynamics of thermographic skin temperature response during squat exercise at two different speeds. Journal of Thermal Biology, 59, 58–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2016.04.013
Fradkin, A. J., Zazryn, T. R., & Smoliga, J. M. (2010). Effects of Warming-up on Physical Performance: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res, 24(1), 140–148. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c643a0
Fritz, C. O., Morris, P. E., & Richler, J. J. (2012). Effect size estimates: Current use, calculations, and interpretation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(1), 2–18. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024338
Fry, A. C., Honnold, D., Hudy, A., Roberts, C., Gallagher, P. M., Vardiman, P. J., & Dellasega, C. (2011). Relationships Between Muscular Strength and Batting Performances in Collegiate Baseball Athletes. J Strength Cond Res, 25, 519–520.
Garagiola, U., & Giani, E. (1995). The use of telethermography in the management of sport injuries. Spo. Med.
Giardina, D., Leslie, H., Raridon, L., & Zimmer, D. (1997). Relationship of grip strength and forearm size to bat velocity in college female softball players. Iowa Assoc Health Phys Educ Recreation Danse J, 30(2).
Gilmore, S. L., Brilla, L. R., Suprak, D. N., Chalmers, G. R., & Dahlquist, D. T. (2019). Effect of a High-Intensity Isometric Potentiating Warm-up on Bat Velocity. J Strength Cond Res, 33(1), 7.
Goldschmied et al. (2014). Drive Theory and Home Run Milestones in Baseball. Perceptual & Motor Skills: Exercise & Sport, 118, 1–12.
Hadžić, V., Širok, B., Malneršič, A., & Čoh, M. (2019). Can infrared thermography be used to monitor fatigue during exercise? A case study. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 8(1), 89–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2015.08.002
Hay, J. (1985). Baseball. In: Biomechanics of Sports Technique (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Hennessy, L., & Kilty, J. (2001). Relationship of the Stretch-Shortening Cycle to Sprint Performance in Trained Female Athletes. J Strength Cond Res, 15(3), 6.
Henry, J., & Kaeding, C. (2001). Differences between male and female athletes. Current Women’s Health Reports, 1(3), 241–244.
Higuchi, T., Nagami, T., Mizuguchi, N., & Anderson, T. (2013). The Acute and Chronic Effects of Isometric Contraction Conditioning on Baseball Bat Velocity: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(1), 216–222. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318252ddba
Hildebrandt, C., Raschner, C., & Ammer, K. (2010). An Overview of Recent Application of Medical Infrared Thermography in Sports Medicine in Austria. Sensors, 10(5), 4700–4715. https://doi.org/10.3390/s100504700
Hughes et al. (2004). Effect of grip strength and grip strengthening exercises on instantaneous bat velocity of collegiate baseball players. J Strength Cond, 18(2), 298–301.
Hughes et al. (2010). Effect of Grip Strength and Grip Strengthening Exercises on Instantaneous Bat Velocity of Collegiate Baseball Players. J Strength Cond Res, 24(Journal Article), 1.
Hung et Al. (2004). Application of dynamic moment of inertia on baseball bat. English Sports, 5(Journal Article), 175–182.
Kobak, M. S., Rebold, M. J., Buser, S. L., & Otterstetter, R. (2018). The Effects of Medicine Ball Training on Bat Swing Velocity in Prepubescent Softball Players. Int J Exerc Sci, 11(4), 75–83.
Koenig, K., Mitchell, N. D., Hannigan, T. E., & Clutter, J. K. (2004). The influence of moment of inertia on baseball/softball bat swing speed. Sports Engineering, 7(2), 105–117. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02915922
Koike et Al. (2009). Main Contributors to the Baseball Bat Head Speed Considering the Generating Factor of Motion-dependent Term. Procedia Engineering, 147(Journal Article), 197–202.
Koike et al. (2016). Contributions of Joint Torques, Motion-dependent Term and Gravity to the Generation of Baseball Bat Head Speed. Procedia Engineering, 147(1), 191–196.
Korman, P., Straburzyńska-Lupa, A., Kusy, K., Kantanista, A., & Zieliński, J. (2016). Changes in body surface temperature during speed endurance work-out in highly-trained male sprinters. Infrared Physics & Technology, 78, 209–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infrared.2016.08.003
Kreifeldt, J. G., & Chuang, M. (1979). Moment of inertia: Psychophysical study of an overlooked sensation. Science, 206, 588–590.
