Reimer, Bill and Lyons, Tara and Ferguson, Nelson and Polanco, Geraldina (2008) Social Capital as Social Relations: the contribution of normative structures. Sociological Review, 56 (2). pp. 256-274. ISSN 0038-0261
PDF (Post-print: final draft post-refereeing)
- Accepted Version
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2008.00787.x
This paper presents a framework for social capital that highlights the normative structures through which it is manifested. The primary focus is on the ways that norms structure the relationships in which social capital is embedded. To this end, we introduce four types of normative structures which condition social capital: market, bureaucratic, associative, and communal. A field site in Japan is used illustrate how different aspects of social capital interact. This case analysis also serves to make an important distinction between the availability and use of social capital. The central arguments are that 1) social capital is organized in different ways by the normative structures in which it is embedded; 2) there are important interactions between these different aspects of social capital that are often overlooked by simpler frameworks; 3) a useful distinction can be made between available social capital and used social capital; 4) access to social capital can be used to analyze power relations; and 5) distinguishing different aspects of social capital makes areas visible that are overlooked by other understandings of social capital. We conclude by identifying the utility of our perspective for informing public policy and guiding future research.
|Divisions:||Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Sociology and Anthropology|
|Authors:||Reimer, Bill and Lyons, Tara and Ferguson, Nelson and Polanco, Geraldina|
|Journal or Publication:||Sociological Review|
|Keywords:||social capital; community studies|
|Deposited By:||WILLIAM C. REIMER|
|Deposited On:||18 Jan 2010 21:19|
|Last Modified:||08 Dec 2010 23:45|
Biggart, N. W. and R. Delbridge (2004) "Systems of Exchange," The Academy of Management Review Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 28-49.
Bourdieu, P. (1986) "The forms of capital." In Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education. J. In Richardson (ed.). New York: Greenwood Press.
Burt, R. S. (2005) Brokerage and Closure: An Introduction to Social Capital. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Campbell, C., Williams, B., and Gilgen, D. (2002) ‘Is social capital a useful conceptual tool for exploring community level influences on HIV infection? An
exploratory case study from South Africa’. AIDS CARE 14: 41-54.
Coleman, J. (1990) Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, Harvard UP.
Coleman, J. (1988) ‘Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital’. The American Journal of Sociology 94: 95-120.
DeFilippis, J. (2001) ‘The Myth of Social Capital in Community Development’. Housing Policy Debate 12: 781-806.
Desjardins, S., Halseth, G., Leblanc, P., and Ryser, L. (2002) ‘Services, social cohesion, and social capital: a literature review’. New Rural Economy Project (NRE2).
Devarennes, H. (2006). Nouvelle gouvernance : trois cas dans le territoire rural de Neguac-Alnwick. Thèse de maîtrise. Université de Moncton, Moncton.
Épenda Muteba Wa, A. (2003) ‘Les milieux ruraux québécois en restructuration : diagnostic, facteurs tangibles et intangibles de dévitalisation rurale et perspectives de
développement local approprié’, Thèse de doctorat en développement régional, Rimouski, UQAR.
Fiske, A.P. (1991) Structures of Social Life: The Four Elementary Forms of Human Relations: Communal Sharing, Authority Ranking, Equality Matching, Market Pricing. Toronto: The Free Press.
Flora, C.B., Flora, J., and Fey, S. (2004) “Social Capital and Community” In Rural Communities: Legacy and Change Boulder: Westview Press, pp49-77.
Foley, M.W. and Edwards, B. (1999), Is It Time to Disinvest in Social Capital?, Journal of Public Policy 19 (2): 199-231. Published in Reimer, et al., 2008, Sociological Review, 56:2, pp256-274.
Frane, A., and Roncevic, B. (2003) ‘Social Capital: Recent Debates and Research Trends’. Social Science Information 42 (2): 155-183.
Franke, S. (2005) Meaurement of Social Capital: Reference Document for Public Policy Research, development, and Evaluation. Ottawa: Policy Research Initiative.
Fullilove, R. E., L. Green, and M. T. Fullilove (2000) "The Family to Family program: a structural intervention with implications for the prevention of HIV/AIDS and other community epidemics," AIDS Vol. 14, pp. S63-S67.
Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity. California: Stanford UP.
Glaeser, E., Laibson, D.J., Scheinkman, J., Soutter, C.S. (2000) ‘Measuring Trust’. Quarterly Journal of Economics 115 (August): 811-846.
Granovetter, M.S. (1983) ‘The Strength of Weak Ties: A Network Theory Revisited’. Sociological Theory 1: 203-233.
Halpern, D. (2005) "Introduction: Concepts, History and Measurement." In Social Capital. D. Halpern (ed.). Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 1-40.
Hamilton, G. and Biggart, N.W. (1992) ‘Market Culture and Authority: A Comparative Analysis of Management and Organization in the Far East’. In Granovetter, M. and Swedberg, R. (eds) The Sociology of Economic Life, Boulder:
Westview Press, pp. 181-224.
Hannerz, U. (1996) Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places. London: Routledge.
Hawe, P., Webster, C.M., and Shiell, A. (2004) ‘A Glossary of Terms for Navigating the Filed of Social Network Analysis’. Journal of Epidemiology and Community
Hooghe, M. and Stolle, D. (2003) ‘The Source of Social Capital’. Generating Social Capital: Civic Society and Institutions in Comparative Perspective. New York:
Jackson, R and Miller, R. (1998): ‘Social Capital and Politics’. Annual Review of Political Science.(1) 50.
