Login | Register

3-D Modeling of Piled Raft Foundation


3-D Modeling of Piled Raft Foundation

Sinha, Anup (2013) 3-D Modeling of Piled Raft Foundation. PhD thesis, Concordia University.

Text (application/pdf)
Sinha_PhD_S2013.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.



3-D Modeling of Piled Raft Foundation

Anup Sinha, Ph.D.
Concordia University, 2013

Piled-raft-foundation is a new concept, which has received increasing recognition in recent years. Current design practice is based on conventional group pile or block failure theory, that ignore the bearing contribution from the raft. Moreover, the pile group theory is incapable of predicting the differential settlement of the raft, which is beyond the capability of any available analytical method in the literature.

The objective of this thesis is to develop analytical models capable to predict the settlement of each individual pile in the group under the raft. Accordingly, the differential settlement within the pile raft can be estimated. In this investigation, three independent models will be developed to perform as follows; first, the load sharing model that estimates the load components of the raft and the pile group in the system, the second model is to estimate the maximum settlement of the top of the raft and the third model is to estimate the differential settlement among the pile-raft-foundation.

To develop these analytical models, the three dimensional numerical models developed in ABAQUS platform, was extensively used. The extent of stress influence zone, sensitivity analysis of the governing parameters, time increment of the analysis step were performed in advance. The modified Drucker – Pager cap plasticity was used to model the soil continuum. The influence of pile cross-sectional shape (square, octagonal and circular) on soil bearing behavior was examined to check the suitability of using the 8-noded hexahedron 3D brick element. Parametric studies were performed to observe the influence of raft and pile geometry (e.g length, size, spacing of pile and thickness of raft) on the foundation bearing behavior. The raft bearing contribution and its top deflection pattern under various loading and pile-raft configuration were also investigated. The multiple regression analysis technique, using statistical software MINITAB, along with the theory of solid mechanics was used to develop the analytical models for load sharing, maximum and differential settlement. Design theories and recommendation for future work are presented.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Authors:Sinha, Anup
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:Ph. D.
Program:Civil Engineering
Date:15 March 2013
Thesis Supervisor(s):Hanna, Adel
Keywords:Pile, Raft, Foundation, Structure, Interaction, 3-D Modeling, ABAQUS, MINITAB, Finite Elment Analysis, Multiple Regression Analysis, Maximum and Differential Settlement
ID Code:977288
Deposited By: ANUP SINHA
Deposited On:17 Jun 2013 15:15
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:44
Additional Information:This thesis has been ranked OUTSTANDING


1. Ahner, C., and Soukhov, D., (1999), “Safety Concept in Codified Design of piled raft foundation (CPRF)”, LACER 4, 403 - 412. Universität Leipzig

2. Ahner, C., Soukhov, D., and Konig, G., (1998), “Reliability Aspects of Design of Combined Piled-Raft Foundation (CPRF)”, 2nd Int. PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering Budapest.

3. Ahner C., Soukhov D. (1996): Combined Piled-Raft Foundation (CPRF) “Safety Concept”, Lacer 1, 333-345, Universität Leipzig

4. Ai Z.Y., Han J, Yan Y. (2005), “Elastic Analysis of Single Pile-Rigid Circular Raft System in Layered Soil”, Advances in Deep Foundations, ASCE, Geotechnical Special Publications 132.

5. Anagnostopoulos, C. & Georgiadis, M. (1998), “A Simple Analysis of Piles in Raft Foundation. Geotechnical. Engineering, vol 29, No.1, 71-83.

6. Baladi, G. Y., Rohani, B. (1979a), “Elastic-plastic model for saturated sand”; Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, Proc. ASCE, Vol. 105, No. GT4, 465-480.

7. Baladi, G. Y., Rohani, B. (1979b), “An Elastic-plastic Cnstitutive Model for Saturated Sand Subjected to Monotonic and/or Cyclic Loadings”. Proc. 3rd ICNMG, Aachen, 389-404, Rotterdam: Balkema.

8. Barthe K. J., Snyder M.D. (1980), “On Some Current Procedures and Difficulties in FE Analysis of Elasto-plastic Rresponse”, Computers and structures, Vol.12, 607 – 624.

9. Basile, F. (2000), “Non Linear Analysis of Pile Group”, Discussion Proc. ICE, Geotechnical Engineering, Vol.143, Oct, 241-244.