Laughlin et Al. (2016). The effects of baseball bat mass properties on swing mechanics, ground reaction forces, and swing timing. Sports Biomechanics, 15(1), 36–47.
Lephart, S. M., Ferris, C. M., Riemann, B. L., Myers, J. B., & Fu, F. H. (2002). Gender Differences in Strength and Lower Extremity Kinematics During Landing: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 401, 162–169. https://doi.org/10.1097/00003086-200208000-00019
Liu, C., Liu, Y.-C., Kao, Y.-C., & Shiang, T.-Y. (2011). Effects of Training With a Dynamic Moment of Inertia Bat on Swing Performance: J Strength Cond Res, 25(11), 2999–3005. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318212e3b8
Liu, C., Nien, N. H., & Shiang, T. Y. (2003). The swing velocity and muscle activity of different weighted bat. International Society of Biomechanics XIXth Congress.
Liu, T., & Jensen, J. L. (2012). Age-Related Differences in Bilateral Asymmetry in Cycling Performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83(1), 114–119. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2012.10599832
Lyu, B., & Smith, L. V. (2018). Evaluation of wireless bat swing speed sensors. Sports Engineering, 21(3), 229–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12283-017-0224-3
Marins, J. C. B., Fernandes, A. A., Cano, S. P., Moreira, D. G., da Silva, F. S., Costa, C. M. A., Fernandez-Cuevas, I., & Sillero-Quintana, M. (2014). Thermal body patterns for healthy Brazilian adults (male and female). Journal of Thermal Biology, 42, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2014.02.020
Marins, J. C. B., Moreira, D. G., Cano, S. P., Quintana, M. S., Soares, D. D., Fernandes, A. de A., Silva, F. S. da, Costa, C. M. A., & Amorim, P. R. dos S. (2014). Time required to stabilize thermographic images at rest. Infrared Physics & Technology, 65, 30–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infrared.2014.02.008
Melnizky, P., Schartelmüller, T., & Ammer, K. (1997). Der intra- und interindividuellen Verlässlichkeit der Auswertung von Infrarot-Thermogrammen. Eur. J. Thermo.
Mohr, M., Krustrup, P., Nybo, L., Nielsen, J. J., & Bangsbo, J. (2004). Muscle temperature and sprint performance during soccer matches—Beneficial effect of re-warm-up at half-time. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 14(3), 156–162. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2004.00349.x
Montoya et Al. (2009). Effect of Warm-up With Different Weighted Bats on Normal Baseball Bat Velocity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(5), 1566–1569.
Moreira, D. G., Costello, J. T., Brito, C. J., Adamczyk, J. G., Ammer, K., Bach, A. J. E., Costa, C. M. A., Eglin, C., Fernandes, A. A., Fernández-Cuevas, I., Ferreira, J. J. A., Formenti, D., Fournet, D., Havenith, G., Howell, K., Jung, A., Kenny, G. P., Kolosovas-Machuca, E. S., Maley, M. J., … Sillero-Quintana, M. (2017). Thermographic imaging in sports and exercise medicine: A Delphi study and consensus statement on the measurement of human skin temperature. Journal of Thermal Biology, 69, 155–162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2017.07.006
Nakamoto et Al. (2012). Kinesthetic aftereffects induced by a weighted tool on movement correction in baseball batting. Human Movement Science, 31(6), 1529–1540.
Nakata et al. (2012). Differences in the Head Movement During Baseball Batting between Skilled Players and Novices. J Strength Cond Res, 26(10), 2632–2640.