Jean, B. et Épanda Muteba Wa. A., (2004) ‘Le capital social et le développement des ‘capacités de développement’ des communautés rurales : les enseignements d’une étude canadienne’. Revue d’économie régionale et urbaine, no 3: 673-694.
Kawachi, I., B. P. Kennedy, and R. Glass (1999) "Social Capital and Self-Rated Published in Reimer, et al., 2008, Sociological Review, 56:2, pp256-274.
Knack, S. and P. Keefer (1997) "Does Social Capital Have an Economic Payoff?," Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. 112, No. 4 (Nov), pp. 1251-1332.
Lin, N. (2001) ‘Building a Network Theory of Social Capital’. Social Capital: Theory and Research (Edited by Lin, N., Cook, K., and Burt, R.), New York: Aldine
de Gruyter: 3-29.
Loury, G.C. (2000) ‘Social Exclusion and Ethnic Groups: The Challenge to Development Economics 1999’. in B. Pleskovic and J. Stiglitz (eds). Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics 1999. Oxford: Oxford University
Massey, D. (1994) Space, Place and Gender. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Matthews R. (2003) “Using a Social Capital Perspective to Understand Social and Economic Development in Coastal British Columbia.” Horizons. Volume 6, Number
Molyneux, M. (2002) “Gender and the Silences of Social Capital: Lessons from Latin America” Development and Change, Vol 33, No. 2: 167-188.
Mooney, L.A., Knox, D., and Schacht, C. (2000) Understanding Social Problems. Cincinnati: Wadsworth.
Morin, S-A. (2005) La nouvelle gouvernance rurale: le cas de la Corporation «Capà-l’Aigle, Villages des Lilas» Rimouski, QC, Mémoire de maîtrise en développement
Morrow, V. (1999) ‘Conceptualising Social Capital in Relation to the Well-Being of Children and Young People: A Critical Review’. The Sociological Review 47 (4):
Nahapiet, J. and S. Ghoshal (1998) "Social Capital, Intellectual Capital, and the Organizational Advantage," Academy of Management Review Vol. 23, No. 2, pp242-266.
Nooteboom, B. and Gilsing, V. (2004) ‘Density and Strength of Ties in Innovation Networks: a Competence and Governance View’. Working Paper 04.01. The Netherlands.
Polanyi, K. (1944) The Great Transformation. New York: Rinehart. Published in Reimer, et al., 2008, Sociological Review, 56:2, pp256-274.
Portes, A. (1998) "Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology," Annual Review of Sociology (24): 1-24.
Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Putnam, R. (2001) ‘Social Capital: Measurement and Consequences’. Isuma, 2(1): 41-51.
Reimer, B. (2002a) ‘Understanding Social Capital: Its Nature and Manifestations in Rural Canada’ Presentation to the Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association, Toronto. <http://nre.concordia.ca>
Reimer, B. (2002b) ‘A Sample Frame for Rural Canada: Design and Evaluation’. Regional Studies, 36(8): 845-859.
Reimer, B. (2006) “The Rural Context of Community Development in Canada”, Journal of Rural and Community Development, 1(2)155-175, <www.jrcd.ca>
Sahlins, M. (1972) Stone Age Economics. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Schuller, T., Baron, S. and Field, J. (2000), Social Capital: a review and critique, pp.1-38 in Baron, S., Field, J., and Schuller, T. (eds.) Social Capital: critical
perspectives, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Stolle, D. (2003) Generating Social Capital: Civil Society and Institutions in Comparative perspective. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Stone, W. (2001) Measuring social capital: Towards a theoretically informed meassurement framework for researching social capital in family and community
life. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
Stone, W. and J. Hughes (2002) Social Capital: Empirical meaning and measurement validity. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
Stone, W., Gray, M., and Hughes, J. (2003) ‘Social capital at work: how family, friends and civic ties relate to labour market outcomes’. Commonwealth of Australia,
Australian Institute of Family Studies.
Tarrow, S. (1996), ‘Making Social Science Work Across Space and Time’, American Political Science Review, 90: 389-397.
Tiepoh, G.N. and Reimer, B. (2004) ‘Social Capital, Information Flows, and Income Creation in Rural Canada’. Journal of Socio-Economics, 33(4): 427-448.
Published in Reimer, et al., 2008, Sociological Review, 56:2, pp256-274.
Wall, E., Ferrazzi, C., and Schryer, F. (1998) ‘Getting the Goods on Social Capital’. Rural Sociology. 63(2): 300-322.
Warde, A. and Tampubolon, G. (2002) ‘Social capital, networks and leisure consumption’. Sociological Review 50(2): 155-181.
Weber, M. (1978) The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Woolcock, M. (2001) "The Place of Social Capital in Understanding Social and Economic Outcomes.," Isuma Vol. 2, No. 1.
Woolcock, M. and D. Narayan (2006) "Social Capital: Implications for Development Theory, Research, and Policy Revistited." In The Search for Empowerment: Social
Capital as Idea and Practice at the World Bank. A. Bebbington, M. Wookcock, S. E. Guggenheim, and E. A. Olson (eds.). Bloomfield: Kumarian Press, Inc., pp. 31-62.
Repository Staff Only: item control page