Login | Register

Neebee Miseew aa Aiispitaskimka chaastchee aa Kiniwaptoomk / Water Ethics: Exploring Cree youth’s relationship with water in Eeyou Istchee


Neebee Miseew aa Aiispitaskimka chaastchee aa Kiniwaptoomk / Water Ethics: Exploring Cree youth’s relationship with water in Eeyou Istchee

Franks, Kristy (2016) Neebee Miseew aa Aiispitaskimka chaastchee aa Kiniwaptoomk / Water Ethics: Exploring Cree youth’s relationship with water in Eeyou Istchee. Masters thesis, Concordia University.

Text (application/pdf)
Franks_MA_F2016.pdf - Accepted Version
Available under License Spectrum Terms of Access.


This study explores the question ‘What characterizes the relationship that Cree youth in Eeyou Istchee (Eastern James Bay, Northern Quebec) have with water?’ The research process followed an ecosystem approach as well as a case study methodology, and was guided by the principles of Indigenous methodologies. Methods included my participation in Cree youth activities related to water, a canoe expedition, and conducting semi-structured interviews and video elicitation exercises with 17 Cree youth aged 15 to 24 from the community of Wemindji. Five adults working with youth and/or with water in the community were also interviewed. Findings show that the relationship Cree youth have with water is rooted in a complex web of influences coming from a hybrid-narrative of cultural references from both traditional Cree codes and Western institutions, infrastructures and technologies. Notably, the rapid change resulting from colonial history and residential school impacts has influenced the interactions Cree youth have with the natural world, including with water. The findings point to the following seven key dimensions that shape their relationship with water: physical interactions with water; Cree culture; Western-laden institutions; technology and indoor comforts; contemporary youth culture; the pan-Indigenous movement; and perceptions related to Cree youth. The discussion presents the concept of an integrative water ethic, applied to Cree youth. With adequate supports that address challenges of lost stories, splitting and disengagement by nurturing cultural pride and positive self-identity for Cree youth, their integrative water ethics could contribute to the development of a more sustainable mainstream water ethic in Canada.

Divisions:Concordia University > School of Graduate Studies > Individualized Program
Item Type:Thesis (Masters)
Authors:Franks, Kristy
Institution:Concordia University
Degree Name:M.A.
Program:Individualized Program
Date:23 June 2016
Thesis Supervisor(s):Blanchet-Cohen, Natasha and Mulrennan, Monica and Linds, Warren
Keywords:water ethics, Indigenous youth, Crees of Eeyou Istchee / Eastern James Bay Cree
ID Code:981343
Deposited On:07 Nov 2016 18:03
Last Modified:18 Jan 2018 17:52


Aboriginal Music Manitoba. (2016). Aboriginal Music Week; Artist Directory. Retrieved May 25, 2016 from, https://www.aboriginalmusicweek.ca/artist-directory/complete-directory
Adelson, N. (2000). 'Being Alive Well': Health and the Politics of Cree Well-being (Vol. 16). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
Agrawal, A. (1995). Dismantling the divide between Indigenous and scientific knowledge. Development and Change, 26, 413–439.
Alfred, G. R. (2009). Peace, power, righteousness: An indigenous manifesto. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Altrichter, H. & Posch, P. (2009). Action research, professional development and systemic reform. In Noffke, S. & Somekh, B. The SAGE handbook of Educational Action Research. London, GB: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Araya, Y. N., & Kabakian, V. (2004). Young peoples’ involvement in global water issues. Futures, 36(5), 603-609.
Armstrong, A. (2009). Viewpoint: Further ideas towards a Water Ethic. Water Alternatives, 2(1), 138-147.
Bakker, K. (Ed.). (2007). Eau Canada: The future of Canada’s water. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press.
Barlow, M. (2013). Blue Future: Protecting water for people and the planet forever. Toronto, ON: House of Anansi Press Inc.
Barnett, C. (2011). Blue Revolution. Boston, MA: Beacon Press Books.
Barrett, M. J. (2007). Homework and fieldwork: investigations into the rhetoric-reality gap in environmental education research and pedagogy. Environmental Education Research, 13(2), 209-223.
Barry, M. M., Clarke, A. M., Jenkins, R., & Patel, V. (2013). A systematic review of the effectiveness of mental health promotion interventions for young people in low and middle income countries. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1-19.