Nakata, H., Miura, A., Yoshie, M., Kanosue, K., & Kudo, K. (2013). Electromyographic Analysis of Lower Limbs During Baseball Batting: J Strength Cond Res, 27(5), 1179–1187. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182653ca9
Neves, E. B., Vilaca-Alves, J., Antunes, N., Felisberto, I. M. V., Rosa, C., & Reis, V. M. (2015). Different responses of the skin temperature to physical exercise: Systematic review. 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 1307–1310. https://doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2015.7318608
Nicholls, R. L., Elliott, B. C., Miller, K., & Koh, M. (2003). Bat Kinematics in Baseball: Implications for Ball Exit Velocity and Player Safety. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 19(4), 283–294. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.19.4.283
Nimphius, S., Mcguigan, M. R., & Newton, R. U. (2010). Relationship Between Strength, Power, Speed, and Change of Direction Performance of Female Softball Players. J Strength Cond Res, 24(4), 885–895. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d4d41d
Ohkoshi, K., & Kikuchi, Y. (1980). A study of kinesthetic illusion. J Hum Ergol, 9(sept), 15–21.
Oreščanin, L., & Hraski, Ž. (2018). Comparative kinematic analysis of softball swing in female and male players. International Society of Performance Analysis of Sport, september, 121–125.
Otsuji et al. (2002). After-Effects of Using a Weighted Bat on Subsequent Swing Velocity and Batters’ Perceptions of Swing Velocity and Heaviness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 94(1), 119–126.
Oyama, S., Sosa, A., Campbell, R., & Correa, A. (2017). Reliability and Validity of Quantitative Video Analysis of Baseball Pitching Motion. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 33(1), 64–68. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.2016-0011
P. Maletsky, L., Sun, J., & A. Morton, N. (2007). Accuracy Of An Optical Active-Marker System To Track The Relative Motion Of Rigid Bodies. Journal of Biomechanics, 40, 682–685.
Petriello, M. (2020). Homers are still the key to winning in playoffs [Article]. MLB.Com. https://www.mlb.com/news/homers-are-still-the-key-to-winning-in-playoffs
Polk, R. (1978). Baseball Playbook. West Point, MS: Sullivan’s Printing.
Priego Quesada, J. I., Lucas-Cuevas, A. G., Gil-Calvo, M., Giménez, J. V., Aparicio, I., Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, R. M., Salvador Palmer, R., Llana-Belloch, S., & Pérez-Soriano, P. (2015). Effects of graduated compression stockings on skin temperature after running. Journal of Thermal Biology, 52, 130–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2015.06.005
Priego Quesada, J. I., Martínez, N., Salvador Palmer, R., Psikuta, A., Annaheim, S., Rossi, R. M., Corberán, J. M., Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, R. M., & Pérez-Soriano, P. (2016). Effects of the cycling workload on core and local skin temperatures. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 77, 91–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2016.04.008
Pueo, B. (2016). High speed cameras for motion analysis in sports science. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2016.111.05
Puig-Diví, A., Escalona-Marfil, C., Padullés-Riu, J. M., Busquets, A., Padullés-Chando, X., & Marcos-Ruiz, D. (2019). Validity and reliability of the Kinovea program in obtaining angles and distances using coordinates in 4 perspectives. PLOS ONE, 14(6), e0216448. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0216448
Quesada, J. I. P. (2017). Multifactorial cycling performance of Cyclists and Non-Cyclists and their effect on skin temperature. J Therm Anal Calorim, 127, 1479–1489.
Reyes et al. (2006). Acute Effects of Various Weighted Bat Warm-Up Protocols on Baseball Bat Velocity. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(supplement), 245.
Reyes et Al. (2009). Acute effects of various weighted bat warm-up protocols on bat velocity. J Strength Cond, 23(7), 2114–2118.
Reyes et Al. (2010). Effects of Muscular Strength, Exercise Order, and Acute Whole-Body Vibration Exposure on Bat Swing Speed. J Strength Cond Res, 24(12), 3234–3240.
Rodríguez-Sanz, D., Losa-Iglesias, M. E., López-López, D., Calvo-Lobo, C., Palomo-López, P., & Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, R. (2017). Infrared thermography applied to lower limb muscles in elite soccer players with functional ankle equinus and non-equinus condition. PeerJ, 5, e3388. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3388
Sawicki, G. S., Hubbard, M., & Stronge, W. J. (2003). How to hit home runs: Optimum baseball bat swing parameters for maximum range trajectories. American Journal of Physics, 71(11), 1152–1162. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.1604384
Schmitt, L. C., Paterno, M. V., & Hewett, T. E. (2012). The Impact of Quadriceps Femoris Strength Asymmetry on Functional Performance at Return to Sport Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. JOSPT, 42(9), 750–759. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2012.4194
Schorah et Al. (2015). Effects of moment of inertia on restricted motion swing speed. Sports Biomechanics, 14(2), 157–167.
