Login | Register

Development and Assessment of a Coupling Force Measurement System Applied to Stationary and Vibrating Tool Handles

Title:

Development and Assessment of a Coupling Force Measurement System Applied to Stationary and Vibrating Tool Handles

Kalra, Mayank (2014) Development and Assessment of a Coupling Force Measurement System Applied to Stationary and Vibrating Tool Handles. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

This is the latest version of this item.

[img]
Preview
Text (application/pdf)
Kalra_MASc_S2015.pdf - Accepted Version
5MB

Abstract

Exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) arising from operating hand-held power tools has been associated with various health consequences. The magnitude of HTV is strongly affected by the hand-handle interface coupling forces, handle geometry and gripping method apart. Assessment of the HTV exposure currently does not incorporate the impact of coupling forces exerted at the hand-handle interface, mostly due to lack of reliable measurement methods for hand-handle interface forces. This dissertation seeks to develop a low cost hand-handle coupling force measurement system and methods for quantifying the hand grip and push forces applied to the tool handles.
A hand-handle interface force measurement system was developed using flexible force sensing resistors (FlexiForce). The static properties of the sensors were thoroughly characterized in terms of linearity, hysteresis and repeatability. Moreover, the sensors’ output characteristics were observed by considering the effect of positioning, area and flexibility of the loading medium used to transmit the applied forces. Five different cylindrical and elliptical instrumented handles were subsequently chosen to observe the input-output characteristics of the sensors under stationary and vibrating conditions. The measurements under static and dynamic conditions revealed good linearity and repeatability of the sensors, and affirmed their feasibility for accurate estimations of the hand grip and push forces. The sensors’ outputs also showed strong dependence on the loading medium’s area, position and flexibility as well as the length of the sensor suggesting the need for individual sensor calibration, which was noted as the primary limitation of the system.
The effectiveness of the measurement system was further explored through measurements of hand forces on a percussion tool handle and biodynamic responses of the human hand-arm system. The measurement system provided reasonably good estimations of the hand grip and push forces when applied to the percussion tool handle under both stationary as well as vibration conditions. The biodynamic impedance responses measured with six subjects showed trends similar to the reference response. However, a compensation function was necessary and subsequently proposed to account for the limited bandwidth of the sensors.

Divisions:Concordia University > Gina Cody School of Engineering and Computer Science > Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Kalra, Mayank
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A. Sc.
Program:Mechanical Engineering
Date:December 2014
Thesis Supervisor(s):Rakheja, Subhash and Marcotte, Pierre
Keywords:Flexible resistive (FlexiForce) sensors, low cost force measurement system, finger and palm force, hand-handle grip and push force, hand transmitted vibration, hand-arm biodynamic response, palm and finger impedance responses, handle mass cancelation
ID Code:979775
Deposited By: MAYANK KALRA
Deposited On:13 Jul 2015 13:28
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:49

References:

[1] M. Bovenzi, L. Petronio, and F. Di Marino, "Epidemiological survey of shipyard workers exposed to hand-arm vibration," International archives of occupational and environmental health, vol. 46, pp. 251-266, 1980.
[2] M. Bovenzi, "Exposure-response relationship in the hand-arm vibration syndrome: an overview of current epidemiology research," International archives of occupational and environmental health, vol. 71, pp. 509-519, 1998.
[3] J. Malchaire, B. Maldague, J. Huberlant, and F. Croquet, "Bone and joint changes in the wrists and elbows and their association with hand and arm vibration exposure," Annals of Occupational Hygiene, vol. 30, pp. 461-468, 1986.
[4] M. J. Griffin, Handbook of human vibration: Academic press, 2012.
[5] ISO-5349-1, "Mechanical vibration and shock — Measurement and evaluation of human exposure to mechanical vibration — Part 1: General requirements," ed: International Organization for Standard, 2001.
[6] M. Bovenzi, "Epidemiological evidence for new frequency weightings of hand-transmitted vibration," Industrial health, vol. 50, pp. 377-387, 2012.
[7] M. J. Griffin, "Frequency-dependence of psychophysical and physiological responses to hand-transmitted vibration," Industrial health, vol. 50, pp. 354-369, 2012.
[8] E. Hartung, H. Dupuis, and M. Scheffer, "Effects of grip and push forces on the acute response of the hand-arm system under vibrating conditions," International archives of occupational and environmental health, vol. 64, pp. 463-467, 1993.
[9] ISO-15230, "Mechanical vibration and shock - Coupling forces at the man-machine interface for hand-transmitted vibration," ed: International Organization for Standard, 2007.
[10] S. Adewusi, S. Rakheja, P. Marcotte, and J. Boutin, "Vibration transmissibility characteristics of the human hand–arm system under different postures, hand forces and excitation levels," Journal of sound and vibration, vol. 329, pp. 2953-2971, 2010.
[11] P. Marcotte, Y. Aldien, P.-É. Boileau, S. Rakheja, and J. Boutin, "Effect of handle size and hand–handle contact force on the biodynamic response of the hand–arm system under zh-axis vibration," Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 283, pp. 1071-1091, 2005.
[12] R. G. Radwin, T. J. Armstrong, and D. B. Chaffin, "Power hand tool vibration effects on grip exertions," Ergonomics, vol. 30, pp. 833-855, 1987.
[13] R. Gurram, S. Rakheja, and G. Gouw, "A study of hand grip pressure distribution and EMG of finger flexor muscles under dynamic loads," Ergonomics, vol. 38, pp. 684-699, 1995.
[14] U. Kaulbars, "Measurement and evaluation of coupling forces when using hand-held power tools," Central European journal of public health, vol. 4, pp. 57-58, 1996.
[15] U. Kaulbars and N. Raffler, "Study of vibration transmission on a paver's hand hammer," Canadian Acoustics, vol. 39, pp. 52-53, 2011.
[16] S. Riedel, "Consideration of grip and push forces for the assessment of vibration exposure," Central European journal of public health, vol. 3, pp. 139-141, 1994.
[17] P. Lemerle, A. Klinger, A. Cristalli, and M. Geuder, "Application of pressure mapping techniques to measure push and gripping forces with precision," Ergonomics, vol. 51, pp. 168-191, 2008.
[18] B. P. Kattel, T. K. Fredericks, J. E. Fernandez, and D. C. Lee, "The effect of upper-extremity posture on maximum grip strength," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 18, pp. 423-429, 1996.
[19] E. A. Kuzala and M. C. Vargo, "The relationship between elbow position and grip strength," American Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 46, pp. 509-512, 1992.
[20] R. J. Marley and R. R. Wehrman, "Grip strength as a function of forearm rotation and elbow posture," in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 1992, pp. 791-795.
[21] S. Adewusi, S. Rakheja, P. Marcotte, and P.-É. Boileau, "On the discrepancies in the reported human hand–arm impedance at higher frequencies," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 38, pp. 703-714, 2008.
[22] R. G. Dong, D. Welcome, T. W. McDowell, and J. Z. Wu, "Analysis of handle dynamics-induced errors in hand biodynamic measurements," Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 318, pp. 1313-1333, 2008.
[23] Y. Aldien, P. Marcotte, S. Rakheja, and P.-É. Boileau, "Mechanical impedance and absorbed power of hand-arm under xh-axis vibration and role of hand forces and posture," Industrial health, vol. 43, pp. 495-508, 2005.
[24] Y. Aldien, P. Marcotte, S. Rakheja, and P.-É. Boileau, "Influence of hand forces and handle size on power absorption of the human hand–arm exposed to zh-axis vibration," Journal of sound and vibration, vol. 290, pp. 1015-1039, 2006.
[25] L. Burström, "Measurements of the impedance of the hand and arm," International archives of occupational and environmental health, vol. 62, pp. 431-439, 1990.
[26] E. Chadwick and A. Nicol, "A novel force transducer for the measurement of grip force," Journal of biomechanics, vol. 34, pp. 125-128, 2001.
[27] R. Lundström and L. Burström, "Mechanical impedance of the human hand-arm system," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 3, pp. 235-242, 1989.
[28] R. W. McGorry, "A system for the measurement of grip forces and applied moments during hand tool use," Applied ergonomics, vol. 32, pp. 271-279, 2001.
[29] B. Wimer, R. G. Dong, D. Welcome, C. Warren, and T. McDowell, "Development of a new dynamometer for measuring grip strength applied on a cylindrical handle," Medical engineering & physics, vol. 31, pp. 695-704, 2009.
[30] Y. Aldien, P. Marcotte, S. Rakheja, and P.-É. Boileau, "Influence of hand–arm posture on biodynamic response of the human hand–arm exposed to zh-axis vibration," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 36, pp. 45-59, 2006.
[31] L. Burström, "The influence of biodynamic factors on the mechanical impedance of the hand and arm," International archives of occupational and environmental health, vol. 69, pp. 437-446, 1997.