10. Booker, J. R., Poulos, H. G. (1976), “Analysis of Creep Settlement of Pile Foundations”, ASCE, Vol. 102, No. 1, pp 1-14.

11. Brown P.T. (1969), Numerical Simulation of Uniformly Loaded Circular Rafts on Elastic Layers of Finite Depth, Geotechnique, Vol. 19, No. – 2, 301 – 306.

12. Burland, J.B., Kaira J.C. (1986), “Queen Elezabeth II Conference Centre, Gotechnical Aspects”, Porc. ICE, part I, No.- 80, 1479 - 1503

13. Burland, J.B., Broms, B.B. and de Mello, V.F.B. (1977), “Behavior of Foundations and Structures”, Proc.9 ICSMFE, Tokyo, 2, 495-546.

14. Butterfield, R. and Banerjee, P.K. (1971), “The Elastic Analysis of Compressible Piles and Pile Groups”, Géotechnique 21, No. 1,43-60

15. Butterfield, R. and Banerjee, P.K. (1981), “The Problem of Pile Group – Pile Cap Interaction”, Géotechnique, 21(2), 135-149.

16. Canadian Geotechnical Society (2006), “Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual”, 4th edition, Printed in January, 2007.

17. Cao X.D., Wong H.I., Chang M.F. (2004), “Behavior of Model Raft Resting on Pile-Reinforced Sand”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 130 (2), 129-138.

18. Chow H.S.W., Small J.C (2006), “Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation with Piles of Different Lengths Subjected to Horizontal and Vertical Loading”, NIMGE, Porc.6th European Conf. on NUMGE, Graz, Austria, 6-8 Septermeber, 2006, 583 – 588.

19. Chow H.S.W., Small J.C (2005), “Behavior of Pile Raft with Piles of Different Lengths and Diameter under Vertical Loading”, ASCE, Advances in Deep Foundation. GSP 132

20. Chow H.S.W., Yong K.Y. (2001), “Analysis of Pile Raft Foundation Using a Variational Approach”, ASCE, International Journal of Geomechanics, vol. 1 no.2, 129-147.

21. Chow H.S.W.(1987), “Iterative Analysis of Pile-Soil-Pile Interaction”, Geotechnique 37, No. – 3, 321 - 333.

22. Clancy, P. and Randolph, M.F. (1996), “Simple Design Tools for Piled Raft Foundations”, Géotechnique 46(2), 313-328.

23. Clancy, P. and Randolph, M.F. (1993), “An Approximate Analysis Procedure for Piled Raft Foundations”, Int. J.Numer. and Analytical Methods in Geomech., London, 17(12), 849-869.

24. Clarke N.W.B., Watson J.B. (1936), “Settlement Records and Loading Data for Various Building Erected by the Public Works Department, Municipal Council, Shanghai”, Proceedings of 1st ICSMFE, Cambridge, Mass, USA, June 1936 vol.2 pp 174-185.

25. Cooke R.W. (1986), “Piled Raft Foundation on Stiff Clays – A Contribution to Design Philosophy”, Geotechnique 36. no.-2, 169-203

26. Cunha, R. P. and Poulos, H. G. and Small, J.C. (2001), “Investigation of Design Alternatives for a Piled Raft Case History”, Géotechnique, Vol.127, (8), 635-641.

27. Das B.M. (2008), “Advanced Soil Mechanics”, 3rd edition, Taylor & Francis, New York, NY.

28. Das B.M. (2007), “Principles of Foundation Engineering” 6th edition, Thomson, Canada.

29. Davis, E.H. and Poulos, H.G. (1972), “The Analysis of Piled Raft Systems”, Aust. Geomechs.J. , G2: 21-27.

30. DiMaggio, F. L., Sandler, I. S. (1971), “Material model for granular soils”. Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, Proc. ASCE, Vol. 97, No. EM 3, 935-950

31. Drucker, D. C., Prager, W. (1952), “Soil Mechanics and Plastic Analysis or Limit Design”. Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, Vol. X, 157-165.

32. Drucker, D. C., Gibson, R. E., Henkel, D. J. (1957), “Soil mechanics and work-hardening theories of plasticity”. Transactions ASCE, Vol. 122, 338-346.

33. Duncan J.M., Chang C.Y. (1970), “Nonlinear Analysis of Stress and Strain in Soils” Journals of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, Proc. ASCE, vol. 96, SM 5, 1629-1653.