Bartlett, C., Marshall, M., & Marshall, A. (2012). Two-eyed seeing and other lessons learned within a co-learning journey of bringing together Indigenous and mainstream knowledges and ways of knowing. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 2(4), 331-340.
Bastien, S., & Holmarsdottir, H. B. (2015). Youth ‘At the Margins’. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Beatty, A. S., & Chalk, R. A. (2006). A study of interactions: emerging issues in the science of adolescence: workshop summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity (Vol. 17). London, UK: Sage.
Bennett, A., & Kahn-Harris, K. (2004). After subculture. Critical studies in contemporary youth culture. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Berkes, F. & Fast, H. (1996). Aboriginal peoples: the basis for policy-making towards sustainable development. In A. Dale & J. B. Robinson (Eds.), Achieving sustainable development (pp. 204-264). Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press.
Bishop, R. (1998). Freeing ourselves from neo-colonial domination in research: A Maori approach to creating knowledge. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11 (2), 199-219.
Blackstock, M. (2001). Water: A First Nations' Spiritual and Ecological Perspective. B. C. Journal of Ecosystems and Management, 1(1), 1-14.
Bradford, S., & Cullen, F. (Eds.). (2012). Research and research methods for youth practitioners. London, UK: Routledge.
Brown, P. G. (2014). The Universe as Community: At Home in the Universe? A paradox of our time…. . ENVR 630 Class Power Point slides; McGill University. Presented Feb 24.
Brown, P. G. & Schmidt, J. L. (2010). Water Ethics: Foundational Readings for Students and Professionals. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Butler, M. (2014). Idle No More in the history of indigenous resistance. CCPA Monitor, 21(3), 24-31.
Cajete, G. (2007). Seven orientations for the development of Indigenous science education”, in Denzin, N., Lincoln, Y. & Smith, L. T. (Eds.), Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publishing.
Cajete, G. (2000). Native science: Natural laws of interdependence. Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light Publishers.
Cajete, G. (1994). Look to the mountain: An ecology of indigenous education. Durango, CO: Kivaki Press.
Callicott, J.B. (1989). Traditional American Indian and Western European Attitudes Toward Nature: An Overview. Defense of the Land Ethic: Essays in Environmental Philosophy. (pp. 177-201). Albany: State University of New York Press.
Callicott, J. B. & Frodeman, R. (2008). Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. GALE Cengage Learning.
Carlson, H. M. (2008). Home is the hunter: The James Bay Cree and their land. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.
Castleden, H. (2014, May 4). Community-based and participatory approaches for water management with Indigenous peoples in Canada. WatIf Conferece hosted by the Water Research Centre at Queen’s University; Kinston, ON.
Castleden, H., Morgan, V. S., & Lamb, C. (2012). “I spent the first year drinking tea”: Exploring Canadian university researchers’ perspectives on community‐based participatory research involving Indigenous peoples. The Canadian Geographer, 56(2), 160-179.
Castleden, H., Garvin, T., & Huu-ay-aht First Nation. (2008). Modifying photovoice for community-based participatory Indigenous research. Social Science & Medicine, 66(6), 1393-1405.
CBC News. (2014, December 17). Cree walkers against uranium mining arrive in Montreal after 850 km walk. Retrieved May 25, 2016 from, http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/cree-walkers-against-uranium-mining-arrive-in-montreal-after-850-km-walk-1.2873649
Chamberlain, G. (2008). Troubled waters: religion, ethics, and the global water crisis. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.
Christiansen, C., Utas, M., & Vigh, H. (2006). Youth (e)scapes: introduction. Navigating youth-generating adulthood. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
Cieslik, M., & Simpson, D. (2013). Key concepts in youth studies. London, UK: Sage.
Cole, P. (2006). Coyote and Raven go canoeing: Coming home to the village. Montréal, QC: McGill-Queen’s University Press (Native and Northern Series).
Coon Come, M. (2004). Survival in the context of mega-resource development: Experience of the James Bay Crees and the First Nations of Canada. In M. Blaser, H. A. Feit, & G. McRae (Eds.), The way of development: Indigenous peoples, life projects and globalization (pp. 153-165). New York, NY: Zed Books.
CWN (Canadian Water Network). (2014, August 25 – 29). Paddling Together: Integrative Traditional and Western Water Knowledge. Student and Young Professional Workshop Program Booklet.
Delli Priscoli, J. (2000). Water and civilization: using history to reframe water policy debates and to build a new ecological realism. Water Policy, 1(6), 623-636.
