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Identifying Cues that Regulate the Position of the Contractile Ring during Cytokinesis

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Identifying Cues that Regulate the Position of the Contractile Ring during Cytokinesis

Akhshi, TK (2013) Identifying Cues that Regulate the Position of the Contractile Ring during Cytokinesis. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

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Abstract

Cytokinesis is the process where a mother cell cleaves into two daughter cells and is driven by the constriction of an actomyosin ring. Formation and ingression of the contractile ring is regulated by the mitotic spindle to couple cytokinesis with the segregation of sister chromatids. The central spindle forms in anaphase and recruits Ect2, a GEF that activates RhoA, for F-actin polymerization and nonmuscle myosin activation to assemble the ring in the equatorial plane. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates the localization of contractile proteins is poorly understood. For example, astral microtubules exclude the localization of contractile proteins at the polar cortex, but the molecular pathway is not known. Furthermore, other cues likely regulate the localization of contractile proteins at the polar cortex. In this study, I investigated the role of chromatin in mediating the polar exclusion of contractile proteins in Hela cells. First, I measured the minimum distance between chromatin and the boundary of accumulated contractile proteins during cytokinesis in control cells, and in cells treated with different conditions that affect the central spindle and/or astral microtubules. I found that chromatin position closely correlates with the localization of contractile proteins within 3-4 µm of the cortex. This suggests that chromatin has a diffusible cue that can regulate the organization of actomyosin. I also found that over-expression of active Ran targeted to the equatorial membrane alters anillin localization and causes asymmetric furrow ingression or oscillation. In addition, inactivating Ran-GTP results in the global localization of myosin and cytokinesis phenotypes. My data supports the idea that chromatin, likely via Ran-GTP, works in combination with the central spindle and astral microtubules to ensure that the contractile ring forms at the correct time and location during cytokinesis.

Divisions:Concordia University > Faculty of Arts and Science > Biology
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Akhshi, TK
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M. Sc.
Program:Biology
Date:November 2013
Thesis Supervisor(s):Piekny, Alisa
ID Code:978187
Deposited By: KAFIYEH AKHSHI
Deposited On:30 Jun 2014 20:21
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:46
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