[32] R. G. Dong, D. Welcome, T. McDowell, and J. Wu, "Measurement of biodynamic response of human hand–arm system," Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 294, pp. 807-827, 2006.
[33] ISO-10819, "Mechanical vibration and shock — Hand-arm vibration — Measurement and evaluation of the vibration transmissibility of gloves at the palm of the hand," ed: International Organization for Standard, 2013.
[34] Y. Aldien, "A study of hand-handle interactions and hand-arm biodynamic response to vibration," Concordia University, 2005.
[35] M. Van der Kamp, B. Conway, and A. Nicol, "A novel instrumented ring for the measurement of grip force adjustments during precision grip tasks," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, vol. 215, pp. 421-427, 2001.
[36] M. H. Yun, K. Kotani, and D. Ellis, "Using force sensitive resistors to evaluate hand tool grip design," in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 1992, pp. 806-810.
[37] Y. Aldien, D. Welcome, S. Rakheja, R. G. Dong, and P.-E. Boileau, "Contact pressure distribution at hand–handle interface: role of hand forces and handle size," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 35, pp. 267-286, 2005.
[38] D. Welcome, S. Rakheja, R. G. Dong, J. Wu, and A. Schopper, "An investigation on the relationship between grip, push and contact forces applied to a tool handle," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 34, pp. 507-518, 2004.
[39] J. G. Young, M. E. Sackllah, and T. J. Armstrong, "Force distribution at the hand/handle interface for grip and pull tasks," in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 2010, pp. 1159-1163.
[40] A. Calvo and R. Deboli, "The Use of a Capacitive Sensor Matrix to Determine the Grip Forces Applied to the Olive Hand Held Harvesters," Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 2009.
[41] VIBTOOL, "Grip force mapping for characterization of hand-held vibrating tools," European Community Competitive and Sustainable Growth Program Report 2008.
[42] E. R. Komi, J. R. Roberts, and S. Rothberg, "Evaluation of thin, flexible sensors for time-resolved grip force measurement," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, vol. 221, pp. 1687-1699, 2007.
[43] J. Rossi, E. Berton, L. Grélot, C. Barla, and L. Vigouroux, "Characterisation of forces exerted by the entire hand during the power grip: effect of the handle diameter," Ergonomics, vol. 55, pp. 682-692, 2012.
[44] B.-E. 420, "General requirements for gloves.," ed: British Standard, 1994.
[45] L. Cronjager and M. Hesse, "Hand-arm system’s response to stochastic excitation," in 5th international conference on hand-arm vibration, 1990, pp. 39-42.
[46] D. D. Reynolds and R. Falkenberg, "A study of hand vibration on chipping and grinding operators, Part II: Four-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model of the vibration response of the human hand," Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 95, pp. 499-514, 1984.
[47] K. Dewangan, S. Rakheja, P. Marcotte, A. Shahmir, S. Patra. "An exploratory study of a measurement system for characterizing seated body apparent mass coupled with elastic seats under vertical vibration," IRSST2013.
[48] R. G. Dong, S. Rakheja, A. Schopper, B. Han, and W. Smutz, "Hand-transmitted vibration and biodynamic response of the human hand-arm: a critical review," Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering, vol. 29, 2001.
[49] ISO-10068, "Mechanical vibration and shock – Free mechanical impedance of the human hand-arm system at the driving-point," ed: International Organization for Standard, 1998.
[50] ISO-8662-2, "Hand-held portable power tools—measurement of vibrations at the handle—part 2: Chipping hammers and riveting hammers," ed: International Organization for Standard, 1992.
[51] R. G. Dong, J. Wu, T. McDowell, D. Welcome, and A. Schopper, "Distribution of mechanical impedance at the fingers and the palm of the human hand," Journal of biomechanics, vol. 38, pp. 1165-1175, 2005.
[52] I. Tekscan. (June). Force v. Resistance/Conductance. Available: http://www.tekscan.com/custom-OEM-force-sensors
[53] P. Marcotte, S. Adewusi, and S. Rakheja, "Development of a low-cost system to evaluate coupling forces on real power tool handles," Canadian Acoustics, vol. 39, pp. 36-37, 2011.
[54] F. O. Medola, D. C. Silva, C. A. Fortulan, V. M. C. Elui, and L. C. Paschoarelli, "The influence of handrim design on the contact forces on hands' surface: A preliminary study," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2014.
[55] J. Malinowska-Borowska, B. Harazin, and G. Zieliński, "The influence of wood hardness and logging operation on coupling forces exerted by lumberjacks during wood harvesting," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 41, pp. 546-550, 2011.
[56] A. Akgunduz, S. Rakheja, and A. Tarczay, "Distributed occupant–seat interactions as an objective measure of seating comfort," International Journal of Vehicle Design, vol. 65, pp. 293-313, 2014.
[57] C. Ashruf, "Thin flexible pressure sensors," Sensor Review, vol. 22, pp. 322-327, 2002.
[58] C. Hall, "External pressure at the hand during object handling and work with tools," International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 20, pp. 191-206, 1997.
[59] K. Dewangan, S. Rakheja, P. Marcotte, A. Shahmir, and S. Patra, "Comparisons of apparent mass responses of human subjects seated on rigid and elastic seats under vertical vibration," Ergonomics, vol. 56, pp. 1806-1822, 2013.
[60] S. Rakheja, P. Marcotte, M. Kalra, S. Adewusi, K. Dewangan, "A laboratory study of a low-cost system for measurements of coupling forces at the vibrating handle-hand interface," IRSST2014.

Available Versions of this Item

All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
- Research related to the current document (at the CORE website)
Back to top Back to top