Desbiens, C. (2007). “Water all around, you cannot even drink”: the scaling of water in James Bay/Eeyou Istchee. Area, 39(3), 259–267. Feldman, D. L. (1995). Water resources management: In search of an environmental ethic. Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press.
Desbiens, C. (2004). Producing North and South: a political geography of hydro development in Quebec. The Canadian Geographer, 48 (2), 101-118. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from, http://www.chaireghn.cieq.ulaval.ca/documents/2004_Producing.pdf
Dulit, E. (1972). Adolescent thinking ala Piaget: The formal stage. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1(4), 281-301.
Duran, E., & Duran, B. (1995). Native American postcolonial psychology. Albany, NY: State University New York Press.
Eglinton, K. A. (2013). Understanding Youth Culture, Visual Material Culture, and Local Places. In Youth Identities, Localities, and Visual Material Culture (pp. 27-47). New York, NY: Springer.
Erickson, B. (2013). Canoe nation: Nature, race, and the making of a Canadian icon. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.
Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: youth and crisis. New York, NY: Norton.
Feit, H. A. (2004). James Bay Crees’ life projects and politics: Histories of place, animal partners and enduring relationships. In M. Blaser, H. A. Feit, & G. McRae (Eds.), The way of development: Indigenous peoples, life projects and globalization (pp. 92-110). New York, NY: Zed Books.
Feldman, D. L. (1995). Water resources management: In search of an environmental ethic. Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press.
Ferrara, N. (2004). Healing through art: Ritualized space and Cree identity (Vol. 41). Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press.
Finger, M., & Asún, J. M. (2001). Adult education at the crossroads: Learning our way out. New York, NY: Zed Books.
Francis, D., & Morantz, T. (1983). Partners in furs. A History of the Fur Trade in Eastern James Bay, 1600 - 1870. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's Press-MQUP.
Garrett, M. T., Parrish, M., Williams, C., Grayshield, L., Portman, T. A. A., Rivera, E. T., & Maynard, E. (2014). Invited Commentary: Fostering resilience among Native American youth through therapeutic intervention. Journal of youth and adolescence, 43(3), 470-490.
Generation Squeeze. (n.d.). Neglecting the risks of climate change: an intergenerational crime? Retrieved December 8, 2015 from, http://www.gensqueeze.ca/neglecting_the_risks_of_climate_change_an_intergenerational_crime
Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Globe Staff. (2015, December 7). The Globe examines the future of our most critical resource: water. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved February 16, 2015 from, http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/headwaters-series-indexpage/article27517652/
Goulet, L., Episkenew, J., Linds, W., & Arnason, K. (2009). Rehearsal with reality: Exploring health issues with Aboriginal youth through drama. In S. McKay, D. Fuchs & I. Brown (Eds.), Passion for action in child and family services (pp. 99–118). Regina, SK: Canadian Plains Research Center.
Grand Council of the Crees. (1999). Importance of neebee (“water”) and neebee management in James Bay Cree territory: The need to end government marginalization of the James Bay Crees. Brief of the grand council of the Crees (Eeyou Istchee) to Quebec’s commission on water management. December 1999.
Graveline, F. J. (2012). Idle no More: Enough is enough! Canadian Social Work Review/Revue canadienne de service social, 29(2), 293-300.
Grayshield, L., & Mihecoby, A. (2010). Indigenous ways of knowing as a philosophical base for the promotion of peace and justice in counseling education and psychology. Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 2(2), 1-16.
Groenfeldt, D. (2013a). Water ethics: A values approach to solving the water crisis. New York, NY: Routledge.
Groenfeldt, D. (2013b, October). Water ethics: A values approach to solving the water crisis. Presentation at the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) in Kyoto, Japan. Published online November 18, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2015 from, http://www.slideshare.net/DGroenfeldt/water-ethics-a-values-approach-to-solving-the-water-crisis-kyoto-oct-2013?related=2
Groenfeldt, D. (2012, March 14). Water Ethics in Practice. Presentation at the 6th World Water Forum, Marseille, France. Published online November 19, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2015 from, http://www.slideshare.net/DGroenfeldt/water-ethics-in-practice-world-water-forum-marseille-march-2012marseille?related=1
Groenfeldt, D. (2010). Viewpoint: The Next Nexus? Environmental Ethics, Water Policies, and Climate Change. Water Alternatives, 3(3), 575-586.