34. El-Mossallamy, Y. (2002), “Innovative Application Of Piled Raft Foundation In Stiff and Soft Subsoil”, Geot. Spec. Pub. 116, ASCE, 1: 426-440.

35. Fleming W.C.K., Weltman A.I., Randolph M.F., Elson W.K. (1992), “Piling Engineering”, 2nd edition, pp 179-214, Blackie.

36. Framk L., DiMaggio, Sandler I.S. (1971), “Material Model for Granular Soil”, Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, ASCE, vol. 97 EM 3 pp. 935 - 950

37. Franke, E., Lutz, B. and El-Mossallamy, Y. (1994), “Measurements and Numerical Modelling of High-Rise Building Foundations on Frankfurt Clay”, Geot. Spec. Pub. 40, ASCE, 2: 1325-1336, New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.

38. Franke R.,Guenot A., Humbert P. (1982), “Numerical Analysis of Contacts in Geomechanics”, Proc. 4th ICNMG, Edmonton, vol. 1, 37-45, Rotterdam Balkema.

39. Fraser, R. A. and Wardle, L. J. (1976), “Numerical Analysis of Rectangular Rafts on Layered Foundations”, Géotechnique 26, No. 4, 613.

40. Garcia F., Lizcano A, Reul O. (2006), “Visco-plastic Model Applied to The Case History of Piled Raft Foundation”, Geocongress, ASCE.

41. Gens A., Potts D.M., (1988), “Critical State Models in Computational Geo-mechanics”. Engineering Computations, vol. 5, issue 3, pp. 178 – 197. MCB UP Ltd.

42. Griffiths D.V., Clancy P. and Randolph M.F. (1991), “Piled raft foundation analysis by finite elements”, Porc. 7th Int. Conf. Comput. Methods Adv. Geomech. Cairns, (2) 1153-1157, Rotterdam Balkema.

43. Griffiths, D. V. (1985), “Numerical modeling of interfaces using conventional finite elements”. Proc. 5th ICNMG, Nagoya, 837-844, Rotterdam: Balkema

44. Griffiths, D. V. (1982), “Elasto-plastic analysis of deep foundations in cohesive soil”. IJNAMG, Vol. 6, No. 2, 211-218.

45. Grycxmanski M., Majewski S (1997), “A study on elasto-plastic raft foundation-soil interaction”, Proc. XIV ICSMFE, vol. 2, pp.983-986.

46. Gwizdata K., Tejchman A. (1997), “Numerival modelling of pile subsoil interaction”, Proc. XIV ICSMFE, vol. 1, pp.673-676.

47. Guo, W. D. and Randolph M. F. (1999), “An Efficient Approach for Settlement prediction of Pile Groups”, Géotechnique 49, No.2, 161-179.

48. Hain, S. J. & Lee, I. K. (1978), “The Analysis of Flexible Raft-Pile Systems”, Géotechnique 28, No.1, 65-83

49. Hemsley J.A. (1998), “Elastic Analysis of Raft Foundation”, Thomas Telford.

50. Han J., Ye S.L. (2006), “A Field Study on the Behavior of Foundations Underpinned by Micropiles”, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 43: 30–42.

51. Han, J., Ye, S.L. (2006). A field Study on the Behavior of Micropiles in Clay under Compression or Tension. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 43: 19–29.

52. Hansbo, S. (1993), “Interaction Problems Related to the Installation of Pile Groups”, Sem. on Deep Founds. on Bored and Auger Piles, BAP2, Ghent, 59-66.

53. Hansbo, S., (1993), “Interaction Problems Related to the Installation of Pile Groups”, Sem. on Deep Founds. on Bored and Auger Piles, BAP2, Ghent, 59-66.

54. Hansbo, S. and Hoffman E (1973), “Gothenburg experiences concerning a difficult foundation problem and its unorthodox solution”,

55. Hartmann F., Jahn P. (2001), “Boundary Element Analysis of Raft Foundations on Piles”, Meccanica, vol. 36 pp.351 – 366,

56. Hassen G., Buhan P., (2006), “Elasto-plastic Multiphase Model for Simulating the Response of Piled Raft Foundations Subject to Combined Loadings”, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2006; 30:843–864.