Scott, S., & Gray, R. (2010). Switching tools: Perceptual-motor recalibration to weight changes. Experimental Brain Research, 201(2), 177–189. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-009-2022-z
Sergo, C., & Boatwright, D. (1993). Training methods using various weighted bats and the effects on bat velocity. 7, 115–117.
Slate, R. (2006). Atlanta Braves 2006 off-season training program. Atlanta Braves.
Softball Canada, O. team. (2021). Canada’s Olympic History – Pre-Tokyo 2020 [Canada’s Olympic History – Pre-Tokyo 2020]. https://olympic.ca/sports/skiing-alpine/
Southard, D., & Groomer, L. (2003). Warm-up with baseball bats of varying moments on inertia: Effect on bat velocity and swing pattern. Res Q Exerc Sport, 74, 270–276.
Spaniol et Al. (2010). The Relationship Between Static Strength, Rotational Strength, Rotational Power, Bat Speed, And Batted-Ball Velocity Of NCAA Division I Baseball Players. J Strength Cond Res, 24(1).
Szymanski, D. J., Beiser, E. J., Bassett, K. E., Till, M. E., Medlin, G. L., Beam, J. R., & DeRenne, C. (2011). Effect of Various Warm-Up Devices on Bat Velocity of Intercollegiate Baseball Players: J Strength Cond Res, 25(2), 287–292. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318202e31e
Szymanski, D., McHenry, S. P., Blankenship, T. M., Lowe, H. E., Mire, K. R., Reed, J. G., Stanley, B. E., Hsu, H.-S., & Beam, J. R. (2010). Effect Of Medicine Ball Training On Bat Swing And Batted-Ball Velocities Of Novice Participants: J Strength Cond Res, 24, 1. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.JSC.0000367222.07859.98
Szymanski et al. (2009a). Contributing factors for increased bat swing velocity. J Strength Cond, 23(1), 1338–1352.
Szymanski et al. (2009b). CONTRIBUTING FACTORS FOR INCREASED BAT SWING VELOCITY. J Strength Cond Res, 29(3), 1338–1352.
Szymanski et Al. (2010). The relation between anthropometric and physiological variables and bat velocity of high school baseball players before and after 12 weeks of training. J Strength Cond Res, 24(11), 2933–2943.
Trecroci, A., Formenti, D., Ludwig, N., Gargano, M., Bosio, A., Rampinini, E., & Alberti, G. (2018). Bilateral asymmetry of skin temperature is not related to bilateral asymmetry of crank torque during an incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion. PeerJ, 6, e4438. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4438
Vardasca, R., Ring, F., Plassmann, P., & Jone, C. (2012). Thermal symmetry of the upper... 9.
Vescovi, J. D., & Mcguigan, M. R. (2008). Relationships between sprinting, agility, and jump ability in female athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(1), 97–107. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410701348644
Welch et Al. (1995). Hitting a Baseball: A Biomechanical Description. JOSPT, 22(5), 193–201.
Williams, C. C., Gdovin, J. R., Wilson, S. J., Cazas-Moreno, V. L., Eason, J. D., Hoke, E. L., Allen, C. R., Wade, C., & Garner, J. C. (2019). The Effects of Various Weighted Implements on Baseball Swing Kinematics in Collegiate Baseball Players: J Strength Cond Res, 33(5), 1347–1353. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002020
Wilson et Al. (2012). Effects of Various Warm-Up Devices and Rest Period Lengths on Batting Velocity and Acceleration of Intercollegiate Baseball Players. J Strength Cond Res, 26(9), 2317–2323.
Zaproudina, N., Varmavuo, V., Airaksinen, O., & Närhi, M. (2008). Reproducibility of infrared thermography measurements in healthy individuals. Physiological Measurement, 29(4), 515–524. https://doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/29/4/007
Zwolski, C., Schmitt, L. C., Quatman-Yates, C., Thomas, S., Hewett, T. E., & Paterno, M. V. (2015). The Influence of Quadriceps Strength Asymmetry on Patient-Reported Function at Time of Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Am J Sports Med, 43(9), 2242–2249. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546515591258
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top