Groenfeldt, D. (2006). Water development and spiritual values in western and indigenous societies. Water and Indigenous peoples, knowledges of nature, 108-115.
Groenfeldt, D., & Schmidt, J. J. (2013). Ethics and water governance. Ecology and Society, 18(1), 14-23.
Gruenewald, D. A. (2003). The best of both worlds: A critical pedagogy of place. Educational researcher, 32(4), 3-12.
Gunderson, L., & Holling, C. S. (2002). Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Hager, M. (2015, December 31). Vancouver teen Ta’Kaiya Blaney’s voice captures the world’s attention. Globe and Mail. Retrieved May 25, 2016 from, http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/vancouver-teen-takaiya-blaneys-voice-captures-the-worlds-attention/article27979163/
Harries-Jones, P. (2004). Revisiting Angels Fear: Recurson, Ecology, and Aesthetics. SEED Journal, 4(1). Retrieved March 10, 2014 from, http://www.library.utoronto.ca/see/SEED/Vol4-1/Harries-Jones.htm
Hart, M. A. (2007). Indigenous knowledge and research: The míkiwáhp as a symbol for reclaiming our knowledge and ways of knowing. First Peoples’ Child and Family Review, 3(1), 83-90.
Harwood, R. (2014, February 9). Native Sports Legends Talk About Native Role Models. Indian Country Today Media Network. Retrieved May 25, 2016 from, http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2014/09/02/native-sports-legends-talk-about-native-role-models-156704
Hayes, M. (1988, April). Global and Transnational Flows and Local Cree Youth Culture. A Thesis in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology. Concordia University; Montréal, QC.
Heart, M. Y. H. B. (2003). The historical trauma response among natives and its relationship with substance abuse: A Lakota illustration. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 35(1), 7-13.
Heath, S., & Walker, C. (Eds.). (2011). Innovations in youth research. Basingstoke, GB: Palgrave Macmillan.
Helve, H., & Holm, G. (2005). Contemporary youth research: Local expressions and global connections. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
Hill, D. L. (1999). Holistic learning: A model of education based on Aboriginal cultural philosophy. Unpublished master’s thesis, St. Francis Xavier University.
Hodges, D. (2014). Notre Home. Retrieved August 17, 2014 from, http://www.notrehome.ca/
Holley, K. A. (2013). Doctoral education and the development of an interdisciplinary identity. Innovations in Education and Teaching International. Retrieved November 1, 2015, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/14703297.2013.847796
Hutchins, G. (2014). Illusion of Separation: Exploring the Cause of our Current Crises. Edinburgh: Floris Books.
ICLEI (The International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives). (1996). Local Agenda 21 Initiative. Published in collaboration with the IDRC (International Development Research Centre) and UNEP (United Nations Environment Program). Retrieved February 16, 2015 from, http://www.idrc.ca/EN/Resources/Publications/openebooks/448-2/index.html
IICRD (International Institute for Child Rights and Development). (2014). 2013-2014 Annual Report. Retrieved December 8, 2015 from, http://www.iicrd.org/sites/default/files/resources/IICRD_Annual_Report_2013-2014_web_version_0.pdf
IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change). (2014). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Summary for Policy Makers. Assessment Report 5, Working Group II. Retrieved December 8, 2015 from, https://ipcc-wg2.gov/AR5/images/uploads/WG2AR5_SPM_FINAL.pdf
Jennings, B., Heltne, P., & K. Kintzele. (2009, August). Principles of Water Ethics. Minding Nature 2(2): 25-28. Retrieved November 1, 2015 from, http://www.humansandnature.org/filebin/pdf/minding_nature/August_2009_Principles_of_Water_Ethics.pdf
Johnson, J. T., & Murton, B. (2007). Re/placing native science: Indigenous voices in contemporary constructions of nature. Geographical Research, 45(2), 121-129.
Johansson, R. (2003, September). Case study methodology. In the International Conference on Methodologies in Housing Research, Stockholm.
Joseph, B. (2014, February 11). Aboriginal Athletes Abound. Working effectively with Indigenous Peoples blog. Retrieved May 25, 2016 from, http://www.ictinc.ca/blog/aboriginal-athletes-abound
Killen, M., & Smetana, J. (Eds.). (2005). Handbook of moral development. Psychology Press. Retrieved November 7, 2015 from, http://faculty.washington.edu/pkahn/articles/Nature_and_Moral_Development.pdf
Klein, S. (2012). Action Research Methods Plain and Simple. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillian.
Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (Vol. 1). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kovach, M. (2010). Indigenous Methodologies: Characteristics, Conversations, and Contexts. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
Kuhn, T. (2006). Using Complexity Science to effect a paradigm shift in Information Systems for the 21st century. Journal of Information Technology, 21, 211-215.
Lavalley, G. (2006). Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge and Source Water Protection: First Nations' Views on Taking Care of Water. Chiefs of Ontario. Retrieved April 25, 2015 from, http://www.chiefs-of-ontario.org/sites/default/files/files/atk%20final%20report-r1.pdf
Leopold, A. (1966). A Sand County Almanac. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Leopold, L. B. (1990). Ethos, Equity, and the Water Resource: The 1990 Abel Wolman Distinguished Lecture. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 32(2), 16-42.
Leopold, L. B. (1977). A reverence for rivers. Geology, 5(7), 429-430.
Leopold, L. (1977, March 7). A reverence for rivers. Keynote address to the Governor’s conference on the California drought. Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of California Berkeley. In Geology. v.5, p. 429-430. Berkeley, CA.
Li, J. (2009). Forging the Future Between Two Different Worlds Recent Chinese Immigrant Adolescents Tell Their Cross-Cultural Experiences. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24(4), 477-504.
Linds, W. (1999). The spiralling journeys of the been-being-becoming-imag (e) ining drama facilitator. Paper presentation. American Education Research Association.
Linds, W., Goulet, L., & Sammel, A. (Eds.). (2010). Emancipatory practices: Adult/youth engagement for social and environmental justice. Rotterdam, NL: Sense Publishers.
Linton, J. (2010). What is water? The history of a modern abstraction. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.
Little Bear, L. (2000). Jagged Worldviews Colliding. in Battiste, M. (Ed.). (2011) Reclaiming Indigenous Voice and Vision Vancouver: UBC Press.
Louv, R. (2008). Last child in the woods: Saving our children from Nature-Deficit Disorder. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books.
Lynch, G. (2012). The sacred in the modern world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mack, J. (2010). Hoquotist: Reorienting through Storied Practice. In Lessard, H., Johnson, R., & Webber, J. (Eds.). (2011). Storied Communities: Narratives of Contact and Arrival in Constituting Political Community. UBC Press. Vancouver, BC.
Macy, J. & Brown, M. (2014). Coming back to life. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.
Mandamin, J. (2012, October 22). Water Journey. SAMAQAN: Water Stories documentary series. Urban Rez Channel, YouTube. Retrieved April 25, 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fp-6olT0i2A
Marshall, A. & Bartlett, C. (2010, February 4). Traditional Knowledge meets Western Knowledge: Two-eyed Seeing: an old-new way of bringing together different perspectives. In Government of Nova Scotia – Office of Aboriginal Affairs; Learning Seminar: Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge: How to Include this Valuable Resource in Your Work; Halifax, Canada. Retrieved on February 15, 2016 from, http://www.integrativescience.ca/uploads/articles/2010February-Bartlett-Marshall-Integrative-Science-Two-Eyed-Seeing-Mi'kmaq-Western-knowledge-learning.pdf
McDonald, M. A., Arragutainaq, L., & Novalinga, Z. (1997). Voices from the Bay: Traditional ecological knowledge of Inuit and Cree in the Hudson Bay bioregion. Canadian Arctic Resources Committee.
McGregor, D. (2014). Traditional knowledge and water governance: The ethic of responsibility. AlterNative, 10(5), 493-507.
McGregor, D. (2009). Honouring our relations: An Anishnaabe perspective. In Agyeman, J., Cole, P., & Haluza-Delay, R. (Eds.). (2009). Speaking for ourselves: Environmental justice in Canada. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press. Retrieved from http://0-www.ebrary.com.mercury.concordia.ca
McGregor, D. (2005). Coming full circle: Indigenous knowledge, environment, and our future. The American Indian Quarterly, 28(3), 385-410.
McGregor, D. & Whitaker, S. (2001). Water quality in the province of Ontario: An aboriginal knowledge perspective. Toronto, ON: Chiefs of Ontario.
McMillan, J. H. (2008). Educational research: Fundamentals for the consumer. New York, NY: HarperCollins College Publishers.
McNiff, J. (2013). Action research: Principles and practice. New York, NY: Routledge.