57. Herrmann L.R. (1978), “Finite Element Analysis of Contact Problems”, Journal of The Engineering Mechanics Division, Porc. ASCE, vol. 104, EM – 5, 1043-1057

58. Hibbit H.D., Karlsson B.L, Sorrensen (2007), “ABAQUS Theory Mannul and all Manuals, Guide, Online support (2007 to present)”,

59. Hooper, J.A. (1979), Review of Behavior of Piled Raft Foundations, Report No. 83. London: CIRIA.

60. Hooper, J.A. (1973), “Observations on the Behavior of a Piled-Raft Systems”, Geotechnique, 28 (1): 65-83.

61. Horikoshi, K. and Randolph, M. F. (1998), “A Contribution to Optimum Design of Piled Rafts”, Geotechnique, 48 (3): 301-317.

62. Horikoshi, K. and Randolph, M. F. (1997), “Optimum Design of Piled Raft Foundations”, Proceed. XIV ICSMFE, Hamburg, vol. 2, pp.1073 - 1076.

63. Horikoshi, K. and Randolph, M. F. (1996), “Centrifuge Modeling of Piled Raft Foundation on Clay”, Geotechnique, 46 (4): 741-752.

64. Horikoshi, K. and Randolph, M. F. (1997), “Optimum Design of Piled Raft Foundations”, Proc., 14th Int. Conf. on Soil Mech. and Found. Engrg., Hamburg, Germany, 2, 1073-1076.

65. Horikoshi, K. and Randolph, M. F. (1996), “Centrifuge Modeling of Piled Raft Foundations on Clay”, Geotechnique, 46 (4): 741-752.

66. Hu L, Pu J. (2004), “Testing and Modeling of Soil–Structure interface”. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental. Engineering, ASCE; vol. 130 no.-8, pp. 851–860.

67. Jardin R.J., Potts, D.M., Fourire A.B., Burland J.B. (1986), “Studies of the Influence of Nonlinear Stress-Strain Characteristics in Soil-Structure Interactions”, Geotechnique 36 no.-3, pp. 377 – 396.

68. Kakurai, M., Yamashita, K. & M. Tomono 1987. Settlement Behavior of Piled Raft Foundation on Soft Ground. Proc. VIII Asian Conference on SMFE, Kyoto: 373-376.

69. Katzenbach, R., Schmitt A., Turek J. (2005). Assessing Settlementof High-rise Structures by 3D Simulations” Computer Aided Civil and Infrastucute Engineering. vol.20, 221-229,

70. Katzenbach, R., Arslan, U. & Moormann, C. (2000). Piled Raft Foundation Projects in Germany. Design Applications of Raft Foundations, 323-391, London: Thomas Telford.

71. Katzenbach, R., Arslan, U., Moorman, C. & Reul, O. (1998), “Piled Raft Foundation: Interaction Between Piles and Raft”, Darmstadt Geotechnics (Darmstadt University of Technology), No. 4, 279-296.

72. Katzenbach, R., Arslan, U., Gutwald, J., Holzhauser, J., Quick, H. (1997a), “Soil-Structure Interaction of the 300 m High Commerzback tower in Frankfurt am Main. Measurements and Numerical Studies”, Proc. XIV ICSMFE, Vol. 2, 1081-1084, Rotterdam: Balkema.

73. Katzenbach, R., Reul, O. (1997b), “Design and Performance of Piled Rafts”. Proc. XIV ICSMFE, Hamburg, Vol. 4, 2253-2256, Rotter-dam: Balkema.

74. Katzenbach, R., Arslan, U. & Gutwald, J. (1994). A Numerical Study on Pile Foundation on the 300 m High Commerzbank Tower in Frankfurt am Main. 3rd European Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Manchester, 271-277, Rotterdam: Balkema

75. Kim, K. N., Lee, S. H., Kim, S. K., Chung, C. K., Kim, M. M., and Lee, H. S. (2001), “Optimal Pile Arrangement for Minimizing Differential Settlements in Piled Raft Foundations”, Computers and Geotechnics 28: 235-253.

76. Kitiyodom P, Matsumoto T. (2005), ”A Simplified Analysis Method for Piled Raft Foundations Subjected to Ground Movements Induced by Tunneling”. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech., 2005; 29:1485–1507.

77. Kitiyodom P, Matsumoto T. (2003), “A Simplified Analysis Method for Piled Raft Foundations in Non-homogeneous Soils”, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech., 2003; 27:85–109.

78. Kitiyodom P, Matsumoto T. (2002), “A simplified analysis method for piled raft and pile group foundations with batter piles”. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech., 2002; 26:1349–1369.