Meine, C. (2013). Correction lines: essays on land, Leopold, and conservation. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Merchant, C. (1995).Reinventing Eden: Western culture as a recovery narrative. In Cronon, W. (ed.) Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature (pp. 132-167). New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Co.
Michell, H. (2011). Working with elders and indigenous knowledge systems: A reader and guide for places of higher learning. Kanata, ON: Charlton Pub.
Moeran, B. (2009). From participant observation to observant participation. In Ybema, S., Yanow, D., Wels, H., & Kamsteeg, F. H. (Eds.). (2009). Organizational Ethnography: Studying the Complexity of Everyday Life (pp. 139-155). London, UK: Sage.
Müller, F., & Burkhard, B. (2012). The indicator side of ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services, 1(1), 26-30.
Mulrennan, M. E., Boussieres, V., & Scott, C. H. (2009). Tawich (Marine) Conservation Area Eastern James Bay. Proposal to the National Marine Conservation Program, Parks Canada, January.
Murphy, J. (2015, October 18). Canada's indigenous people raise voices as youth activism surges. The Guardian. Retrieved May 25, 2016 from, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/18/canada-indigenous-youth-activists-first-nations
Murray, L. (2012). Online Opportunities for Mobile and Visual Research. Online Research Methods in Urban and Planning Studies: Design and Outcomes: Design and Outcomes, 9, 72-79.
NAAEE (North American Association for Environmental Education). (2004). Environmental education materials: Guidelines for excellence. Rock Spring, GA: North American Association for Environmental Education.
Naess, A., Drengson, A. R., & Devall, B. (2008). Ecology of wisdom: writings by Arne Næss. Berkeley: Counterpoint Press.
NASA. (2007). Nasa Fact Sheet: Follow the water: Find the perfect match for life. Retrieved November 1, 2015, from, http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/everydaylife/jamestown-water-fs.html
Naughton, J. (2012, August 12). Thomas Kuhn: the man who changed the way the world looked at science. The Guardian / The Observer. Retrieved February 17, 2016 from, https://www.theguardian.com/science/2012/aug/19/thomas-kuhn-structure-scientific-revolutions
Niezen, R. (2009). Defending the land: Sovereignty and forest life in James Bay Cree society (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Niezen, R. (1993). Power and dignity: The social consequences of hydro‐electric development for the James Bay Cree. Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue canadienne de sociologie, 30(4), 510-529.
Ohmagari, K., & Berkes, F. (1997). Transmission of indigenous knowledge and bush skills among the Western James Bay Cree women of subarctic Canada. Human Ecology, 25, 197-222.
Ortiz, I., & Cummins, M. (2012). When The Global Crisis and Youth Bulge Collide. Double the Jobs Trouble for Youth. Retrieved November 1, 2015, from, http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/30410329/global_crisis_and_youth_bulge_final_web.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1446438351&Signature=TK4CbMFjpe5A3DDOTeviOwGqWPY%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DWHEN_THE_GLOBAL_CRISIS_AND_YOUTH_BULGE_C.pdf
Phare, M. P. (2011). Restoring the lifeblood: Water, First Nations and opportunities for change. Toronto, ON: Walter and Duncan Gordon Foundation
Plumwood, V. (2000). Integrating ethical frameworks for animals, humans, and nature: A critical feminist eco-socialist analysis. Ethics and the Environment, 5(2), 285-322.
Polaris Institute. (2014, January). Section 1: Exploring our relationship to water. (Educational resource). Retrieved March 1, 2014 from, http://www.polarisinstitute.org/files/Part%20I%20-%20Exploring%20our%20relationships%20to%20water_pilot.pdf
Postel, S. (2010). The missing piece: A water ethic. In P. G. Brown & J. L. Schmidt (Eds.), Water ethics: Foundational readings for students and professionals (pp.221-225).Washington, DC: Island Press.
Preston, R. J. (2002). Cree narrative: expressing the personal meanings of events (Vol. 197). Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's Press-MQUP.
Rand, T. (2014). Waking the frog: Solutions for our climate change paralysis. Toronto, ON: ECW Press.
Ray, T. (2005). Learning to Destroy the World: Western Schooling and the Natural Environment. In Helve, H., & Holm, G. (2005). Contemporary youth research: Local expressions and global connections. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
Richardson, B. (1991). Strangers Devour the Land: The Cree Hunters of the James Bay area versus Premier Bourassa and the James Bay Development Corporation. Post Mills, VT.
Rittel, H. W., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy sciences, 4(2), 155-169.
Rio+20 - United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. (2012). Compilation Document - Rio+20 - United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. Online conference document. Retrieved May 22, 2016 from, http://www.uncsd2012.org/content/documents/compilationdocument/MajorGroups.pdf
Rose, Gillian (2014). On the relation between ’visual research methods’ and contemporary visual culture. Sociological Review, 62(1), 24-46.
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. (1996). Gathering strength: Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Vol 3. Ottawa: Canada Communication Group.
Restoule, J., Gruner, S. & Metatawabin, E. (2013). Learning from Place: A return to traditional Mushkegowuk Ways of Knowing. Canadian Journal of Education 36(2), 68-86.
Rudi, A. (2012). The Digital Natives Are Restless: Inspiring a New Generation of Learners. School Business Affairs, 78(1), 8-10.
Salisbury, R. F. (1986). A homeland for the Cree: Regional development in James Bay, 1971-1981. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's Press-MQUP.
Sachatello‐Sawyer, B., & Cohn, T. (2005). Native Waters: Integrating Scientific and Cultural Ways of Knowing about Water. Curator: The Museum Journal,48(2), 134-140.
Sagor, R. (2010). The action research guidebook: A four-stage process for educators and school teams. SAGE.
Sandford, R. W. & Phare, M. S. (2011). Ethical water: Learning to value what matters most. Toronto, ON: Rocky Mountain Books.
Santayana, G. (1982). Chapter X: Piety. In The Life of Reason: or the Phases of Human Progress. New York, NY: Dover Publications Inc.
Scharper, S. B. (Interviewee). (2013, February 15). Special series featuring the natural elements [Radio Broadcast episode]. In M. Hynes (Interviewer). Tapestry. CBC Radio One. Retrieved February 16, 2016 from, http://www.cbc.ca/books/2013/03/stephen-bede-scharper-on-our-relationship-to-water.html
Schmuck, R. (2006). Practical research for change, 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, SAGE Publications.
Sharpe, D. (2011). Young people and policy research: Methodological challenges in CYP-led research. In Heath, S., & Walker, C. (Eds.), Innovations in youth research. Basingstoke, GB: Palgrave Macmillan.
Smetana, J. G. (2010). Adolescents, families, and social development: How teens construct their worlds. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Snee, H. (2011). Youth research in web 2.0. In Heath, S., & Walker, C. (Eds.), Innovations in youth research. Basingstoke, GB: Palgrave Macmillan.
Smith, L. T. (1999). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and Indigenous peoples. New York, NY: Zed books.
Stocek, C. M. (2013). "How to approach collaborations?" A Freirian journey honouring Cree relationships, skills, and values. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from escholarship@mcgill database. (PID 116872). McGill University, Montreal.
Swanson, S. (2003). Motivating learners in Northern communities. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 27(1), 61-73.
Swatuk, L., Huffman, J., Ott, H., & Masayesva, V. (2008). Panel: Water ethics and commodification of freshwater resources. Retrieved February 15, 2016 from, http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/bibliography/articles/Ethics/Common_Grounds_Symposium/Panel_One.pdf
Tanner, A. (1999). Culture, social change, and Cree opposition to the James Bay hydroelectric development. Social and environmental impacts of the James Bay hydroelectric project, 121-140.
Thomashow, C. (2002). Adolescents and ecological identity: Attending to wild nature. Children and nature: Psychological, sociocultural, and evolutionary investigations, 259-278.
Tucker, M. E., & Swimme, B. T. (2011, Spring/Summer). The Universe Story and Planetary Civilization. Kosmos Journal.Retrieved November 1, 2015, from, http://www.kosmosjournal.org/wp-content/article-pdfs/the-universe-story-and-planetary-civilization.pdf
Trahant, M. (2016). # NativeVote16: Canada’s new government and the music of elections. Indigenous Policy Journal, 26(3). Retrieved February 26, 2016 from, http://www.indigenouspolicy.org/index.php/ipj/article/view/355/348
Truth and Reconciliation Commission. (2015). Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future: Summary of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Retrieved May 22, 2016 from, http://nctr.ca/assets/reports/Final%20Reports/Executive_Summary_English_Web.pdf
Turnbull, D. (2000). Tricksters, Masons and Cartographers from On with the Motley: The contingent assemblage of knowledge spaces. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Overseas Publishers Association.