79. Kudella P., Reul O. (2002), ”Hypo-plastic Analysis of Piled Rafts”, Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering - 2002, pp. 389 - 395

80. Kulhawy F.H., Prakoso W.A. (1997), “Panel Discussion: Some Observations on Piled Raft Foundation Analysis”, Proc. XIV ICSMFE, Hamburg, Vol. 4, 2261-2262, Rotter-dam: Balkema.

81. Kuwabara, F. (1989), “An Elastic Analysis For Piled Raft Foundations In A Homogeneous Soil”, Soils Found. 28, No. 1, 82-92.

82. Liang F.Y.(2004), “A Modified Variational Approach for the Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation”, Mechanics Research Communications 31 (2004) 593–604.

83. Liang F.Y., Chen L.Z., Shi X.G., “Numerical Analysis of Composite Piled Raft with Cushion Subjected to Vertical Load”, Computers and Geotechnics 30 (2003) 443–453.

84. Mandolini, A., and Viggiani, C. (1997), “Settlement of Piled Foundations”, Geotechnique, London, 47(4), 791-816.

85. Maharaja D.K., (2004), “Three Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis to Study the Effect of Raft and Pile Stiffness on the Load –Saettlement B ehavior o fPiled Radft Foundations”, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 2004.

86. Maharaja D.K., (2003), “Load Settlement Behavior of Piled Raft Foundation by Three Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis”, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 2003.

87. Mendonca A.V., Puiva J.B, (2003), “An Elastostatic FEM/BEM Analysis of Vertically Loaded Eaft and Piled Raft Foundation”, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements 27 (2003) 919–933, Elsevier.

88. Mendonca A.V., Paiva J.B.. “A Bboundary Element Method for the Static Analysis of Raft Foundations on Piles”. Engng Anal Bound Elem 2000; 24:237–247. Elsevier.

89. Mets M., (1997), “Piled Raft Classification and Behavior”, Proc. XIV ICSMFE, Hamburg, vol. 4, pp. 2259-2260.

90. Novak J.L, Reese L.C., Wang S.T. (2005), “Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation with 3D Finite Element Method” Structures, ASCE,

91. Ottaviani, M. (1975), Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Vertically Loaded Pile Groups”, Geotechnique 25, no.- 2, 159-174.

92. Pellissier J. (1997), “A Raft Design Method for Swelling Clay”, Proc. XIV ICSMFE, vol. 1 pp. 863-869.

93. Placzek D., Jentzsch E. (1997), “Piled raft foundation under exceptional vertical loads - Bearing behavior and settlement”, XIV ICSMFE, vol. 2 pp. 1116-1118.

94. Poorooshasb H.B., Noorzad A. (1995), “Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation”, Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, 565-571, Rotterdam Balkema.

95. Poulos, H.G. (2007), “Design Charts for Pile Supporting Embankments on Soft Clay”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering, ASCE, vol. 133, no.-5, 493-501.

96. Poulos, H.G. (2005), “Piled Raft and Compensated Piled Raft Foundation for Soft Soil Sites”, Advances in Designing and Testing Deep Foundations, Geot. Spec. Pub. No. 129, ASCE, 214-234.

97. Poulos, H.G. (2002), “Simplified Design Procedure for Piled Raft Foundations”, Deep Foundations 2002, ASCE Spec. Geot. Pub. No. 116, 1: 441-458

98. Poulos, H.G. (2001a), “Piled Raft Foundations: Design and Applications”, Géotechnique 51, (2): 95-113.

99. Poulos, H.G. (2001b), “Methods of Analysis of Piled Raft Foundations”, TC18 Report, Int. Society of Soil Mech. and Geot. Engineering.

100. Poulos, H.G., Small, J.C., Ta, L.D., Sinha, J. & Chen, L. (1997), “Comparison of Some Methods for Analysis of Piled Rafts. Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Found. Eng, Hamburg 2, 1119-1124, Rotterdam: Balkema

101. Poulos, H.G. (1994), “An Approximate Numerical Analysis of Pile- Raft Interaction”, Int. J. Numer. And Analytical Methods in Geomech., London, 18(2), 73-92.

102. Poulos, H.G. (1993), “Piled Rafts in Swelling or Consolidating Soils”, Jnl. Geotechnical Div., ASCE, 119(2), 374-380.

103. Poulos, H.G. (1991), “Analysis of Piled Strip Foundations”, Proc. of the 7th Int. Con. on Compute
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top