Turner, N. J., & Clifton, H. (2009). “It's so different today”: Climate change and indigenous lifeways in British Columbia, Canada. Global Environmental Change, 19(2), 180-190.
Turtle Island Native Network. (2015, September 12). 2015 Indigenous Music Awards. Turtle Island Native Network. Retrieved May 25, 2016 from, http://www.turtleisland.org/discussion/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=12318&sid=5dd7e29359fc91f62dd8880683a678dc
UN Water. (2013). United Nations International Year of Water Cooperation. Retrieved April 20, 2014 from, http://www.unwater.org/water-cooperation-2013/water-cooperation/en/
UNESCO. (2001). Science in Canada - La Commission canadienne pour l'UNESCO. Retrieved May 22, 2016 from, http://unesco.ca/~/media/pdf/unesco/scienceincanadaen.pdf?mw=1382
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2006). The 2nd UN world water development report: “Water, a shared responsibility”. New York, NY: Berghahn Books.
United Nations. (2011). UN youth report. Retrieved November 1, 2015, from, http://unworldyouthreport.org/index.php?option=com_k2 &view=itemlist&layout=category&task=category&id=2&Itemid=68
US Geological Survey. (2015). The water in you. The USGS Water Science School. Retrieved on May 25, 2015 from, http://water.usgs.gov/edu/propertyyou.html
van der Helm, R. (2003). Will young people solve the water problems? Futures, 35(3), 267-270.
Wapachee, C. (2016, May 7). Quebec Cree community sends donations and letters of hope to Attawapiskat. CBC News North. Retrieved May 20, 2016 from, http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/wemindji-cree-donations-attawapiskat-1.3571462
Water Ethics Network. (2015, November). Water Ethics Newsletter: Water Ethics in the Paris Climate Talks. Retrieved December 8, 2015 from, http://us1.campaign-archive1.com/?u=31982f6e4937945bfaddf6712&id=15d4aa5670&e=75ed2014f7
Wemindji Protected Area Partnership. (n.d.). Website retrieved September 19, 2014 from, http://wemindjiprotectedareapartnership.weebly.com/index.html
West, C. A. (2007). For body, soul, or wealth: The distinction, evolution, and policy implications of a water ethic. Stanford Environmental Law Journal, 26, 201-232.
Wilkinson, C. F. (1989). Aldo Leopold and western water law: Thinking perpendicular to the prior appropriation doctrine. Land & Water Law Review, 24(1), 1-40.
Williams, L. (2013). Deepening ecological relationality through critical onto-epistemological inquiry: Where transformative learning meets sustainable science, Journal of Transformative Education,11. 95-113.
Wilson, E. O. (1984). Biophilia. Cambridge, UK: Harvard University Press.
Wilson, S. (2008). Research is Ceremony: Indigenous Research Methods. Winnipeg, MB: Fernwood Publishing.
World Water Council. (2014). Youth Delegates. Retrieved on February 15, 2016 from, http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/about-us/organisation/youth-delegates/.
World Youth Parliament for Water / Parlement mondial de la jeunesse pour l’eau. (2014, May 5 - 9). Letter from The North American Youth Gathering for Water / Une lettre du Rassemblement de la jeunesse nord-américain pour l’eau. Retrieved September 8, 2014, from, http://www.pmje-wypw.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Letter-FR_EN.pdf
Wotherspoon, T., & Hansen, J. (2013). The "Idle No More" Movement: Paradoxes of First Nations Inclusion in the Canadian Context. Social Inclusion, 1(1), 21-36.
Yeoman, E. (2012). The Pedagogy of Translation: Learning from Innu activist Elizabeth Penashue’s Diaries. Journal of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies, 10(2), 36-69. Retrieved February 15, 2016 from, https://pi.library.yorku.ca/ojs/index.php/jcacs/article/viewFile/36276/32999
Yin, R. K. (2012). Applications of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.
Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.
Yuen, F., Linds, W., Goulet, L., Episkenew, J., Ritenburg, H., & Schmidt, K. (2013). ‘You might as well call it planet Sioux’: Indigenous youth, imagination and decolonization. A journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health, 11(2), 269-281.
Zieman, G. A. (2012).Chapter 3: Participant observation. In Klein, S. (Eds). Action research methods (pp. 49-67). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
All items in Spectrum are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. The use of items is governed by Spectrum's terms of access.

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Downloads per month over past year

Back to top Back to top